Environmental pathology
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 52

ENVIRONMENTAL PATHOLOGY PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 85 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

ENVIRONMENTAL PATHOLOGY. CONTENTS. 1. Mechanical injuries 2. Chemical and Drug injuries. Mechanical Injuries. What are the most common cause of a pathologic fracture [fracture due to an abnormality in bone]

Download Presentation

ENVIRONMENTAL PATHOLOGY

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Environmental pathology

ENVIRONMENTAL PATHOLOGY


Contents

CONTENTS

  • 1. Mechanical injuries

  • 2. Chemical and Drug injuries


Mechanical injuries

Mechanical Injuries


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common cause of a pathologic fracture [fracture due to an abnormality in bone]

  • Metastasis to bone [Other causes include osteoporosis (vertebral fracture most common), cysts, Paget's disease of bone, osteogenesisimperfecta.]

  • What are the most common fracture in newborns

  • Clavicular fracture, which frequently occurs with breech deliveries or delivery of Large for gestational age infants.

  • What are the most common age bracket for greenstick fractures

  • Children [A greenstick fracture is a break in the cortex on the convex side of the shaft and an intact concave side.]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common complication of a supracondylar fracture in children

  • Volkmann's ischemic contracture [Supracondylar fractures are unstable and compress the brachial artery and median nerve, the former rendering the forearm compartment subject to ischemic damage.]

  • What are the most common postmenopausal fracture associated with osteoporosis

  • Vertebral fracture [Colles' fractures are the second most common fracture.]

  • What are the most common fracture associated with ecchymoses of the mastoid

  • Basilar skull fracture (petrous portion of the temporal bone) [Otorrhea (Cerebrospinal fluid leaking out of the ear) may also occur.]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common fracture associated with rhinorrhea [Cerebrospinal fluid leaking from the nose]

  • Orbital fractures [Rhinorrhea occurs after a fracture of the cribriform plate. Orbital fractures also produce raccoon eyes (periorbital hemorrhage) and ophthalmoplegia (eye muscle entrapment).]

  • What are the most common cause of a contusion [blood in tissue]

  • Blunt force injury to the skin

  • What are the most common cause of an abrasion [superficial excoriation of the epidermis]

  • Direct or tangential blow to the skin


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common cause of a laceration [tear of skin with bridging by vessels, nerves, and connective tissue]

  • Blunt force injury that overstretches the skin

  • What are the most common cause of an incision [skin wound with sharp margins]

  • Surgery

  • What are the most common gunshot wound associated with fouling [deposition of gas and soot in the wound]

  • Contact wound, where the muzzle is held against the body surface


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common gunshot wound associated with powder tattooing [stippling of gunpowder in the skin]

  • Intermediate wound (1.5—3 feet away from the body surface) [Distant wounds do not have powder tattooing.]

  • What are the most common feature distinguishing an exit from an entrance gunshot wound

  • Exit wounds are larger and more irregular than entrance wounds

  • What are the most common sign of manual strangulation and fc shake injuries in babies

  • Petechial hemorrhages in the conjunctiva and retinal hemorrhages, respectively


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common cause of rigor mortis [postmortem hardening of muscles]

  • Breakdown of ATP in tissue and accumulation of lactic acid with denaturation of muscle proteins

  • What are the most common term applied to postmortem body cooling

  • Algor mortis [The body cools ~1.5°F/hour.]

  • What are the most common term applied to fixed dependent purplish discoloration after death

  • Livor mortis [Blood leaking out of blood vessels is fixed after 12 hours.]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common cause of accidental death from 1 to 24 years of age

  • Motor vehicle accidents, most often associated with drunk driving [In white males, it is also the most common cause of death between 25 and 44 years of age. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is the most common cause of death in black males and in women between 25 and 44 years.]

  • What are the most common site and type of aortic injury in car accidents

  • Tear in the aorta just below the ligamentumarteriosum

  • What are the most common site of drowning in children

  • Home swimming pools [Drowning is the third most common cause of death in children from 1-14 years of age.]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common type of drowning

  • Wet drowning (90%), where there is an initial laryngospasm on contact with water followed by relaxation and aspiration of water into the lungs [Dry drowning has intense laryngospasm.]

