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Sea Launch/ Zenit Thrust: 8,180,000 N Fueled Weight: 450,000 kg Payload to LEO: 13,740 kg

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Present:. Sea Launch/ Zenit Thrust: 8,180,000 N Fueled Weight: 450,000 kg Payload to LEO: 13,740 kg Cost per launch: $100,000,000 Cost per kg: $7,300 Launches: 31/28. Gateway To Space ASEN 1400 / ASTR 2500 Class #20. T -30. Colorado Space Grant Consortium. Today:. Announcements

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Present:

Sea Launch/Zenit

Thrust: 8,180,000 N

Fueled Weight: 450,000 kg

Payload to LEO: 13,740 kg

Cost per launch: $100,000,000

Cost per kg: $7,300

Launches: 31/28

slide2

Gateway To Space

ASEN 1400 / ASTR 2500

Class #20

T-30

Colorado Space Grant Consortium

slide3

Today:

  • Announcements
  • One minute Report Questions
  • Mid Semester Team Evaluations
  • - Orbits and Mission Design – Part II
  • Launch is in 30 days
slide4

Announcements…

pCDR peer reviews…

- 3rd place is Team #5

- 2nd place is Team #7

- 1st place is Team #4

DD Rev A/B Grades

HW #8 Due 4:00 PM November 9th

Office Hours and Questions in Class

slide5

Mid Semester Team Evaluations…

Please pass them forward now

New grades posted next Tuesday

Community Service project will be included

slide6

Next Tuesday…

Guest Lecture on ADCS

Colorado Space Grant Consortium

slide7

One Minute Reports:

Geostationary VS. Geosynchronous

slide8

One Minute Reports:

- What types of orbits do they do around other planets?

- Is there a polar orbit that is also geosynchronous?

- Could spacecraft ever be launched from Colorado?

- How do you get on elliptical orbit?

- What is the advantage of elliptical orbit vs. a circular orbit around the Earth?

- Does the angle at which you launch a satellite affect its eccentricity?

- How many different orbits are there?

- Do you have launch a satellite at an angle to get it into orbit or can you shoot it straight up?

slide10

One Minute Reports:

- Who owns the geosync orbit space?

UN through the International Telecommunications Union

- When is our Movie Night?

- What is the amount of time between turning on the Sat at launch?

- Do you have to write a journal about every chapter?

- How will the in-class simulation work?

- Do we need to have all the satellite building and testing done before the in-class simulation?

- What chances do students have to go to those big conferences?

-

slide11

One Minute Reports:

- Where does Tom Kelly work now?

slide12

One Minute Reports:

-- What is an acoustic test?

- Are vibration tests done with mass models or the actual products?

- Did they use Velcro on floor to keep them in place?

- Has an emergency ever occurred on an EVA?

- Is Grumman still making space vehicles?

- Arduino is beginning to look like a next of wires?

- Why is water blue?

- Why is this class so awesome?

- What is the craziest thing I ever did…

slide13

Orbits and Mission Design – Part 2

ASEN 1400 / ASTR 2500

Class #19

Colorado Space Grant Consortium

slide14

Orbits:

A Brief Historical Look

slide15

Earth, the Moon, Mars, and the Stars Beyond

A Brief Discussion on Mission Design

slide17

Newton’s Laws:

  • Newton Continued...
    • 1687, Principia Published
    • Law of Universal Gravitation (Attraction)
slide18

Orbit History:

  • Kepler’s 3 Laws of Planetary Motion:
  • All planets move in elliptical orbits, sun at one focus
slide19

Orbit History:

  • Kepler’s 3 Laws of Planetary Motion:
  • A line joining any planet to the sun, sweeps out equal areas in equal times
slide20

Orbit History:

  • Kepler’s 3 Laws of Planetary Motion:
  • The square of the period of any planet about the sun is proportional to the cube of the of the planet’s mean distance from the sun.
  • If you can observe the period of rotation, you can determine the distance
types of orbits
Types of Orbits:
  • Orbits are conic sections:
    • Circle
    • Ellipse
    • Parabola
    • Hyperbola
  • From Kepler’s Law, the central body is at a focus of the conic section
slide22

