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Graphics. Lesson 3 — Modifying Graphics. Objectives. Work with bitmap images. Reshape vector paths. Position and align objects. Group and stack objects. Scale objects. Objectives (continued). Skew and distort objects. Rotate and flip objects. Copy objects. Crop an image.

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Graphics

Graphics

Lesson 3 — Modifying Graphics


Objectives

Objectives

  • Work with bitmap images.

  • Reshape vector paths.

  • Position and align objects.

  • Group and stack objects.

  • Scale objects.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Objectives continued

Objectives (continued)

  • Skew and distort objects.

  • Rotate and flip objects.

  • Copy objects.

  • Crop an image.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Work with bitmap images

Work with Bitmap Images

  • Clicking a bitmap image with a Selection tool will select it.

    • Many programs will display a bounding box with selection handles around it when an object is selected.

  • Once selected, an object can be

    • Moved by dragging it.

    • Resized by dragging a selection handle.

  • To change the image, you must edit the pixels that make up the image.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Bitmap editing and selection tools

Bitmap Editing and Selection Tools

This table shows the icons, names, and descriptions of some tools commonly found in graphics programs for bitmap image editing.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Select pixels using a marquee

Select Pixels Using a Marquee

  • You use the Marquee or the Lasso tool to select an area of an image.

    • The Marquee tool selects a rectangular area.

      • Click the tool to select it, then click in the drawing area and drag to draw the marquee.

    • The Lasso tool selects a freeform area.

      • Click the tool to select it, then click and drag around the area to select.

  • With either tool, the selected area will be inside a dashed line that marks the selection.

  • Cancel a selection by clicking anywhere outside the selection.

  • Many programs have variations of these tools, including Oval Marquee and Polygon Lasso.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Examples of selections

Examples of Selections

The figure on the left shows an area selected using the Marquee tool. Note the dashed rectangular area. Everything inside the rectangle is selected for editing. The figure at right shows an area selected using the Lasso tool to draw around the area to select.

Selected areas

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


The brush pencil and eraser tools

The Brush, Pencil, and Eraser Tools

  • The Pencil tool can be used to draw freeform lines in the drawing area.

    • The line color is the current Stroke color.

  • The Brush tool is used to apply the current Stroke color and style to selected pixels.

  • The Eraser tool is used to remove, or erase, pixels from a bitmap image.

  • If no area is selected, these tools can be used anywhere in the drawing area.

    • If an area of the image is selected, the tools will only work within the selection area.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Modified bitmap image

Modified Bitmap Image

This figure shows the image seen in an earlier slide after it has been modified. The Brush tool was used to paint the saucer red. The Eraser tool has been used to erase the area noted by the rectangular marquee at the top of the image.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


The paint bucket tool

The Paint Bucket Tool

  • The Paint Bucket tool is used to apply the fill color to pixels within a color tolerance range.

    • The lower the tolerance, the closer the colors must match.

  • Select a color, select the Paint Bucket tool, and click it within a selected area or in the area defined by the color tolerance to fill the area.

  • The figure at right shows how it was used to repaint the saucer and the top and handle of the cup.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Reshape vector paths

Reshape Vector Paths

  • Vector images are defined by points positioned along the image’s lines and curves.

  • You change the shape of the image by moving the points.

    • Select an object with the Subselection tool and drag one of the points.

  • Some graphics programs have tools to

    • Extend or redraw existing paths.

    • Change the shape of a path regardless of where the points are located.

    • Move all selected paths within an area defined by a circle attached to the pointer.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Position and align objects

Position and Align Objects

  • Objects can be precisely positioned in the drawing area.

    • You can drag an object to a location using grids or guides.

    • You can specify its X and Y coordinates in a Properties panel or dialog box.

  • You can also align and distribute objects.

    • Objects can be aligned horizontally or vertically with respect to the top, bottom, and sides of the drawing area.

    • Distributing objects adjusts the amount of space between the objects.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Info panel and the align panel

Info Panel and the Align Panel

The figure on the left shows the Info panel, which provides the current X and Y coordinates of an object. You can enter new values here to move the object to a new location. The figure at the right shows the Align panel with various alignment and distribution options that you can choose for selected objects.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Group and stack objects

Group and Stack Objects

  • You can select multiple objects and “group” them.

    • Once grouped, they can be modified or moved all at the same time. To group objects:

      • Select each object, then click the Group command on the Modify menu (location may vary by program).

    • There is also an Ungroup command if you need to edit them separately.

  • Drawn objects are stacked in the drawing area.

    • The first object drawn is at the bottom of the stack, and the latest one drawn is at the top.

