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Sustainable Building Design & Planning Brahmanand MOHANTY, Ph.D. Buildings are highly resource intensive Raw materials, energy, water 30-40% of world’s primary energy is used in buildings Construction Operation & maintenance High rise in demand for new construction Greenfield projects

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Sustainable building design planning l.jpg

Sustainable Building Design & Planning

Brahmanand MOHANTY, Ph.D.


Buildings resources the environment l.jpg

Buildings are highly resource intensive

Raw materials, energy, water

30-40% of world’s primary energy is used in buildings

Construction

Operation & maintenance

High rise in demand for new construction

Greenfield projects

Demolition of low-rise zones to create high-rise buildings

Adverse impacts of buildings on the environment

Contributing to greenhouse gas emissions

Depletion of resources & increase in waste generation

Buildings, resources & the environment

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Buildings, resources & the environment

Source: Sustainable Building and Construction Initiatives, 2006

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Design & development of energy efficient buildings

Reduced embodied energy of the building

Designing concepts & advanced materials to lower the operating energy

Aiming for carbon neutral buildings

High performance buildings (low energy or zero-energy)

Energy-positive buildings

Green buildings

Less resource intensive

Least impact on the environment

Improved quality, comfort & health of the inhabitants

Recent efforts to meet the challenge

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


Definition of a green building l.jpg

“A green building should create delight when entered, serenity and health when occupied and regret when departed”

- Natural Capitalism -

Definition of a green building

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Concept of sustainable architecture serenity and health when occupied and regret when departed”

Source: Sustainable Architecture and Building Design, 2002

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Market is ripe with cost effective concepts, technologies & products

To reduce the need for energy services

Optimized design

Site planning, shape, orientation, fenestration & shading, natural ventilation, passive cooling, etc.

Better implementation

Choice of material & technology, optimized insulation of walls & roofs, high performance glazing, artificial lighting & cooling solutions

To satisfy the needs with more efficient solutions

Improved end-use energy efficiency

Better artificial lighting & control

Better artificial cooling & control

Provision of energy services through alternative means & strategies

Cost effective concepts/tech./products

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


Designing sustainable building l.jpg

Overcoming the general perception of sustainable building being more expensive

More emphasis on adopting the right building science and less dependence on high-cost building technologies

A better scientific understanding of the way buildings work and avoiding high technological sophistication

The main challenge: To do more with less

Designing sustainable building

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Overall objective: Lower energy consumption and life-cycle costs

Start with building fabrics to lower energy demand (life span: 50-100 years)

Then look for devices to generate energy from renewables (life span: 10-20 years)

More capital needed for oversized renewable energy systems for a poorly designed building

Designing sustainable building

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


Designing sustainable building10 l.jpg

Example of application in cold climates costs

Very little energy demand for an airtight and super-insulated building; money required on energy supply technologies used to cover the additional cost of improving building fabric quality

Money saved by using hygroscopic materials to handle the indoor air humidity than mechanical ventilation (fans, ducts, grilles, and filters)

Designing sustainable building

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Heating of building costs

Radiative (heating by direct radiation) and convective (warming and circulating air)

Central (indirect) versus decentralized (direct) heating system

Electric heater vs. gas heater and efficient reverse-cycle heat pumps

Combustion-based heating systems

Boiler efficiency, system efficiency and efficient control system

Addition features such as larger heat exchangers, extra insulation, automatic operation of flue dampers, etc.

Combined heat and power

Provision of electricity and heat with high overall efficiency

Energy efficient technologies in buildings

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Cooling of building costs

Passive cooling (ventilation and thermal mass) or use of low energy mechanical systems (fans, evaporating cooling

Mechanical cooling in extreme climatic conditions

Mechanical/electrical vapour compression chiller

Vapour absorption chiller requiring heat as energy source (e.g. exhaust heat from power generator of cogeneration plant)

Simultaneous heating and cooling system

Heat recovered from cooled space for the space to be heated

Energy efficient technologies in buildings

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


Energy efficient technologies in buildings13 l.jpg

Lighting of building costs

Optimizing daylight through fenestration (light shelves, louvers, prismatic glazing)

Daylight through roof (light well, atria, or light pipe)

Energy efficient lighting devices

Depending on the type of illumination required

Accent lighting versus task lighting

Proper lighting control

Zoning of lighting system, timer based switching, occupancy detectors, daylight sensing, etc.

