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[16469] Low Energy Building Design. Critique 2. Adam Boney , Fraser Cassels , Marc Breslin and Nick Burns. Our Design. 1 st Floor. Construction method: Timber Framing. Required minimal energy to process material Carbon neutral material

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[16469] Low Energy Building Design

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16469 low energy building design

[16469] Low Energy Building Design

Critique 2

Adam Boney, Fraser Cassels, Marc Breslin and Nick Burns


Our design

Our Design

1st Floor


Construction method timber framing

Construction method: Timber Framing

  • Required minimal energy to process material

  • Carbon neutral material

  • Allows a greater thickness for external walls therefore significantly greater U values

  • Can be sourced from local companies on the Shetland island


16469 low energy building design

Insulation : 2 possibilities

U value target : 0.1 – 0.15 W/m K

  • Cellulose Insulation:

  • Sustainable and low embodied energy

  • 80% recycled paper

  • 20% less energy to manufacture than other fibres

  • Thermal conductivity 0.035 – 0.04 W/m K

  • Sheep’s Wool:

  • Sustainable material which can be locally provided

  • 14% of the energy used to manufacture glass fibre

  • Thermal conductivity 0.04 w / m K


16469 low energy building design

Draught proofing and thermal envelope

  • External door and garage are excluded from the thermal envelope.

  • Insulation installed below the concrete floor slab

  • Wall insulation continues down to bottom of concrete slab to prevent thermal bridging

  • Gaps filled with foam sealants

Diagram above shows main sources of draughts.


16469 low energy building design

Doors and Windows

  • High performance door threshold seals installed which seal air gaps reducing draughts and prevent water entering the building

  • Door draught extruders fitted to other side also

  • Windows are one of the weakest points thermally in building envelope

  • Install high performance triple glazed windows

  • Low emissivity glass U value 0.6 W/m

  • Provide wooden window frames giving a U value of 0.16 W /mK to reduce thermal bridging


Lighting

Lighting

  • Day lighting:

  • Reduces the amount of artificial light need

  • Benefits of natural day light

    • Increase performance

    • Reducing in energy cost

  • The disadvantages the natural light it our design

    • Window size

      • Glare

      • Heat loss


Lighting1

Lighting

  • Brightness

    • Same brightness

    • Less wattage (about 1/3)

  • Costing

    • More expensive

    • Last longer

  • Brightness

    • Same brightness

    • Less wattage (about 1/10)

  • Cool lighting

    • reducing energy consumption


Wind power

Wind Power

  • Shetland wind power- supply renewable energy

  • Turbines produced by 3 main manufacturers

  • Westwind Turbines

  • Proven Turbines

  • Evance Turbine


Wind power1

Wind Power

  • Opting for a stand alone turbine:

    • Carry out comparison

    • Assess best supplier and turbine

    • Power calculation spreadsheet

    • P=0.5ρAV³ - www.REUK.co.uk


Wind power small turbine

Wind Power- Small turbine

Speed

Power

Area


Wind power large turbine

Wind power- Large turbine

Speed

Power

Area


Water

Water

  • Average household water use is difficult to pin down

  • Average annual levels of consumption (m3):

Average use = 182,000L/year

http://www.ccwater.org.uk/server.php?show=ConWebDoc.913


Technologies

Technologies

1. Rainwater harvesting:

  • Plenty of rain in Unst- average rainfall/year is 1,220mm1

  • Systems can provide 100% of water demand, however this is rarely done

1. http://www.shetland.gov.uk/council/documents/18170-Shet-in-Statistics.pdf


Technologies1

Technologies

Rainwater harvesting:

  • Variability within system design and details

Model agreements for sustainable water systems; CIRIA, 2004


Collection

Collection

  • Initial thoughts on collection area focused on roof

  • However, collection area can be expanded to other parts of the house as well- driveways/pavements, for example


Filtration

Filtration

  • Water for different uses requires different levels of filtration

  • We thought it best to have one filtration system for the whole system

Sediment pre-filtration Carbon or multimedia fibre UV sterilization


Storage

Storage

Underground Above ground


Heating

Heating

  • Passivhaus requires consumption for electricity, heating and hot water be < 120kW/m2/year

  • Typically, solar thermal panel is used to provide heat for some of hot water needs- not an option for Unst

  • An inline water heater could be used


Design calculations

Design calculations

http://www.rainharvesting.co.uk/pages/design/dsgn4.html

Roof area = Width x Length of roof = 152.29m2

Run-off coefficient = 0.75 for pitched roof

Filter efficiency = 85% (A conservative estimate- example calculations typically gave efficiency as 90+%)

Rainwater yield (Litres/year) = Roof area (m2) x Annual rainfall (mm) x Run-off coefficient x Filter efficiency

Rainwater yield = 118,443L/year

-not enough


Possible solutions

Possible solutions…

  • Grey water harvesting

  • Sea water


The next steps of design

The next steps of design

  • Complete the day lighting calculations and install low energy bulbs into the DiaLUXsoftware

  • PV cells result

  • Confirm the water manage design

  • Finalise the energy systems calculations which are incorporated within the design

  • Work on the MVHR system for the building.

  • Finalise Electrical consumption

  • Choose turbine & manufacturer.


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