  • What are the most common injury associated with drowning

  • Asphyxia [Both fresh and salt water in the lungs destroy surfactant, leading to massive atelectasis and intrapulmonary shunting of blood (severe hypoxemia, respiratory and metabolic acidosis).]

  • What are the most common effect of salt water on plasma volume and sodium concentration

  • Hypernatremia and volume depletion, since salt water draws fluid into the lungs from the pulmonary capillaries [Theoretically, death should be faster in salt water than in fresh water.]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common effect of fresh water on plasma volume and serum sodium

  • Volume overload and hyponatremia, since water moves into the pulmonary capillaries by osmosis [RBC hemolysis is more likely to occur.]

  • What are the most common distinction between a first- and a second-degree burn

  • Second-degree burns have blisters, whereas first-degree burns only have reddening of the epidermis [Both burns should heal without scarring.]

  • What are the most common distinction between a second- and a third-degree burn

  • Absence of pain and the presence of scarring are more likely to occur with third-degree burns


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common sites for reepithelialization of burn wounds

  • Skin along the edges of the wound and residual adnexalepithelium

  • What are the most common cause of death in burns

  • Infection associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa [Adult respiratory distress syndrome, severe volume depletion, and multiorgan failure also commonly occur.]

  • What are the most common Gastrointestinal abnormality associated with burns

  • Curling's stress ulcers in the stomach


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common cause of death in a fire

  • Smoke inhalation

  • What are the most common poisonings in a house fire

  • Carbon monoxide and cyanide poisoning (originates from polyurethane in upholstery and other items)

  • What are the most common distinctions between heat cramps and heat exhaustion

  • Heat exhaustion is associated with fever and significant signs of volume depletion; heat cramps lack the above


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common distinction between heat exhaustion and heat stroke

  • Fever in heat exhaustion ranges from 37.5°C— 39°C (101. 2°F), while fever in heat stroke is >41°C (108.5°F). [In heat stroke, patients frequently do not sweat.]

  • What are the most common treatment for malignant hyperthermia (Autosomal Dominant disease)

  • Dantrolene [Malignant hyperthermia is precipitated in surgery when patients receive halothane or muscle relaxants. There is a defect in calcium release channels in the muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum.]

    What are the most common vessel changes in frostbite

  • Initial vasoconstriction is followed by vasodilatation, vessel thrombosis, nerve injury, and death of tissue [Direct injury is due to ice crystallization in tissue.]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common core body temperature defining hypothermia

  • <35°C (95°F) [Cold temperatures uncouple oxidative phosphorylation with eventual progression into circulatory failure.]

  • What are the most common types of electrical current

  • Alternating and direct current, the former primarily used in the United States

  • What are the most common type of current involved in electrocutions

  • Alternating current [Alternating current produces tonic contractions of the hand and inability to release the object transmitting the current.]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common variable responsible for electrocution

  • Current is more important than voltage in electrocutions [Ohm's law states that I (current) = E (volts)/R (resistance). As Resistance decreases (e.g., wet skin), current increases.]

  • What are the most common cause of death in electrocution

  • Cardiorespiratoryarrest

  • What are the most common types of ionizing radiation

  • Gamma rays, x-rays, particulate radiation (alpha particles and beta particles) [The shorter the wavelength of the radiation, the greater the penetration (gamma rays have the greatest penetration and alpha particles and beta particles the least penetration).]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common cell site for radiation injury

  • DNA (most susceptible), RNA, and proteins [Radiation produces free radicals by hydrolysis of water in tissue, which damage the above structures. The G2 and mitosis phase of the cell cycle are most susceptible, while the Gl and S phase are least sensitive.]

  • What are the most common tissue types susceptible to radiation

  • Lymphocytes (hematopoietic cells are most sensitive to radiation), germinal cells, skin, gastrointestinal epithelium [Bone, mature cartilage, muscle, and peripheral nerves are least sensitive to radiation.]

  • What are the most common initial lab finding in total body irradiation

  • Lymphopenia


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common portion of Ultraviolet light with the greatest mutagenic effect

  • Ultraviolet B [Ultraviolet A is black light and Ultraviolet C is germicidal. Ultraviolet B produces an increase in thymidinedimers in DNA.]

