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VMware Overview – (What’s New) and Virtual Infrastructure Performance, Capacity Planning, and Monitoring. Jonathan McCormick Feb 12, 2008. Why Virtualization? (Past, Present, Future). Utility Computing via Virtualization. Distributed & Tiered Computing. IT Market Penetration.

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Vmware overview what s new and virtual infrastructure performance capacity planning and monitoring l.jpg

VMware Overview – (What’s New)andVirtual Infrastructure Performance, Capacity Planning, and Monitoring

Jonathan McCormick

Feb 12, 2008

Why virtualization past present future l.jpg
Why Virtualization? (Past, Present, Future)

Utility Computing

via Virtualization


& Tiered


IT Market Penetration





  • Simple, flexible

  • Economical

  • scalability, availability

  • Scalable, available

  • Expensive, only for a few critical apps

  • Affordable, IT everywhere

  • Sacrificed simplicity, flexibility

Virtualization industry standard way of computing l.jpg
Virtualization: Industry-Standard Way of Computing

Early Adoption



Infrastructure Management

High Availability

Test &


Server Consolidation

Management & Automation

Virtual Infrastructure

Virtual Infrastructure




1st generation1998 – 2002

2nd generation2003 - 2005

3rd generation2006- 2008

Review key features of virtualization l.jpg



Run multiple virtual machines simultaneously on a single server

Each virtual machine is isolated from other virtual machines.

Hardware Independence


Entire virtual machine is saved in files and can be moved and copied by moving and copying files

Run a virtual machine on any server without modification

REVIEW: Key Features of Virtualization

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Key Benefits of ESX Hypervisor

Other Solutions(Hosted)

VMware ESX(Hypervisor)

  • Performance (20~30%) increase over Hosted

  • Scalability (2x) Memory over subscription

  • Resource Control Direct hardware control

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Centralized Management with VirtualCenter

  • Provision and boot virtual machines

  • Monitor system availability and performance

  • Automated notifications and email alerting

  • Integrate SDK with existing management tools

  • Secure the environment with robust access control

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Physical to Virtual Migration

Seamlessly transform physical systemsinto Virtual Machines with VMware Converter

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Strong Storage Foundation: VMFS

Production proven

  • Clustered capabilities available since 2003

  • Over 20,000 production customers

  • Included in cost of VI3 Standard & Enterprise


  • Transparent storage cluster management

  • High performance, optimized for VM access

    Far more than file storage

  • Provides locking protocols necessary for robust availability features

    • VMotion, DRS (+ maintenance mode)

    • HA

    • VCB

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VMotion™ Technology Changes The Game

VMotion lets you move live, running VM’s from one ESX Host to another while maintaining continuous OS and application service availability.

  • Optimize Utilization

  • 24/7 HW Maintenance

  • Better Availability

  • Uses shared storage

  • Needs similar CPUs

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Resource optimization with VMware DRS

  • Dynamic and intelligent allocation of hardware resources to ensure optimal alignment between business and IT

What is it?

  • Dynamic balancing of computing resources across resource pools

  • Intelligent resource allocation based on pre-defined rules

    Business Impact

  • Align IT resources with business priorities

  • Operational simplicity; dramatically increase system administrator productivity

Business Demand

Resource Pool

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Ensure High availability with VMware HA

  • What is it?

    • Automatic restart of virtual machines in case of server failure

  • Customer Impact

    • Cost effective high availability for all applications

    • No need for dedicated stand-by hardware

    • None of the cost and complexity of clustering

VMware HA enables cost-effective high availability for all applications


Resource Pool

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VMware Consolidated Backup






  • Centralized VM Back-up’s

  • 20-40% better resource utilization

  • Pre-integrated with 3rd party backup products

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New Enablers for More Effective Management


Guided Consolidation (in VirtualCenter)

Virtual Desktop Manager

Virtualization Platform


DRS with Distributed Power Mgmt

Virtual Infrastructure

ESX Server 3i

Management & Automation

  • Guided server consolidation

  • Integrated virtual desktop management

  • Energy efficient resource management for a green datacenter

  • Next generation thin hypervisor integrated into server hardware for rapid deployment

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ESX Server 3i

  • Compact, 32MB footprint

  • Only architecture with no reliance on a general purpose OS

  • Integration in hardware eliminates installation

  • Intuitive wizard driven start up experience dramatically reduces deployment time

  • Standards-based management of the underlying hardware

    • Server boot to running virtual machines in minutes

    • Simplified management

    • Increased security and reliability

    From server boot to running vms in minutes l.jpg

    Power on server and boot into hypervisor

    Configure Admin Password

    (optional) Modify network configuration

    Connect VI Client to IP Address

    Or manage with VirtualCenter


    From Server Boot to Running VMs in Minutes

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    Enabling the ‘Plug-and-Play’ Datacenter

    • Plug: Power on a new server with ESX Server 3i. The new server joins a DRS cluster.