    • There are commands to move objects forward or backward on the stack to change the appearance of the image.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Examples of grouped objects

Examples of Grouped Objects

This figure shows three drawn flowers, each of which consists of multiple elements. Yet, there is only one set of selection handles around the entire image. These flowers have all been grouped as one object.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Examples of stacked objects

Examples of Stacked Objects

This figure shows the flowers rearranged on the stack. The big one is in front and the other two are behind it. Note that parts of the other flowers are not visible because of their location behind the main flower.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Scale objects

Scale Objects

  • When selected, an object will have a bounding box and transformation handles visible.

  • You can drag the handles to scale the object.

    • Drag the corner handles to scale it proportionally.

    • Drag the center handles to change the original proportions.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Examples of scaling

Examples of Scaling

The large flower in the figure on the left was scaled using the top or bottom center handle only. It is now much taller than it is wide, and the other flowers were not affected. The figure on the right shows the three flowers after first being grouped and then scaled. When grouped, they are all scaled at the same time.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Skew and distort objects

Skew and Distort Objects

  • Many graphics programs provide a Skew tool that you can use to slant an object.

    • In other programs, just drag a transformation handle to slant it.

  • Distorting an image is changing the height or width without maintaining the original proportions, as seen in a previous slide.

    • Some programs have a Distort tool, while others allow you to drag the handles to distort the object.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


A skewed object

A Skewed Object

The figure on the left below shows an object that was selected. The Skew tool was placed on the lower left selection handle and dragged to the left. The right side of the image moved the same distance to the right. The dotted line shows the current shape of the image. When you release the mouse button, the shape will look like the figure on the right.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Rotate and flip objects

Rotate and Flip Objects

  • Objects can be rotated around an axis of rotation. To do so:

    • Select any transformation tool and move the pointer near the object, but outside the bounding box.

    • When the pointer changes to a rotation pointer, drag in any direction to rotate the object.

      • Some programs have a Rotate tool.

  • Objects can be flipped horizontally or vertically.

    • Flipping horizontally reverses the image from left to right.

    • Flipping vertically reverses it from top to bottom.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Rotating an object

Rotating an Object

In this figure, the large flower has been selected. The pointer was moved near the bounding box and changed to the rotation pointer shown at the top of the figure. Dragging it to the left creates the mar-quee shown here. When the mouse button is released, the large flower will have been rotated to the left.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Rotated and flipped objects

Rotated and Flipped Objects

The figure on the left shows both flowers after being rotated to the left. The figure on the right shows that the large flower was flipped horizontally. Both flowers were repositioned to create the image shown here.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Copy objects

Copy Objects

  • There are a few ways to copy objects in a drawing to create a more complex drawing.

    • Use the Copy and Paste command.

    • Some programs have a Duplicate command.

  • Some programs have special Paste commands to use when copying objects, such as

    • Paste Special – pastes an item with a link to the original item.

    • Paste in Front – pastes the object in front of the original object.

    • Paste in Back – pastes an item behind the original object.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Copied objects

Copied Objects

In this figure, multiple copies of the small and large flower were pasted into the drawing to make a more complex drawing.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Crop an image

Crop an Image

  • Cropping removes an unwanted portion of an image.

  • In some programs, you draw a marquee around the area to crop and then use a menu command to crop the image.

  • In some programs, you draw a marquee around the area to crop using a Crop tool, and the area is cropped when you release the mouse button.

  • Other programs use a Crop tool that allows you to crop the image by dragging the transformation handles.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


A cropped image

A Cropped Image

The image on the left below shows an image about to be cropped. The marquee has been drawn, and the crop pointer is visible near the lower right side of the marquee. The image on the right shows the image after it has been cropped. Note the telephone pole and wires in the original image are now gone.

Crop pointer

Marquee

This area is cropped out.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Summary

Summary

  • Some programs have graphics tools designed specifically for working with bitmap images.

  • You can select and modify areas of pixels in a bitmap image.

  • There are tools you can use to reshape vector paths.

  • You can move objects around in an image.

  • Most graphics programs have tools for aligning and distributing objects in an image.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Summary continued

Summary (continued)

  • You can group multiple objects together so that you can modify them as one unit.

  • Objects stack from back to front as you create them in a drawing. You can rearrange stacking order to change the way objects overlap.

  • There are many ways to transform an object, including scaling, skewing, distorting, flipping, and rotating.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


Summary continued1

Summary (continued)

  • You can create exact duplicates of vector and bitmap objects.

  • Cropping lets you remove parts of an image you don’t want.

Lesson 3 – Modifying Graphics


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