Energy efficient technologies in buildings

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Electrical appliances in building costs

Choice of right type and size of white goods (refrigerator, freezer, clothes washer, etc.)

Purchase of energy efficient home and office appliances

Reduction of standby power by switching off appliances

Building energy management system

Better monitoring and control of energy use in the entire building

Energy efficient technologies in buildings

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Embodied energy of construction materials costs

Building materials classified into 5 groups

Renewable materials from photosynthesis/biology (natural timber, wool, etc.)

Materials extracted with minimal processing (earth, sand and gravel)

Extracted and processed materials (lime, plaster, stone, slate and brick)

Extracted and highly processed materials (steel, cement, glass and plastics)

Recycled materials (reused timber, brick, aggregate, steel, glass and insulation)

Appropriate building materials

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Typical materials and systems used as walls costs

Double brick wall

Reverse masonry veneer

Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC blocks)

Concrete block

Insulated concrete

Lightweight timber

Panel systems

Appropriate building materials

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Alternative materials used as walls costs

Mud brick (adobe)

Rammed earth (pisé)

Earth bermed

Straw bale

Appropriate building materials

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Typical materials for roofing and flooring costs

Tiles

Metal sheeting

Green roofs

Concrete slab floors

Earth covered

Appropriate building materials

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Composite materials costs

Lightweight walls with heavyweight floor

Lightweight floor with heavyweight walls

Lightweight walls and floors with water mass

Thermal performance of windows

Increasing the number of glazing layers

Increasing the size of the cavity between the sheets of glass

Replacing the air in the cavity with argon or krypton gas

Applying a low emissivity layer to one or more panes of glass

Appropriate building materials

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Solar thermal system costs

Flat-plate versus evacuated-tube collector

Open versus closed circuit

Passive versus active system

Solar boosted heat pump

Solar photovoltaic system

Crystalline or amorphous silicon

Unframed laminate or framed

Building integrated photovoltaic system (BIPV)

Application of renewable energy

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Wind generators/turbines costs

Installed on rooftops on high towers to capture wind

Turbine axis in horizontal or vertical plane

Small wind generators classification

Low or high voltage turbines (provide heat, pump water or drive suitable motor, without battery)

Low voltage (12, 24, 36 or 48V) turbines (charge battery and power low voltage lights, appliances and pump water, mainly in off-grid mode

Low voltage turbines (charge batteries and use inverter to power high voltage appliances

High voltage turbines (115 or 230V) using special inverter (feed into electric grid)

Application of renewable energy

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Triple bottom line costs

Money saving, better comfort and quality of life and low environmental pollution

Studies conducted to assess the benefits of LEED certified buildings in USA

Lower operating costs

Efficient asset management, increased occupant productivity and well being and less staff turnover

Average construction cost premium very low (0-10%) and high savings over building lifetime

Benefits of sustainable building design

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Study conducted by CII-India costs

Green buildings consumed 30-50% less energy

Incremental costs in the range of 5-8% with payback period of 3 to 5 years

Better human visual and thermal comfort and higher productivity

Comparison of three LEED platinum rated buildings

Benefits of sustainable building design

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Conclusion of study by CII-India costs

With rapid market transformation, further lowering of incremental costs

ITC’s Platinum rated office building

WIPRO’s platinum rated development centre

CII’s platinum rated Green Building Centre

Benefits of sustainable building design

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


Examples of sustainable building design l.jpg

ING office building in Amsterdam costs

One of the pioneer sustainable building

Features of the building

Absence of air conditioning system

Use of massive 18” interior walls to act as insulator and building flushed with night air

Building energy consumption one-tenth of its predecessors and one-fifth of new office building

Annual energy cost savings of US$2.9 million compared to costs of additional features of US$700,000 (payback time of only 3 months)

Productivity gains through lower absenteeism

Examples of sustainable building design

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Office building in Melbourne, Australia costs

Refurbished with 87% of the building structure recycled and awarded 6 green star- office design rating