    • Play: All VMs in the cluster are automatically rebalanced taking in consideration the newly available resources.

    • On-demand capacity

    • Easy scalability

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    Traditional ESX Server







    Service Console








    Resource Management

    HAL and Device Drivers

    2 GB

    Disk Footprint:

    Disk Footprint:

    32 MB


    Percent of Patches

    Esx server 3i thin virtualization l.jpg
    ESX Server 3i: Thin Virtualization!







    Service Console








    Resource Management

    HAL and Device Drivers

    2 GB

    Disk Footprint:

    Disk Footprint:

    32 MB


    Percent of Patches

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    Distributed Power Management

    • Consolidates workloads onto fewer servers when the cluster needs fewer resources

    • Places unneeded servers in standby mode

    • Brings servers back online as workload needs increase

    Resource Pool

    • Minimizes power consumption while guaranteeing service levels

    • No disruption or downtime to virtual machines

    Physical Servers

    Distributed power management tco savings l.jpg

    DPM Savings calculated for a datacenter with 100 physical servers



    16,800 hrs

    13,200 hrs

    Assumptions: 50 out of 100 servers can be powered down for 8 hrs/day on weekdays and 16 hrs/day on weekends.

    Total power consumption per server ( operating power + cooling power) = 1130.625 watts/hr

    Cost of energy = $ 0.0813 per kWH (source: Energy Information Administration)

    Distributed Power Management TCO Savings

    Vmware update manager l.jpg

    OFFLINE servers

    VMware Update Manager

    • Automates patch management for ESX Server hosts and select Microsoft and RHEL virtual machines

      • Scans and remedies online as well as offline virtual machines* and online ESX Server hosts

      • Snapshots virtual machines prior to patching and allows rollback to snapshot

    • Eliminates manual tracking of patch levels of ESX Server hosts and virtual machines

    • Automates enforcement of patch standards

    • Reduces risk through snapshots and offline virtual machine patching





    * Note: RHEL guests can only be scanned, not remediated

    Non disruptive esx server patching with update manager and drs l.jpg

    Update Manager patches entire DRS clusters servers

    Each host in the cluster enters DRS maintenance mode, one at a time

    VMs are migrated off, host is patched & rebooted if required

    VMs are migrated back on

    Next host is selected

    Non-disruptive ESX Server Patching with Update Manager and DRS





    Resource Pool

    • Automates patching of large number of hosts with zero downtime to virtual machines

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    Guided Consolidation servers


    • Automatically discovers physical servers

    • Analyzes utilization and usage patterns

    • Converts physical servers to VMs placed intelligently based on user response


    • Lowers training requirements for new virtualization users

    • Steers users through the entire consolidation process


    Vdi virtual desktop manager vdm l.jpg
    VDI – Virtual Desktop Manager (VDM) servers

    VMware VDM

    Centralized Virtual Desktops

    • Enterprise-class, scalable connection broker

    • Central administration and policy enforcement

    • Automatic desktop provisioning with optional “smart pooling”

    • Desktop persistence and secure tunneling options

    • Microsoft AD integration and optional 2-factor authentication via RSA SecurID®


    • End-to-end enterprise-class desktop control and manageability

    • Familiar end user experience

    • Tightly integrated with VMware’s proven virtualization platform (VI3)

    • Scalability, security and availability suitable for organizations of all sizes

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    Storage VMotion servers

    • Storage independent migration of virtual machine disks

      • Zero downtime to virtual machines

      • LUN independent

      • Supported for Fibre Channel SANs

    • Minimizes planned downtime due to storage

    • Complete planned downtime management solution across servers and storage with VMotion and Storage VMotion

    Storage vmotion for storage array migration l.jpg

    LUN A1 servers

    LUN A2

    Array A (off lease)

    Storage VMotion for Storage Array Migration

    Non disruptively:

    • Refresh to new arrays

    • Migrate to different class of storage

    • VM granularity, LUN Independent

    LUN B1

    LUN B2

    Array B (NEW)

