Livestock and the environment
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Livestock and the Environment. From foukeffa.org Written by Johanna Davis Revised by Nicki Schaefer. GA Ag Ed Curriculum Office To accompany the Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum Lesson 01.432-8.9 July 2002. Agricultural Concerns. Federal & State Environmental Laws

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Livestock and the environment

Livestock and the Environment

From foukeffa.org

Written by Johanna Davis

Revised by Nicki Schaefer

GA Ag Ed Curriculum Office

To accompany the Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum

Lesson 01.432-8.9

July 2002


Agricultural concerns

Agricultural Concerns

  • Federal & State Environmental Laws

  • Endangered Species Act


B environmental problems of livestock production

B. Environmental Problems of Livestock Production

  • Changes in Livestock Production

  • Trend toward larger livestock operations

  • Use of large livestock confinement systems such as feedlots

  • .

  • Changing Environment of Agriculture

  • Migration of city dwellers to agricultural areas

  • Why?

    • Escape problems of city life


B environmental problems of livestock production cont

B. Environmental Problems of Livestock Production(cont.)

•Attracted to recreational developments

  • Attitudes

    • Find odors offensive

    • Unaware of byproducts of livestock production

3. Livestock Waste Disposal Concerns

  • Communities share the cost of waste disposal in cities


B environmental problems of livestock production cont1

B. Environmental Problems of Livestock Production(cont.)

  • Cost of facility: several million dollars

  • Cost to individual: $100 to $200

•Individuals responsible for cost of livestock enterprises

  • 200,000 hens, 1,200 head of cattle in a feedlot, or

  • 10,500 hogs may produce as much waste as

  • 20,000 people.


C agricultural disposal systems

C. Agricultural Disposal Systems

  • Must be part of the total management plan

  • Must be affordable

  • Must meet the expectations of the non-farming neighbors

  • Must meet environmental regulations


D federal regulations

D. Federal Regulations

  • Federal Water Quality Act of 1965

  • Refuse Act of 1899

  • Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965

  • Federal Clean Air Act


E state regulations

E. State Regulations

  • Most states have some type of environmental protection agency

  • Must enforce state & Federal regulations

  • Nuisance Laws

    • May include odors, dust, chemicals, water pollution, animal noises, carcass disposal, etc.


F water pollutants

F. Water Pollutants

  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

  • The EPA monitors:

    • Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

    • Fecal Coliforms

    • Fecal Streptococci

    • Suspended Solids

    • Phosphorus

    • Ammonia


G handling livestock waste

G. Handling Livestock Waste

  • Objective is to control:

-Odors

-Dust

-Flies

-Rodents

-Surface & groundwater pollution

-Other nuisances


G handling livestock wastes cont

G. Handling Livestock Wastes, (cont.)

  • Amount of manure produced (determined by):

    • Species

    • Age of Animal

    • Ration Fed

  • Fertilizer usage (determined by):

  • Length of time in storage

  • Method of treatment

  • Nutrient content


G handling livestock wastes cont1

G. Handling Livestock Wastes, (cont.)

• Amount and type of bedding used

• Amount of dilution by water entering the system


H manure handling systems

H. Manure Handling Systems

  • Factors to consider

    • EPA Regulations

    • Species of Animal Being Raised

    • Type of Housing and Management

    • Size and Type of Operation

    • Climate

    • Characteristics of Operation


H manure handling systems cont

H. Manure Handling Systems, (cont.)

  • Classification of Facilities

    • Confined

      • Open Lot

      • Lot and Shelter

      • Enclosed Shelter

    • Unconfined

      • Pasture

      • Range


H manure handling systems cont1

H. Manure Handling Systems, (cont.)

  • Types of Systems

    • Liquid

      • Pits

      • Lagoon

      • Storage Basins

    • Solid


I determining the amount of livestock waste to apply on the land

I. Determining the Amount of Livestock Waste to Apply on the Land

  • Agronomic Nitrogen Rate: available Nitrogen per unit of yield necessary to produce a given crop

    - Varies with species

    - Varies with ration fed

    - Varies with method of collection and storage

  • Phosphorus Requirements


J disposing of manure

J. Disposing of Manure

• Spread on land

  • All solid systems

  • All liquid systems except lagoons

    • Valuable as fertilizers


J disposing of manure cont

J. Disposing of Manure, (cont.)

• Environmental Considerations

  • Must be incorporated or injected into the soil

  • Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered land

  • Do not apply to saturated land immediately before or after a rainstorm


J disposing of manure cont1

J. Disposing of Manure, (cont.)

  • Do not apply to grass waterways

  • Do not apply within 200 feet of surface water or within 150 feet of a well

  • Reduce the amount applied if there is a high water table present or if soil is highly permeable


K preventing feedlot runoff

K. Preventing Feedlot Runoff

  • Diversion: preventing surface water from entering feedlot

  • Drainage: channeling runoff from feedlot


K preventing feedlot runoff cont

K. Preventing Feedlot Runoff, (cont.)

  • Debris basins: basins which catch runoff from pens

  • Holding ponds: temporary storage for runoff

  • Disposal: collecting waste and using it for irrigation or allowing it to evaporate


L gases and odors from livestock waste

L. Gases and Odors from Livestock Waste

  • Caused by anaerobic bacteria breaking down the organic components

    • Occurs when no oxygen is present

  • Gases become dangerous to people and livestock in poorly ventilated areas or confined areas

  • Odors may cause neighbors to take legal action against the farmer


L gases and odors from livestock wastes cont

L. Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes, (cont.)

  • Control Methods

    • Reduce toxicity by mixing air with manure

    • Mix manure in soil as soon as possible after hauling/spreading

  • • Chemical and bacterial cultures test for:

    • – Masking agents

      • •Cover up odors

    • –Counteractants

      • •Attempt to neutralize odors


L gases and odors from livestock wastes cont1

L. Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes, (cont.)

– Deodorants

• Chemicals that kill the bacteria that cause odor

– Digestive deodorants

• Create a digestive process to eliminate odor


M disposal of dead animals

M. Disposal of Dead Animals

  • Responsibility of owner

  • Many states require disposal within 24 to 48 hrs.

  • Method of disposal must prevent health hazards

    • Treat any dead animal as though diseased

    • Eliminate environmental threats


M disposal of dead animals cont

M. Disposal of Dead Animals, (cont.)

  • Transport in a covered, metal, leak-proof vehicle

  • Approved Methods

    • Licensed disposal plant

    • Burying

    • Disposal pits

    • Burning

    • Composting


N livestock laws

N. Livestock Laws

  • Animal Trespass

    • Owner Liability

      • Damage to property

    • Estray

      • Domestic Animal of Unknown ownership running at large

    • Land owner may retain possession until compensated (varies by states)


N livestock laws cont

N. Livestock Laws, (cont.)

  • Animals On Highways

    • May cause traffic accidents

    • Owner Liability

      • Usually negligence must be proven


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