Project achievements

70% reduction in energy use compared to conventional office buildings

82% reduction in piped water use

72% reduction in sewer discharge

Examples of sustainable building design

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Governments have major influence in promoting green buildings

Own and occupy vast amount of space

Can lead the way and set good example for citizens and private developers

Example of government initiatives

Low-energy and zero-energy office buildings initiated by the Government of Malaysia

Govt. role in promoting green building

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Low energy office building buildings

Key data

Gross floor area: 20 000 m2

Energy performance index: 114 kWh/m2/year

Addition cost to construct: 5%

Annual energy savings: RM 600 000

Payback period: 5 years

Govt. role in promoting green building

  • Energy efficiency features

    • Orientation & building envelope insulation

    • Energy efficient lighting, ventilation & office appliances

    • Energy management system

Ministry of Energy, Water & Telecommunications, Malaysia

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Zero energy office building buildings

Key data

Gross floor area: 4 000 m2

Energy performance index: 35 kWh/m2/year (excluding solar PV)

Energy performance index: 0 kWh/m2/year (including solar PV)

Addition cost to construct: 21% (excluding solar PV)

Addition cost to construct: 45% (including solar PV)

Govt. role in promoting green building

  • Energy efficiency features

    • Building envelope insulation & double glazing

    • Almost 100% daylighting & task lighting

    • Energy efficient ventilation & floor slab cooling

    • Energy efficient appliances

    • Energy management system

Recently completed Malaysia Energy Centre

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Thailand government support for existing residential homes buildings

Study the house design

Provide advice through expert team for improving energy efficiency

Extend financial support up to 30% of the actual improvement costs

Govt. role in promoting green building

  • Support from national energy agency (DEDE) for the construction of energy efficient new residential homes

    • Detailed design of 3 types of individual houses of different sizes and costs based on detailed study carried out by experts

    • Construction permit given by concerned authorities in a short time

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Municipal energy plan for Almaty (2005-06) buildings

Several energy audits to initiate demonstration projects

Small revolving fund created to lend money to carry out retrofits on existing buildings

Results of demonstration projects

Possible to reduce energy consumption of municipal buildings by 20 to 25%

Reduce overall energy bill by 4.4 to 5 million US$ per annum

Govt. role in promoting green building

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


Govt role in promoting green building32 l.jpg

CESE, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur buildings

Govt. role in promoting green building

  • Energy efficiency features

    • Building envelope

      • Cavity wall with insulation

      • Insulated & shaded roof

      • Double glazed & shaded windows

    • Lighting system

      • Efficient fixtures

      • Efficient lamps

      • Daylight integration

    • HVAC system

      • Load calculated with optimized envelope & lighting system

      • Efficient chillers

      • Efficient condensing system

      • Use of geothermal cooling

EPI = 240 kWh/m2.annum

Envelope optimization

EPI = 208 kWh/m2.annum

Lighting optimization

EPI = 168 kWh/m2.annum

HVAC optimization

EPI = 133 kWh/m2.annum

Control systems

EPI = 98 kWh/m2.annum

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Barriers to achieving energy efficiency and sustainability buildings

Lack of legislation, unavailability of information, high first-costs, market failures, etc.

Effectiveness of policy instruments

If introduced and enforced effectively

Need for other supporting policy instruments to overcome other barriers

Two types of regulatory and control instruments

Normative (building codes, appliance standards, regulation for procurement and setting of energy efficiency obligations and quota)

Informative (mandatory audit, mandatory labelling and certification, utility demand side management)

Regulatory and control measures

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Energy conservation building codes buildings

Building codes implemented around the world in 2005 (Source: UNEP, 2007)

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Most popular instrument in reducing energy use buildings

On-going process in many countries since early 1990’s

Mainly for air conditioned commercial buildings, but also for non-air conditioned spaces as well as residential buildings

Compliance is mandatory/voluntary in nature & periodical updating

Effectiveness of building codes

Building codes in many developing countries are less effective due to inadequate resources and efforts for their implementation

Difficult to implement if the awareness is low, professionals are not trained, products are not in the market, demonstration projects are not commissioned or incentive measures not announced

Most building codes are designed for new construction and are not applicable to existing building stock