    Storage vmotion for storage i o optimization l.jpg
    Storage VMotion for Storage I/O Optimization servers

    • Non-disruptively:

      • Eliminate virtual machine storage I/O bottlenecks

      • Move individual virtual machines to best performing LUNs

    Bottleneck Eliminated

    I/O Bottleneck

    LUN 1


    Set LUN 2

    LUN 2

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    Introducing VMware Site Recovery Manager servers

    Site Recovery Manager leverages VMware Infrastructure to transform disaster recovery

    • Simplifies and automates disaster recovery workflows:

      • Setup, testing, failover, failback

    • Provides central management of recovery plans from VirtualCenter

    • Turns manual recovery processes into automated recovery plans

    • Simplifies integration with 3rd-party storage replication

    • Makes disaster recovery rapid, reliable, manageable, affordable

    Vmware site recovery manager at a glance l.jpg

    Array Replication servers

    VMware Site Recovery Manager At A Glance


    Protected Site

    Recovery Site

    Site Recovery Manager

    Site Recovery Manager



    Datastore Groups

    Datastore Groups

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    Summary of Benefits servers

    Site Recovery Manager Leverages VMware Infrastructure to Make Disaster Recovery

    • Rapid

      • Automate disaster recovery setup, failover, failback, and testing

      • Eliminate complexities of traditional recovery

    • Reliable

      • Ensure proper execution of recovery plan

      • Enable easier, more frequent tests

    • Manageable

      • Centrally manage recovery plans

      • Make plans dynamic to match environment

    • Affordable

      • Utilize recovery site infrastructure

      • Reduce management costs

    These features are representative of feature areas under development.  Feature commitments must not be included in contracts, purchase orders, or sales agreements of any kind.  Technical feasibility and market demand will affect final delivery.

    Industry standard way of computing l.jpg

    VMware Virtual Infrastructure servers

    Industry-Standard Way of Computing

    Most effective way to manage IT infrastructure

    Mainframe-class reliability and availability

    Platform for any OS, hardware, application

    …always on…


    The automated…

    Vmware performance considerations l.jpg

    VMware serversPerformance Considerations

    Esx 3 0 architecture l.jpg

    Management servers

    Agents and






    Peripheral I/O






    Service Console

    Storage Stack

    Network Stack


    Device Drivers


    ESX 3.0 Architecture

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    Other Architectures servers

    Large general purpose OS in parent partition or Dom 0 opens security and reliability risks

    All I/O driver traffic going thru parent OS is a bottleneck




















    ESX Server 3i

    Contrast with Other Architectures





    General Purpose OS

    Dom0 (Linux)






    Parent VM








    Competitive Hypervisors


    ESX Server 3i

    Ultra small, virtualization centric kernel

    Direct driver model optimized for VMs

    Management VMs

    Remote CLI, CIM, VI API

    Virtualization overhead sources l.jpg
    Virtualization Overhead Sources servers

    • Virtualization impacts various system components

      • CPU: Some instructions require special handling

      • Memory: Space for virtualization layer and additional page management tasks

      • Devices: Virtualization layer controls physical devices and shows guest OS standardized view

      • Resource management: Manages allocation of physical resources to VMs

    • Virtualization overhead depends on how workloads use these components

    Cpu performance l.jpg
    CPU Performance servers

    • CPU virtualization adds varying amounts of overhead

      • Little or no overhead for the part of the workload that can run in direct execution (CPU Rings 1+)

      • Small to significant overhead for virtualizing sensitive privileged instructions (CPU Ring 0)

        done via Binary Translation or CPU offload (VT)

    • Performance reduction vs. increase in CPU utilization

      • CPU-bound applications: any CPU virtualization overhead results in reduced throughput

      • non-CPU-bound applications: should expect similar throughput at higher CPU utilization

    Cpu performance38 l.jpg

    CPU Performance

    • Some multi-threaded apps in a SMP VM may not perform well

    • Use multiple UP VMs on a multi-CPU physical machine

    • ESX Server

    Cpu performance39 l.jpg
    CPU Performance servers

    • ESX 3 supports four virtual processors per VM

      • Use UP VMs for single-threaded applications

        • Use UP HAL or UP kernel

      • For SMP VMs, configure only as many VCPUs as needed

      • Unused VCPUs in SMP VMs:

        • Impose unnecessary scheduling constraints on ESX Server

        • Waste system resources (idle looping, process migrations, etc.)