  • What are the most common skin cancer associated with Ultraviolet B light

  • Basal cell carcinoma

  • What are the most common injury associated with laser radiation

  • Third-degree burn


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common injuries associated with infrared light

  • Burns and cataracts

  • What are the most common injuries purported to be associated with microwaves

  • Cataracts, cancer, sterility

  • What are the most common type of acid-base disorders noted in high altitude

  • Respiratory alkalosis [Hyperventilation lowers alveolar partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2), which raises both alveolar and arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PO2).]

  • What are the most common type of high altitude sickness

  • Acute mountain sickness associated with headache and fatigue [Hikers should increase fluids and take oxygen if available. High altitude pulmonary edema and cerebral edema are more serious conditions and require immediate descent.]


Chemical and drug injuries

Chemical and Drug Injuries


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common age bracket associated with poisonings

  • <5 years old

  • What are the most common infection associated with Intravenous drug abuse

  • Skin abscesses

  • What are the most common systemic infection associated with Intravenous drug abuse

  • Hepatitis B Virus [Other common systemic infections are Human Immunodeficiency Virus, infective endocarditis, brain abscesses, and tetanus.]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common serious pulmonary complication of Intravenous heroin abuse

  • Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema

  • What are the most common treatment for heroin abuse

  • Naloxone

  • What are the most common cause of death due to a prescription drug in the United States

  • Tricyclic antidepressant overdose


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common drug overdose associated with quinidine-like widening of the QRS

  • Tricyclic antidepressant overdose [Intravenous sodium bicarbonate is used in treatment.]

  • What are the most common cause of death from an illicit drug in the United States

  • Cocaine overdose [It blocks the uptake of neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine by the presynaptic axon. It is a sympathomimetic drug (e.g., produces mydriasis; dilate). It predisposes to sudden death, ventricular arrhythmias, and myocarditis.]

  • What are the most common metabolite measured to document marijuana use

  • Tetrahydrocannabinol [It has a high lipid solubility and remains measurable for more than a week.]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common signs and symptoms of marijuana use

  • Delayed reaction time, inability to judge speed and distance, gynecomastia, lung disease

  • What are the most common beneficial effect of marijuana

  • Decreases nausea in cancer patients

  • What are the most common blood level for alcohol accepted in most states as legal drunkenness

  • >8O mg/dL


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common blood alcohol level associated with death

  • >500 mg/dL

  • What are the most common site of action of alcohol

  • Central nervous system, where it exerts a depressant effect on the cerebral cortex, limbic system, cerebellum, and lower brain stem, in that order

  • What are the most common sites for reabsorption of alcohol

  • Small intestine (75%) and stomach (25%)


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common diseases with alcohol abuse as the primary cause

  • Thiamine deficiency (Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoffs psychosis), folate deficiency, acquired sideroblastic anemia, Mallory-Weiss syndrome, Boerhaave's syndrome, cirrhosis (esophageal varices indirectly via portal hypertension), fatty change in the liver, chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis (shares the lead with biliary tract disease)

  • What are the most common lab findings in alcohol abuse

  • Macrocytic anemia (folate deficiency), fasting hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis [increased NADH in its metabolism converts pyruvate to lactate], increased gamma glutamyltransferase [synthesized by smooth endoplasmic reticulum from alcohol induction of the system], serum Aspartatetransaminase > Alaninetransaminase [Aspartatetransaminase is primarily in hepatocyte mitochondria and alcohol is a mitochondrial poison], hyperuricemia [lactate and (3-hydroxybutyrate compete with uric acid for renal excretion], beta-hydroxybutyrateketoacidosis [increased NADH converts Acetoacetate into [5-hydroxybutyrate], hypertriglyceridemia [increased NADH increases the synthesis of very low-density lipoprotein]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common mechanism of injury of acetaminophen toxicity

  • Acetaminophen free radical formation in the liver [Glutathione is used up in neutralizing the free radicals.]

  • What are the most common target sites for acetaminophen toxicity

  • Liver [hepatocellular necrosis] and kidneys [Along with aspirin, acetaminophen produces renal papillary necrosis.]

