Survey of the animal phyla notes
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Survey of the Animal Phyla Notes. Characteristics o f ALL Animals. Eukaryotic (cells with a nucleus) Multicellular (organisms are generally large Motile (can move at some point of its life) Heterotrophic (feeds on other organisms). Phyla of Life.

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Survey of the Animal Phyla Notes

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Survey of the Animal PhylaNotes


Characteristics of ALL Animals

Eukaryotic (cells with a nucleus)

Multicellular (organisms are generally large

Motile (can move at some point of its life)

Heterotrophic (feeds on other organisms)


Phyla of Life

  • There are 31 Animal Phyla identified by Scientists

  • Major Evolutionary developments occur along the roughly 600 Million years of the Animal Kingdom

  • We will Identify the 10 Largest Phyla of Animals


Porifera

  • Lack True Tissues

  • Are Filter Feeders

  • Have Choanocytes for Water movement

  • Entirely aquatic

  • 9000 Species

  • Parametazoa- Animals without Tissues

  • Examples include All variety of salt water and fresh water Sponges


Cnidaria

  • First Eumetazoans- Animals with tissues

  • All members of this phyla have “Stinging Cells” called nematocysts

  • Have gel-like bodies

  • Salt or fresh water

  • Body form are Polyp (mouth up) or Medusa (mouth down)

  • All have Tentacles with Nematocysts


Cnidaria

  • All have Tentacles with Nematocysts

  • Have extra-cellular digestion with a gastrovascular cavity “sac body plan”

  • Have Radial Body Plans

  • 10,000 Species

  • Examples: Hydra, Jellyfish, Man-o-war, Coral, Sea Anemone, Sea Fans


Platyhelmenthes

  • First Animals with Bilateral Symmetry

  • All are “Flatworms” with ribbon-like bodies

  • Simplest organisms with specialized organs

  • Single opening into a digestive gut.

  • Can absorb nutrients directly into body


Platyhelmenthes

  • Simple Nervous system

  • Many are parasitic living in hosts

  • Free living flatworms live in water

  • 20,000 species

  • Examples include….Planaria, Tapeworms, Flukes, and Marine Flatworms.


Rotifera (Rotifers) aka Wheel Mouth

  • First organism with an alimentary canal with both mouth and anus

  • Microscopic fresh water organism

  • Has jaws surrounded by cilia to bring in food

  • 2200 Species


Nematoda ( Round Worms)

  • Non-segmented

  • One way digestive tract

  • Covered by a Thick cuticle

  • First organism with a pseudo-coelom

  • 12,000 species

  • Free living and Parasite species

  • Examples: Pinworms, Ascaris, Hookworms, heartworms, Trichina spiralis (Pork)


Mollusca---animals with Mantles

  • 110,000 species (Second Largest)

  • Breathe by Gills

  • Mantle secrets a shell in most species

  • Have a true visceral mass with many complex internal organs.

  • Has a muscular “foot” for movement


Mollusca

  • Three main classes of Mollusca

    • 1. Gastropods-single spiral shell, scraping mouth piece called a “radula”

    • Examples are snails, slugs, conches

    • 2. Bivalves-two piece hinged shell, two siphons for filter feeding.

    • Examples : Clams, Oysters, Scallops, Mussels

    • 3. Cephalopods-no shell but has a well developed head region, 8 arms/tentacles, mouth part includes a Beak. Eyes very similar to Humans

    • Examples: Squid, Cuttlefish Octopus, Nautilus


Gastropods


Bivalves


Cephalopods


Annelida --segmented round worms

  • 12,000 Species

  • Internally and externally segmented

  • Well developed nervous system

  • Have a closed circulatory system

  • First organisms with a true body cavity


Annelids

  • Three Classes:

  • 1. Oligochaeta- terrestrial Earthworms and bloodworms

  • 2. Hirudnia- Parasitic worms like Leeches

  • 3. Polychaeta- marine worms like sandworms, bristleworms, tubeworms and fanworms