    Memory performance l.jpg
    Memory Performance servers

    • Page tables

      • ESX cannot use guest page tables

        • ESX Server maintains shadow page tables

        • Translate memory addresses from virtual to machine

        • Per process, per VCPU

      • VMM maintains physical (per VM) to machine maps

      • No overhead from “ordinary” memory references

    • Overhead

      • Page table initialization and updates

      • Guest OS context switching




    Memory performance41 l.jpg
    Memory Performance servers

    • ESX memory space overhead

      • Service Console: 272 MB (ESX3i = no service console)

      • VMkernel: 100 MB+ (ESX3i = 24MB)

      • Per-VM memory space overhead increases with:

        • Number of VCPUs

        • Size of guest memory

        • 32 or 64 bit guest OS

    • ESX memory space reclamation

      • Page sharing

      • Ballooning

    Memory performance42 l.jpg
    Memory Performance servers

    • Avoid high active host memory over-commitment

      • Total memory demand = active working sets of all VMs

        + memory overhead

        – page sharing

      • No ESX swapping: total memory demand < physical memory

    • Right-size guest memory

      • Define adequate guest memory to avoid guest swapping

      • Per-VM memory space overhead grows with guest memory

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    Networking Performance servers

    • Check configuration

      • Ensure host NICs are running with intended speed and duplex

      • NIC teaming distributes networking load across multiple NICs

        • Better throughput and allows passive failover

    • Use separate NICs to avoid contention

      • For Console OS (host management traffic), VMKernel (vmotion, iSCSI, NFS traffic), and VM

      • For VMs running heavy networking workloads

    • Tune VM-to-VM networking on same host

      • Use same virtual switch to connect communicating VMs

      • Avoid buffer overflow: Tune receive/transmit buffers (KB 1428)

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    Networking Performance servers

    • Ensure adequate CPU resources are available

      • Heavy gigabit networking loads are CPU-intensive

        • Both natively and virtualized

    • Use vmxnet virtual device in guest

      • Default guest vNIC is vlance, but vmxnet performs better

      • For vmxnet driver install tools

      • e1000 is the default for 64-bit guests

    Install vmware tools l.jpg
    Install VMware Tools servers

    • vmxnet – high speed networking driver

    • Memory balloon driver

    • Improved graphics – mks, screen resolution

    • Idler program – deschedule Netware guests when idle

    • Timer sponge for correct accounting of time

      • Experimental, manually started

      • www.vmware.com/pdf/vi3_esx_vmdesched.pdf

    • Time Sync – syncs time with the host every minute

      • Manually started (KB 1318)

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    Storage Performance servers

    • Choose Fibre Channel SAN for best performance

      • Set LUN queue depth appropriately (KB 1267)

    • Networked storage best practices (NFS, iSCSI)

      • Ensure sufficient CPU for software-initiated iSCSI and NFS

      • Avoid link oversubscription

      • Ensure consistent configuration across the full network path

      • Use multiple mount points with multiple VMs

    Storage performance47 l.jpg

    ESX Server servers





    Storage array





    FC Switch



    Storage Performance

    • Hardware configuration affects storage performance

      • Consult SAN Configuration Guides

      • Ensure caching is enabled

      • Consider tuning layout of LUNs across RAID sets

      • Spread I/O requests across available paths

    Storage performance48 l.jpg
    Storage Performance servers

    • Creating partitions

      • Use VirtualCenter

        • Align partitions in the guest as well

      • Non-trivial to use command line tools

        • www.vmware.com/pdf/esx3_partition_align.pdf

    • RDM vs. VMFS

      • VMFS has low overhead – reduced complexity

      • RDM has dedicated I/O queue – increased complexity

    • VMFS is a distributed file system

      • Avoid operations that require excessive metadata updates

    • VM Configuration

      • Choose placement of data disks and swap files on LUNs appropriately

        • RAID type, spindles available, concurrent access of LUNs etc.