Kepler:

Kepler’s Laws...Orbits described by conic sections

Velocity of an orbit described by following equation

For a circle (a=r):

For a ellipse (a>0):

For a parabola (a=):

slide23

Earth, the Moon, Mars, and the Stars Beyond

A Brief Discussion on Mission Design

slide24

Orbit Introduction:

  • What is an orbit?
  • - The path of a satellite around the Earth
  • (or any central body)
  • What shape is it?
  • - Orbits are conic sections
  • - Circles, Ellipses, Parabolas, Hyperbolas
  • How are orbits described?
  • - Position and Velocity at any one time
  • - Keplerian Elements (from Kepler’s Laws)
slide25

Orbit Definition:

Velocity & Position

- Given position and velocity of a satellite at

time t, you can calculate the position and

velocity at any other time

slide26

Orbit Definition:

Keplerian Elements

- Semi major axis (a)

- Size

- Eccentricity (e)

- Shape

slide27

Orbit Definition:

Keplerian Elements

- Inclination (i)

- Angle to the Equator

slide29

Orbit Definition:

Keplerian Elements

- Right Ascension of Ascending Node (RAAN, Ω)

- Rotation about the Earth’s Spin Axis

slide30

Orbit Definition:

Keplerian Elements

- Argument of Perigee (ω)

- Rotation of the conic section in the plane

slide31

Orbit Definition:

Keplerian Elements

- True Anomaly (θ)

- Defines the position of a body in orbit

- Angle between the Position Vector and

the vector to Perigee

- Elliptical only

types of orbits cont
Types of Orbits (cont.)
  • Geosynchronous/Geostationary (equator)
types of orbits cont1
Types of Orbits (cont.)
  • Critical Inclination
types of orbits cont2
Types of Orbits (cont.)
  • Repeating Ground Trace
slide35

Types of Orbits (cont.)

  • Polar/ Sun Synchronous
slide38

Circular Orbit:

For a 250 km circular Earth Orbit

Orbital Velocity

slide39

Circular Orbit:

Orbital Period

slide40

Circular Orbit:

For a 500 km circular Earth Orbit

Orbital Velocity

slide41

Circular Orbit:

For a 500 km circular Earth Orbit

Orbital Period

Conclusions???

slide42

Changing Orbits:

How about 250 km to 500 km

How would you do it?

slide43

Changing Orbits:

Changing orbits usually involves an elliptical orbit or Transfer Orbit

Perigee = close

Apogee = far

slide44

Changing Orbits:

1) Velocity of initial orbit

2) Velocity of final orbit

3) Velocity at perigee 4) Velocity at apogee

slide45

Changing Orbits:

Since orbit is elliptical at Vper and Vapoa > 0, so

where

slide46

Changing Orbits:

So back to our DV’s

3) Velocity at perigee

slide47

Changing Orbits:

So back to our DV’s

4) Velocity at apogee

slide48

Changing Orbits:

1) Velocity of initial orbit

2) Velocity of final orbit

3) Velocity at perigee 4) Velocity at apogee

slide49

Changing Orbits:

Therefore:

DV1 is to start transfer

slide50

Changing Orbits:

DV2is to circularize orbit

slide51

Changing Orbits:

What if we did the whole thing in reverse?

Go from 500 to 250 km?

What happens to the answer?

slide52

Changing Orbits:

1) Velocity of initial orbit

2) Velocity of final orbit

3) Velocity at perigee 4) Velocity at apogee

slide53

Changing Orbits:

Therefore:

DV1 is to start transfer

slide54

Changing Orbits:

DV2is to circularize orbit

slide55

Changing Orbits:

Time to do transfer is the same

slide56

How well do you understand Hohmann Transfers?

• 1 to 2?

• 2 to 3?

• 3 to 1?

• 1 to 3?

3

2

1

slide58

Changing Orbits:

Also something called

“Fast Transfer”

• It is more direct and quicker

• However it takes more fuel

• DV1 and DV2 are much bigger

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