Annelids


Arthopoda---- animals with exoskeletons and jointed legs

  • Largest Animal phyla with over 1.5 million species

  • General Characteristics

    • 1. True body cavity

    • 2. Segmented

    • 3. Jointed Appendages

    • 4. Exoskeleton made of Chitin

    • 5. Must “Molt” to grow


Arthropoda

  • 7 Classes of Arthropods

  • Trilobite- Extinct aquatic species

  • Merostomate- Includes only Horseshoe Crabs

  • Crustacians-mostly aquatic, Crabs, Lobster, Shrimp, Barnacles, Pill bugs

  • Insects- largest arthropod class, undergo Metamorphosis, 3 pr. of legs, only group that can fly.


  • Insects- largest arthropod class, undergo Metamorphosis, 3 pr. of legs, only group that can fly. Includes beetles, ants, butterflies, bees, mosquitoes, weevils and grasshoppers

  • Arachnids- 4 pair of legs, have fangs instead of jaws, most produce venom, includes spiders, ticks, scorpions, chiggers

  • Diplopods- four legs per segment, herbivores, includes all Millipedes.

  • Chilopods- two legs per segment, aggressive carnivores, includes all centipedes


Echinodermata- “Spiney Skin”

  • 10,000 Species

  • Endoskeleton with interlocking plates called ossicles

  • 5 part Radial Body Plan

  • Fundamentally Bilateral

  • Has a Water Vascular system that controls water flow, suction and tube feet.

  • Uses skin gills for respiration

  • Remarkable regenerative abilities.


Echinodermata

  • Examples include, sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers and sand dollars


Chordata

  • Animals with a Notocord

  • 42,500 species

  • All chordates have Bilateral Symmetry, notochord, spinal cord and highly developed Head region and brain.

  • Three Sub Phyla

  • 1. Urochordates-

  • 2. Cephalochordates-

  • 3. Vertebrates-


Chordates

  • Vertebrates- Largest Group of Chordates

  • Notocord becomes the Vertebrae during embryo development

  • Largest group of Vertebrates are fish

  • First Vertebrates originated around 500 million years ago.


Chordates

  • Seven Classes of Vertebrates

  • 1. Agnatha- Primitive jawless Fish. Long tube bodies breathe by gills, Salt Water…. Lampreys


Chordates

  • 2. Chondrichthytes----Cartilage Fish

  • Has a skeleton made of cartilage, All Salt Water species, gills

  • Includes Sharks, Skates and Sting Rays


  • 3. Osteichthyes—Boney Fish----fresh or salt water, skeleton made of calcium bone. Gill Breathers…. Ex. Include, Bass, Goldfish, Eels, Marlin, Catfish and Tuna


  • 4. Amphibians---Four Legged creatures that can live out of water but need water for reproduction. Lung Breathers as adults, gill breathers as young, Soft Moist skin…. Includes Frogs, Toads, Salamanders and Newts


  • 5. Reptiles-

  • Breathe by lungs in all stages.

  • Body covered by scales.

  • Eggs produced on land are tough and leathery.

  • First to have Internal Fertilization.

  • Includes Lizards, Snakes, Turtles, Alligators and relatives. Most include Dinosaurs based on general characteristics


.6 Aves----the Birds

  • All Aves…..

  • Have feathers instead of scales

  • Are warm blooded

  • Have a 4 chambered heart

  • Produce hard shelled eggs

  • Provide much parental involvement in the young


Eagles

Hawks

Partridge

Chicken

Peacock

Sparrow

Owl

Penguin

Ostrich


Mammalia--- the Advanced Vertebrates

All have hair on the body

Warm blooded

Have a Four chambered heart

Internal fertilization

Give live birth

Nurse the young with milk

External ears


Major Evolutionary Developments in the Animal Kingdom

  • 1- Parametazoans to Eumetazoans

  • 2. Radial symmetry to Bilateral Symmetry

  • 3. Acoelomate to Coelomate

  • 4. Gill Breathing to Lung Breathing

  • 5. Protostome to Deuterostome

  • 6. Invertebrates to Vertebrates


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