      • Increase VM’s max outstanding disk requests if needed (KB 1268)

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    Dynamically Allocate System Resources servers

    • Monitor system resource utilization across hosts

    • Allocate resources intelligently based on rules defined by user

    Drs global scheduler l.jpg

    D servers


    Size depicts High, Normal or Low shares








    Non-DRS Cluster

    DRS Cluster





    Web server load balanced

    across hosts to satisfy

    share settings






    DRS – Global Scheduler

    W – web server

    D – database

    J – java app server

    I – idle



    Benchmarking guidelines l.jpg
    Benchmarking Guidelines servers

    • Carefully select benchmarks

      • Represents application

      • Documentation

      • Repeatability

    • Define parameters being measured and their metrics

      • Throughput (MBps), latency (ms)

    • Benchmark a specific system component

      • Monitor specific component metrics

      • Ensure no other component on the system is constrained

      • Or document any such constraint

    • For comparisons, preferably vary single parameter at a time

    Benchmarking guidelines52 l.jpg
    Benchmarking Guidelines servers

    • Comparing native and virtual machines

      • # of Physical CPUs = # of Virtual CPUs

      • Native Kernel/HAL = VM Kernel/HAL

      • Physical Memory = VM Memory

      • Same bitness (32 or 64) of OS and application

    • Timing within the VM can be inaccurate

      • Especially when the processor is over-committed

      • Use external time source (e.g., the ‘ping’ methodology)

    • Performance tools may not work accurately in a VM

    Benchmarking guidelines53 l.jpg
    Benchmarking Guidelines servers

    • VMmark: A scalable benchmark for virtualized enterprise systems

      • Provides meaningful measurement of virtualization performance

      • Generates metric that scales with underlying system capacity

      • Used to compare the performance of different hardware and virtualization platforms

      • Employs realistic, diverse workloads running on multiple OSes

        • Mail server: Windows 2003 / MS Exchange 2003 / LoadSim

        • Java server: Windows 2003 / SPECjbb2005

        • Web server: SLES10 / SPECweb2005

        • Database server: SLES10 / MySQL / SysBench

        • File server: SLES10 / DBench

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    Tour: Quick Start Home Page (My Assessments) servers

    • Manage Projects from Anywhere

    • Manage Many at one time

    • Create Customer Company Information

      • Enter in just a few details for your benefit

      • Holds Information

    Tour day 1 installation and setup l.jpg
    Tour: Day 1 – Installation and Setup servers

    • All-in-one collection

      • Discovery

      • Inventory

      • Performance

    • Agent-less Design

      • Easy Install

      • Remote collection

      • Easy Uninstall

    • Single Day Install

      • Guides the User through the process

      • All the required steps in an appropriate order

      • All steps have a status

      • Leave on automatic

    • Register Collector to Dashboard when Ready

    Tour monitor collection l.jpg
    Tour: Monitor Collection servers

    • Monitor Progress

      • Collector Failures

      • Slow Collection

      • Missing Data

    • Snapshot available on Home Page

    • Waiting for Enough Data

      • 10 – 30 Days

      • Depends on Assessment

      • Depends on Volatility of Utilization

    Tour examine customer environment l.jpg
    Tour: Examine Customer Environment servers

    • Analyze

      • Preview of Deliverables

        • Shows Processor Utilization

        • Shows System Distribution

      • System Info

      • Run Reports

      • Run Scenarios

    • Create Groups

      • Advanced Workflow

      • Create Consolidation Boundaries

      • May want to try without for opportunities

    Tour create and deliver the reports l.jpg
    Tour: Create and Deliver the Reports servers

    • Canned Reports

      • Presales (CE)

      • Consultant (VA)

      • Templates

    • Custom Reports

      • Select Fields

      • Filter Results

      • Export

      • Build Presentation

    • Scenario Results

    Tour deliverables canned report l.jpg
    Tour: Deliverables - Canned Report servers

    • Customer Findings

      • Progress Report

      • Executive Summary

      • Server Inventory Overview

      • Charts

      • Server Inventory Detail

      • Virtualization Candidates

    • Final Report

      • Presentation Style

      • CIO Level Summary

      • Server Inventory Overview

      • Consolidation Recommendations

      • Has Summary Answers

    Tour deliverables analysis summary l.jpg
    Tour: Deliverables - Analysis Summary servers

    • Used for Comparing “What If”

    • Used for Quick Consolidation Estimation

    • Shows

      • Consolidation Ratios

      • Environmental

    • Vary Scenarios

      • Hardware Configuration

      • Thresholds

      • System Grouping

        • Merge Locations

        • Merge Departments

        • Merge Functions

      • Reuse Hardware

      • Virtualization

    • Templates

      • Reuse your work

    Tour deliverables analysis details l.jpg
    Tour: Deliverables - Analysis Details servers

    • Available with a Full CP Assessment or VA

    • Shows

      • Before Environment

      • Exception Systems

      • Reusable Systems

      • Stacking Plan

      • Resulting Utilization

    • Consultant may export this output

      • Change the style

      • Add more value

      • Branding

    Questions l.jpg

    Questions? servers