  • What are the most common treatment of acetaminophen toxicity

  • N-acetylcysteine, which is a substrate for synthesis of Glutathione


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common alkylating agent associated with induction of second malignancies

  • Busulfan

  • What are the most common alkylating agent associated with bladder cancer and hemorrhagic cystitis

  • Cyclophosphamide [It predisposes to transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.]

  • What are the most common drugs producing interstitial fibrosis in the lungs

  • Amiodarone, bleomycin, busulfan, nitrofurantoin, methysergide


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common drug causing the gray baby syndrome

  • Chloramphenicol [The gray baby syndrome is associated with hypothermia, bradycardia, cyanosis, and hypotension. Chloramphenicol also produces aplastic anemia.]

  • What are the most common systems with clinical effects of excess unopposed estrogen

  • Hematologic: venous thrombosis (Deep vein thrombosis in the legs, pulmonary embolus); cardiovascular: Acute myocardial infarction; CATS: stroke; reproductive: breast, endometrial, ovarian cancers, and gynecomastia in males; hepatobiliary: intrahepaticcholestasis, gallstones


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common systems with deleterious clinical effects of oral contraceptives

  • Hepatobiliary: liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones; reproductive: possible connection with breast cancer in long-term users, cervical cancer

  • What are the most common beneficial clinical effects of oral contraceptives

  • Contraception, protective against FCC, Pelvic inflamattory disease, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, acne, hirsutism, rheumatoid arthritis

  • What are the most common adverse effects of penicillin

  • Skin rash (type I hypersensitivity), acute interstitial nephritis (type IV hypersensitivity), hypersensitivity vasculitis (type III hypersensitivity reaction), hemolytic anemia (type II hypersensitivity)


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common adverse effects <5k iron overdose

  • Gastritis, liver cell necrosis leading to liver failure [Undigested pills can be seen on radiograph. It is treated with deferoxamine and sodium bicarbonate gastric lavage.]

  • What are the most common adverse effects of salicylate intoxication

  • Gastritis, fulminant hepatitis, metabolic acidosis (primarily in children), mixed respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis (primarily in adults), vertigo, tinnitus, hyperpyrexia (uncouples oxidative phosphorylation) [Salicylates are in oil of wintergreen. The urine is alkalinized to increase excretion.]

  • What are the most common intoxications seen in painters

  • Methylene chloride (converted into carbon monoxide), lead poisoning


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common intoxication seen in farmers

  • Organophosphate poisoning

  • What are the most common intoxication seen in dry cleaners

  • Carbon tetrachloride toxicity [It is converted into Carbon tetrachloride free radicals, which produce hepatic necrosis.]

  • What are the most common intoxication seen in automobile mechanics

  • Carbon monoxide poisoning [Lead poisoning is possible if batteries are being incinerated.]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common chemical toxicities noted in the rubber/ chemical industry

  • Benzene (aplastic anemia, acute leukemia), aniline dyes (bladder cancer)

  • What are the most common clinical findings in isopropyl alcohol poisoning

  • Coma [Unlike other alcohol poisonings, it does not produce an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis, since it is converted into acetone (fruity odor on the breath). The osmolal gap between the calculated and measured Plasma osmolality is >10 mOsm/kg.]

  • What are the most common alcohol toxicity associated with blindness

  • Methyl alcohol poisoning [It is converted into formic acid, which irritates the optic nerve. It produces an osmolal gap and increased anion gap metabolic acidosis.]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common alcohol toxicity associated with renal failure

  • Ethylene glycol (antifreeze) poisoning [It is converted into oxalic acid, which combines with calcium to form calcium oxalate crystals in the kidneys, leading to renal failure. It also produces an osmolal gap and an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis.]

  • What are the most common treatment for ethylene glycol and methyl alcohol poisoning

  • Intravenous infusion of ethyl alcohol, which competes with these other alcohols for alcohol dehydrogenase for metabolism


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common cause of death due to poisoning in the United States

  • Carbon monoxide poisoning [It blocks cytochromeoxidase, left-shifts the oxygen dissociation curve (less oxygen released), and decreases oxygen saturation (number of binding sites on Hemoglobin for carrying oxygen). The Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is normal.]

