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[16469] Low Energy Building Design. Critique 2. Adam Boney , Fraser Cassels , Marc Breslin and Nick Burns. Our Design. 1 st Floor. Construction method: Timber Framing. Required minimal energy to process material Carbon neutral material

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16469 low energy building design

[16469] Low Energy Building Design

Critique 2

Adam Boney, Fraser Cassels, Marc Breslin and Nick Burns

our design
Our Design

1st Floor

construction method timber framing
Construction method: Timber Framing
  • Required minimal energy to process material
  • Carbon neutral material
  • Allows a greater thickness for external walls therefore significantly greater U values
  • Can be sourced from local companies on the Shetland island

Insulation : 2 possibilities

U value target : 0.1 – 0.15 W/m K

  • Cellulose Insulation:
  • Sustainable and low embodied energy
  • 80% recycled paper
  • 20% less energy to manufacture than other fibres
  • Thermal conductivity 0.035 – 0.04 W/m K
  • Sheep’s Wool:
  • Sustainable material which can be locally provided
  • 14% of the energy used to manufacture glass fibre
  • Thermal conductivity 0.04 w / m K

Draught proofing and thermal envelope

  • External door and garage are excluded from the thermal envelope.
  • Insulation installed below the concrete floor slab
  • Wall insulation continues down to bottom of concrete slab to prevent thermal bridging
  • Gaps filled with foam sealants

Diagram above shows main sources of draughts.


Doors and Windows

  • High performance door threshold seals installed which seal air gaps reducing draughts and prevent water entering the building
  • Door draught extruders fitted to other side also
  • Windows are one of the weakest points thermally in building envelope
  • Install high performance triple glazed windows
  • Low emissivity glass U value 0.6 W/m
  • Provide wooden window frames giving a U value of 0.16 W /mK to reduce thermal bridging
  • Day lighting:
  • Reduces the amount of artificial light need
  • Benefits of natural day light
    • Increase performance
    • Reducing in energy cost
  • The disadvantages the natural light it our design
      • Window size
        • Glare
        • Heat loss
  • Brightness
      • Same brightness
      • Less wattage (about 1/3)
  • Costing
      • More expensive
      • Last longer
  • Brightness
      • Same brightness
      • Less wattage (about 1/10)
  • Cool lighting
      • reducing energy consumption
wind power
Wind Power
  • Shetland wind power- supply renewable energy
  • Turbines produced by 3 main manufacturers
  • Westwind Turbines
  • Proven Turbines
  • Evance Turbine
wind power1
Wind Power
  • Opting for a stand alone turbine:
    • Carry out comparison
    • Assess best supplier and turbine
    • Power calculation spreadsheet
    • P=0.5ρAV³ - www.REUK.co.uk
  • Average household water use is difficult to pin down
  • Average annual levels of consumption (m3):

Average use = 182,000L/year



1. Rainwater harvesting:

  • Plenty of rain in Unst- average rainfall/year is 1,220mm1
  • Systems can provide 100% of water demand, however this is rarely done

1. http://www.shetland.gov.uk/council/documents/18170-Shet-in-Statistics.pdf


Rainwater harvesting:

  • Variability within system design and details

Model agreements for sustainable water systems; CIRIA, 2004

  • Initial thoughts on collection area focused on roof
  • However, collection area can be expanded to other parts of the house as well- driveways/pavements, for example
  • Water for different uses requires different levels of filtration
  • We thought it best to have one filtration system for the whole system

Sediment pre-filtration Carbon or multimedia fibre UV sterilization


Underground Above ground

  • Passivhaus requires consumption for electricity, heating and hot water be < 120kW/m2/year
  • Typically, solar thermal panel is used to provide heat for some of hot water needs- not an option for Unst
  • An inline water heater could be used
design calculations
Design calculations


Roof area = Width x Length of roof = 152.29m2

Run-off coefficient = 0.75 for pitched roof

Filter efficiency = 85% (A conservative estimate- example calculations typically gave efficiency as 90+%)

Rainwater yield (Litres/year) = Roof area (m2) x Annual rainfall (mm) x Run-off coefficient x Filter efficiency

Rainwater yield = 118,443L/year

-not enough

possible solutions
Possible solutions…
  • Grey water harvesting
  • Sea water
the next steps of design
The next steps of design
  • Complete the day lighting calculations and install low energy bulbs into the DiaLUXsoftware
  • PV cells result
  • Confirm the water manage design
  • Finalise the energy systems calculations which are incorporated within the design
  • Work on the MVHR system for the building.
  • Finalise Electrical consumption
  • Choose turbine & manufacturer.