Energy conservation building codes

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


Energy efficiency building codes l.jpg

Types of building codes buildings

Prescriptive

Building envelope (walls, roofs, windows) – OTTV & RTTV

Lighting (natural & artificial) – Maximum power density

Heating, ventilation & air conditioning – kW/RT

Service water heating & pumping

Electrical systems & appliances (transformers, household & office appliances)

Overall performance-based

Prescribe an annual energy consumption or energy cost budget, providing scope for innovation

Fresh air

intake

Air ducts

Solar

Radiation

20%

Cooling load

60%

Thermal radiation

Air

handling

unit

Convection

Supply air

Return air

Evaporator

Water

chiller

Cooling

tower

Compressor

Condenser

Electric power

Energy efficiency building codes

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Energy standard & label for building, materials & equipment buildings

Labelling of energy efficient appliances

Compliance is either voluntary & mandatory

Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS)

Appliance energy efficiency standards

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Public authorities are single-largest energy consumers in many countries

Procurement regulation can be mandatory or voluntary

USA’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) one of the most stringent legislative frameworks for procurement

China’s energy efficiency procurement law modelled after the US FEMP

Procurement regulations more effective in countries facing energy shortages and high energy prices

Energy efficiency public procurement

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Three categories of supporting policies and programmes many countries

Economic or market-based instruments

Initiated by regulatory incentives and involve voluntary action, such as cooperative procurement, energy performance contracting, energy efficiency certificate schemes, and Kyoto flexible mechanism

Fiscal instruments and incentives

Support to overcome first-cost related barriers or market failures, such as taxation, tax exemption/reduction, capital subsidy, grant, subsidized loan, and public benefit charges

Support, information and voluntary action

Persuade consumers to change their behaviour through awareness raising, information campaigns, education and training of building professional, and public leadership programs

Supporting policies and programmes

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Economic or market-based instruments many countries

Energy performance contracting

Contractor guarantees the energy savings in building and is paid from the actual cost reductions achieved

Cooperative or technical procurement

Public or private decision-maker procures large quantities of energy consuming equipment in order to trigger market for more efficient products

Energy efficiency certificate (or white certificate)

Saving obligations imposed on energy suppliers who fulfil it by claiming for end-use energy efficiency measures, either through their own initiatives or through trading of saving certificates

Supporting policies and programmes

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Fiscal instruments and incentives many countries

Tax exemptions or reductions

Adopted for advanced technologies where first-cost is a major barrier; should pay for results according to performance

Energy and carbon tax

Reinforce the impact of standards and subsidies or make energy efficiency investment more profitable; effective when tax revenues are ploughed back to support energy efficiency

Public benefit charges

A specific form of energy tax to raise funds from the operation of the energy market to undertake energy efficiency and DSM activities

Supporting policies and programmes

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Fiscal instruments and incentives many countries

Capital subsidies, grants, subsidized loans and rebates

Provided to overcome first-cost barriers (e.g. for house insulation in the UK)

Subsidized loans for ESCO activities (e.g. low-interest loan from the EC Revolving Fund in Thailand)

Subsidy program for a limited time or for a specific target to create a market for energy efficient equipment and appliances (e.g. limited-period rebate program in Denmark, subsequently adopted by Thailand)

Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness depends on the program design as there is high risk of some beneficiaries being “free-riders”

Supporting policies and programmes

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Support, information and voluntary action many countries

Public information and awareness campaigns

Aimed at changing individual behaviour, attitude and values

Increase the effectiveness and long-term impact of other policy instruments, mainly by reducing the rebound effects of regulatory and control policy measures

Activities include “Energy Information Centres”, consumption feedback surveys, special events for stakeholders, sensitization toolkits for teachers and activities for school children

More effective when followed up by linking them with professionals who can provide advisory services and assist in implementation

Information campaign more effective when targeted towards residential sector than the commercial sector

Supporting policies and programmes

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Support, information and voluntary action many countries

Training activities

Used as a tool to provide assistance for decision making, some times integrating with investment aid

Energy audit forms as a link between energy information provided to establishments and the grant aids available for EE investments

More effective when combined with other measures (e.g. financial incentives for architects undergoing training in Switzerland or job opportunity for installers/fitters qualified for EE work in the UK)