  • What are the most common initial clinical finding in Carbon monoxide poisoning

  • Headache [It produces a cherry red discoloration of skin. Concentrations >60% are lethal.]

  • What are the most common source of Carbon monoxide poisoning

  • Automobile exhaust [Other sources include wood stoves, domestic and natural gases, and methylene chloride.]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common chronic effect of Carbon monoxide poisoning

  • Parkinson's disease due to necrosis of the globuspallidus [It also accelerates atherosclerosis.]

  • What are the most common treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning

  • 100% oxygen

  • What are the most common Gastrointestinal effect of ingested strong alkalis

  • Liquefactive necrosis of the esophageal epithelium with stricture formation


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common GastrointestinaI effect of ingested strong acid

  • Coagulation necrosis of the epithelium

  • What are the most common toxicity associated with an almond smell to the breath

  • Cyanide poisoning [It blocks cytochromeoxidase.]

  • What are the most common treatment for cyanide poisoning

  • Nitrites (amyl nitrite and sodium nitrite) are used first to create methemoglobin, which competes with cytochromeoxidase for cyanide to form cyanmetHb. Thiosulfate is then added, which combines with cyanide in cyanmethemoglobin to form harmless thiocyanate.


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common toxicity associated with 100% oxygen

  • Diffuse alveolar damage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity (in newborns) [These disorders are caused by superoxide free radical formation.]

  • What are the most common heavy metal associated with acute intoxication

  • Arsenic [It is present in pet dips, pesticides, and Fowler's solution. It produces a garlic odor to the breath and affects the Central nervous system (most common cause of death), skin (gray skin, skin squamous cancers), kidneys (Acute tubular necrosis), lung (cancer), liver (angiosarcoma).]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common heavy metal associated with chronic intoxication

  • Lead [It denatures enzymes (ferrochelatase [sideroblastic anemia], Aminolevulinate (ALA) dehydrase [increases Aminolevulinic acid], ribonuclease [coarse basophilic stippling]). It is treated with British anti-lewisite and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA, (some add penicillamine).]

  • What are the most common target sites of lead poisoning in children

  • Central nervous system (convulsions, demyelination), hematopoietic system (microcytic anemia), and Gastrointestinal (colic; densities are noted on plain radiographs of the abdomen)

  • What are the most common target sites of lead poisoning in adults

  • Gingiva (Lead line), peripheral nerves (e.g., wrist drop), kidneys (renal tubular acidosis, nephrotoxic Acute Tubular Necrosis, interstitial nephritis), and musculoskeletal system (gout [Lead enhances the uptake of uric acid in the kidneys])


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common heavy metal identified on radiograph

  • Lead [It deposits in the epiphyses and may be seen in the Gastrointestinal tract.]

  • What are the most common lab findings in lead poisoning

  • Increased blood lead levels (best screen); microcytic, hypochromic anemia; coarse basophilic stippling [ribonuclease is denatured, hence ribosomes remain in Red blood cells]; increased free erythrocyte protoporphyrin [block in ferrochelatase increases free erythrocyte protoporphyrin behind the block]; increased serum iron, percent saturation, and ferritin; decreased Total iron binding capacity; increasedAminolevulinic acid (due to block inAminolevulinatedehydrase)


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common heavy metal poisoning associated with eating contaminated fish

  • Mercury poisoning [Treatment involves the use of dimercaprol (British anti-lewisite) and penicillamine.]

  • What are the most common cause of mushroom poisoning

  • Ingestion of mushrooms from the species Amanita, the toxin of which blocks RNA polymerase [It targets the Gastrointestinal tract (vomiting, bloody diarrhea), liver (hepatic necrosis), and other sites.]

