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Graphics Any visual form of presenting information M. Reber © 4/7/2009 Overview Types of Graphics Types of Illustrations Ways to Integrate Graphics Overview Types of Graphics Types of Illustrations Ways to Integrate Graphics Types of Graphics Tables Graphs Charts Illustrations

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graphics

Graphics

Any visual form of presenting information

M. Reber

© 4/7/2009

overview
Overview

Types of Graphics

Types of Illustrations

Ways to Integrate Graphics

overview3
Overview

Types of Graphics

Types of Illustrations

Ways to Integrate Graphics

types of graphics
Types of Graphics
  • Tables
  • Graphs
  • Charts
  • Illustrations
types of graphics tables
Types of Graphics:Tables
  • Tables are rows and columns of numbers, words, or symbols
  • They provide efficient means of presenting comparative information
    • Information that is suitable for a table generally has two comparative axes
    • Tables should have headings for columns and/or rows
  • Check for information in your text that could be presented as a table
  • Tables should be introduced within the text to provide context
types of graphics tables cont

Name

Email Address

Phone #1

Phone # 2

1.

John Smith

[email protected]

408-000-0000

650-000-0000

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Types of Graphics:Tables (cont.)
types of graphics graphs
Types of Graphics:Graphs
  • Graphs show changes in data over time
types of graphics charts
Types of Graphics:Charts
  • Charts plot specific information, such as scientific data
  • The most common charts are: pie charts and bar charts
    • Pie charts show percentages of a whole:
types of graphics charts cont
Types of Graphics:Charts (cont.)
  • Bar charts show the same information with the length of each bar representing a percentage or amount:
types of graphics illustrations
Types of Graphics:Illustrations
  • Illustrations give a graphic representation of a thing or action
  • Common illustrations include:
    • Objects, parts, features of an object (mechanisms)
    • Actions or movements (the direction one object needs to be inserted into another)
    • Orientation or position (CPR positioning)
    • Concepts or ideas (an organizational chart)
    • Screen Shots
overview11
Overview

Types of Graphics

Types of Illustrations

Ways to Integrate Graphics

types of illustrations
Types of Illustrations
  • Photographs
  • Drawings
  • Flowcharts
  • Diagrams and Schematics
  • Screen Shots
types of illustrations photographs

Figure 4. Removing the back wheel from the bicycle.

Figure 5. Using a tire lever to separate the tire from the wheel.

Types of Illustrations: Photographs
  • Provide most detail with picture-perfect representation
  • Can include unnecessary or distracting detail
types of illustrations drawings
Types of Illustrations: Drawings
  • Often considered the ideal illustration
    • Suppress unnecessary detail and allow reader to focus on important objects, tools, and actions
    • Illustrate relationships and concepts photography can not
types of illustrations flowcharts and org charts

Import audio and storyboard files

Adjust length of audio and video files

Add and edit transition effects

Create an MPEG movie file

Types of Illustrations: Flowcharts and Org Charts
  • Flowcharts and other conceptual drawings represent more abstract information such as positions within a workflow:
  • Organizational charts represent hierarchical information such as positions within an organization:

Chief Executive Officer

Warehouse Manager

National Sales Manager

Shipping Clerk

Warranty Inspector

Western Sales Manager

Eastern Sales Manager

types of illustrations diagrams and schematics
Types of Illustrations: Diagrams and Schematics
  • A diagram is a plan, drawing, or outline that explains how something works or the relationship between parts of a whole
  • A schematic represents the elements of a system using abstract, graphic symbols rather than realistic pictures
    • Omits all irrelevant details, often rendering the object unrecognizable
    • May add unrealistic elements to aid comprehension
types of illustrations screen shots
Types of Illustrations: Screen Shots
  • Reproduces the screen or dialog box a user sees when operating hardware and software
  • Verifies to the user that they are in the correct part of the procedure
overview19
Overview

Types of Graphics

Types of Illustrations

Ways to Integrate Graphics

ways to integrate graphics
Ways to Integrate Graphics

Purposes of Graphics

Uses of Graphics

Sources of Graphics

Format of Graphics

Tips on Using Graphics

purposes of graphics
Purposes of Graphics
  • Show how something looks or is constructed
  • Show how to do something
  • Explain how a process works
  • Show how something is organized
  • Help the reader find specific facts
  • Show relationships
  • Make a persuasive point
uses of graphics
Uses of Graphics
  • To summarize and condense information
  • To make information easier to access
  • To show comparison or contrast
  • To appeal to right-brained users
  • To add variety and increase interest
  • To emphasize important information
  • To convey quantitative relationships (percentile rankings, trends, etc.)
  • To communicate internationally
sources of graphics
Sources of Graphics
  • You can find graphics using these sources:
    • Search on the internet and copy from the web
    • Use clip art (professional sources only)
  • You can create graphics by:
    • Using a digital camera
    • Creating screen shots
    • Drawing your own illustrations
    • Creating graphs and charts using software applications
  • If you did not create the graphics, remember:
    • You may need to crop, size, and label the illustrations
    • You must always give credit for the illustration you copy
    • Ask permission to use the illustration if necessary
format of graphics
Format of Graphics

Use sans serif fonts (Arial, Helvetica, etc.) for flowchart text, figure titles, callout text, and row and column headings in tables

Use smaller fonts for items listed above (at least 1 pt. smaller than body text)

Use straight lines without arrowheads for callout text, not diagonal lines

Use arrowheads to indicate direction only

Center text in flowchart boxes vertically/horizontally

Adjust individual column width within tables according to text density

Introduce most graphics with lead-in text

tips on using graphics
Tips on Using Graphics
  • Pick the most appropriate type of graphic for the information you are presenting
  • Do not include a graphic without a purpose
  • Make graphics easy to understand and use
  • Include callouts or captions as necessary
  • Integrate your graphics with your text
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