Public leadership program

Public EE programs are very cost-effective as they reduce energy consumption and costs

12 billion Euros per annum of energy saving potential in Europe

25% of energy savings over 15 years in Germany

4.8 GWh and 5.2 billion US$ saving per year in the USA

Supporting policies and programmes

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Retrofitting/rehabilitation of government buildings many countries

Example of public leadership in India

  • Energy audits conducted in important government buildings

    • President’s Office & Residence Complex

    • Prime Minister’s Office

    • Government Offices (Power, Railways, Telecommunications, Transport)

    • Medical Institute & Hospital Building

    • Airport Terminals

  • Assessed energy savings potential

    • Varying between 25 and 46%

    • Payback period: 1 to 4 years

  • Implementation of recommendations

    • Through Energy Service Companies (ESCOs)

President’s Office & Residence Complex

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO) many countries

Stakeholders often do not have knowledge and expertise and/or lack investment needed to implement cost-effective EE measures

Typical questions asked by public authorities

Is it possible to reduce energy costs without compromising service quality?

Can funds be mobilized for EE investments without the available financial resources?

How can the performance of newly invested equipment and facilities be monitored and controlled?

How to overcome investment risks while guaranteeing the expected results?

ESCOs are an answer to the above questions

ESCOs offer triple benefits: arrange financing and cover technical, financial and other risks associated with energy savings

Supporting policies and programmes

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO) many countries

Tools available to implement EE measures in buildings

Energy performance contracting (EPC)

Contractual agreement between beneficiary and ESCO to achieve energy saving target and performance: fee for service linked to EE investment and the period of contract

Third-party financing (TPF)

In addition to beneficiary and ESCO, a third party is involved to provide capital needed and charge a fee linked to energy savings

Debt-service for public/private beneficiary considered as operational expense and not a capital obligation

Supporting policies and programmes

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO) many countries

Tools available to implement EE measures in buildings

Leasing

Can be a type of TPF or ESCO-based financial offer

Should be part of a performance-based contract between beneficiary and ESCO (and where applicable, a third financing party)

Profit-sharing (project and/or O&M incentives)

ESCO remunerated on the basis of the energy and O&M costs it manages to reduce through better energy management and O&M practices

When contracting period is sufficiently long, ESCO invests on EE technologies to further reduce O&M costs and increase revenue

Supporting policies and programmes

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO) many countries

Five important steps for EE service contracting

1

Project development

2

Feasibility study

3

Purchasing process

5

Contract period

4

Implementation

Decision point 1

Decision point 2

Decision point 3

Supporting policies and programmes

Source: The PU-Benefs project (European Commission), 2005

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO) many countries

Typical barriers to ESCO development

No clarity in administrative and budgetary procedures concerning Energy Performance Contracting (EPC)

Lack of awareness and information

High transaction costs compared to expected profits and split incentives

Low energy prices, inadequate service levels

Lenders’ poor knowledge about advantages of EPC and lack access to financing due to ESCO’s poor creditworthiness

Need for government support for successful ESCO business

Supporting policies and programmes

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO) many countries

Ingredients for the success of ESCO business

Unsubsidized energy prices, transparent market, a trustworthy business environment, and a mature financing industry

Exemplary role of public sector in initiating EE reconstruction through ESCOs

Examples of benefits from EPC projects

Large number of examples around the world showing energy savings of 20-40% in buildings

In Germany, EPC projects in 31 federal real estates reduced energy costs by 34%

Savings potentials of 25-30% identified in municipal buildings in Hungary

Supporting policies and programmes

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


To sum up l.jpg

Impacts of integrated, whole building design practices many countries

Cost effectiveness & resource conservation

State-of-the-art strategy for sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection & indoor environmental quality

Increased first costs recovered within reasonable time period

Boost in employee productivity & occupants’ health, safety & well-being

Increased property value & high value for tenants; goodwill & publicity

Benefit to the communities - reduced need for resources & lower waste disposal costs - contributing to local economic development

Role of industry player and public authorities

Industry players increasingly adopting sustainable building practices as a result of demand from market consumers, investors, shareholders, the community

Public authorities can play an important role by adopting right policies and supporting measures, and setting up exemplary practices

To sum up…

Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning –

Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries


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