  • What are the most common clinical findings in organophosphate poisoning

  • It irreversibly blocks acetylcholine esterase (decreases serum/RBC cholinesterase levels), hence increasing acetylcholine at synapses and myoneural junctions. Initially, there is increased autonomic activity (lacrimation, salivation, meiotic pupils) and later nicotinic effects are noted (muscle fasciculations and paralysis)


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common treatment of organophosphate poisoning

  • Atropine and pralidoxime

  • What are the most common toxicity resembling tetanus

  • Strychnine poisoning [It is a stimulant and interferes with ions at spinal synapses of neurons.] Central nervous system neurotransmission-inhibitory neurons

  • What are the most common poisons associated with garlic-smelling breath

  • Arsenic and yellow phosphorus poisoning


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common overdose associated with frothing from the mouth

  • Heroin overdose leading to pulmonary edema noncardiogenic

  • What are the most common toxicity associated with an acneiform rash

  • Bromism

  • What are the most common antidote for benzodiazepine overdose

  • Flumazenil


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common antidote for calcium channel blocker toxicity

  • Calcium

  • What are the most common antidote for digoxin toxicity

  • Digoxin-specific Fab (fragment antibodies) [This will further falsely increase digoxin levels.]

  • What are the most common antidote for anticholinergic overdoses

  • Physostigmine


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common antidote for (i-adrenergic drug toxicity

  • Glucagon

  • What are the most common antidote for narcotic overdoses

  • Naloxone

  • What are the most common cause of premature death in the United States

  • Cigarette smoking


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common test used to indicate nicotine intake

  • Plasma or urine level of nicotine

  • What are the most common complication associated with smoking

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (chronic bronchitis and emphysema)

  • What are the most common cancers for which smoking is the most common cause

  • Lung cancer (squamous and small cell types), oral squamous cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, squamous carcinoma of the larynx


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common cardiovascular effects of smoking

  • Acute myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, peripheral vascular disease

  • What are the most common gastrointestinaI effects of smoking

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease, delayed healing of peptic uclers

  • What are the most common signs and symptoms of a black widow spider bite (latrodectism)

  • A sharp prick, usually felt after picking up wood from a wood pile; venom (a neurotoxin) causes muscle spasms in the thighs and abdomen [An antivenin is available. Calcium gluconate helps reduce the muscle spasms.]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common signs and symptoms of a brown recluse spider bite

  • Not as painful as the black widow bite; toxin is necrotoxic and produces an extensive necrotic lesion at the envenomation site; can produce Acute tubular necrosis and a hemolytic anemia

  • What are the most common signs and symptoms associated with poisonous scorpion bites

  • Paresthesias at the envenomation site, hypertension, respiratory paralysis (most common cause of death) [Only one species is poisonous in the United States (seen in Arizona).]

  • What are the most common signs and symptoms of chigger bites

  • Intensely pruritic red lesions with sharply demarcated borders


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common signs and symptoms of scabies (human itch mite)

  • In adults, they burrow between the webs of the fingers and produce intense pruritus [It is treated with lindane.]

  • What are the most common signs and symptoms clinical findings associated with Pediculushumaniscapitis (head louse) infestations

  • Eggs called "nits" on the hair shafts [Benzene hexachloride is used in treatment, but is very toxic. Current recommendations are to manually remove them with special combs.]

  • What are the most common signs and symptoms clinical findings associated with Pediculushumaniscorporis (body louse) infestations

  • Lice are not attached to the skin surface; eggs are found in crease areas of the body [Benzene hexachloride is used in treatment.]


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common signs and symptoms infestation in which the louse looks like a crab under magnification

  • Infestation of Phthirus pubis (pubic louse) [Benzene hexachloride is used in treatment.]

  • What are the most common cause of death due to a venomous bite

  • Anaphylaxis secondary to a bee sting

  • What are the most common insect bite causing painful vesicular lesions that necrose

  • Fire ant bites


Environmental pathology

  • What are the most common poisonous snake envenomation in the United States

  • Rattlesnake envenomation [Hematologic problems and local tissue swelling and necrosis are the primary problems. Rattle-snakes, copperheads, and water moccasins are pit vipers. The coral snake (red and yellow colors abut each other) is a type of cobra whose venom has a potent neurotoxin.]

  • What are the most common complication associated with the treatment of rattlesnake envenomations

  • Serum sickness after using horse serum anti-venin

  • What are the most common poisonous lizard in the United States

  • Gila monster in the Southwestern United States


  • Login