Chapter 2 notes
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Chapter 2 Notes. Earth consist of three layers- (Crust- Mantle- Core)--crust contain ocean floors Magma is melted rock that flows from the outer core to the surface and then it becomes Lava when it reaches the surface. Earth is constantly changing because of plate tectonics. Chapter 2 notes.

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Chapter 2 Notes

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Chapter 2 notes

Chapter 2 Notes

Earth consist of three layers- (Crust- Mantle- Core)--crust contain ocean floors

Magma is melted rock that flows from the outer core to the surface and then it becomes Lava when it reaches the surface.

Earth is constantly changing because of plate tectonics.


Chapter 2 notes1

Chapter 2 notes

  • Movement of plates on a continent is called a Continental Drift.

  • When continental plates collide they form mountains.

  • When oceanic plates and continental plates collide they form volcanic eruptions- earthquakes-

  • Plates moving along side but never collides form faults


Chapter 2 notes2

Chapter 2 notes

  • Weathering is caused by the movements of tectonic plates

  • Erosion is the movement of weathered rocks

    Types of Landforms

  • On land mountains, plateaus, plains, hills, isthmus, peninsulas, valleys

  • Under Water– continental shelves, trenches


Chapter 2 notes

  • 70% of Earth’s surface is water

  • 97% of Earth’s water is salt

  • 3 % of Earth’s water is fresh water but ½ of it is not drinkable---located in lakes, rivers, and glaziers

    Water Cycle

  • evaporation—liquid to gas

  • condensation– gas to liquid

  • precipitation– water droplets fall to ground

  • collection– water collects on the ground


Chapter 2 notes3

Chapter 2 notes

  • Weather is the temperature, wind direction- speed- air moisture- over a short period of time

  • Climate – is predictable patterns of weather over a longer period of time—sometimes years


Chapter 2 notes4

Chapter 2 notes

  • The sun is directly linked to Earth’s climate.

  • Tropics receive more heat than polar regions

  • The sun’s heat is even because of wind and water (draw a globe) (pg 56)

  • Trade winds--blow from east to west between the Tropics and the Equator

  • Westerlies—blow west to east over North America between the tropics and north Lat.


Chapter 2 notes5

Chapter 2 notes

  • Doldrums– Calm winds located near the Equator

  • Polar easterlies are very cold winds that sweep across the northern hemisphere in a largely westward direction.

  • Storms occur when warm air rises and meets cold air

  • El’Nino –weak wind patterns---occurs when heavy rainfalls occur in western South America– Peru, Chile’ and drought occurs in Africa, and South Asia


Chapter 2 notes6

Chapter 2 notes

  • La’Nina –unusual cool water patterns-- when heavy rains and typhoons occur in the Western Pacific oceans—little rain in the eastern Pacific

  • Wind is formed when warm air from the tropics moves towards the Poles or cold air from the Poles moves toward the Equator

  • Most hurricanes occur in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. (pg 57)


Chapter 2 notes7

Chapter 2 notes

  • Rain shadow blocks the rain from reaching the interior regions because of the height of the mountain.

  • Windward side– very wet

  • Leeward side – very dry

    Climate Zones have similar weather patterns of temperatures– similar plant life


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Chapter 2 notes

  • 5 major climate zones (flow map)

  • (1) Tropical

  • (2) Dry

  • (3) Mid latitude

  • (4) High latitude

  • (5) Highland


Chapter 2 notes9

Chapter 2 notes

Negative impact of human activity on the earth

  • Smog – chemical formed from air pollution

  • Acid Rain – chemicals mixed with water

  • Chlorofluorocarbons- (CFC) human-made chemicals

    The Greenhouse effect– the atmosphere reflect the sun’s energy like a greenhouse. The energy is then reflected back down by the atmosphere to the earth.


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