Maximizing Effectiveness Using Positive Behavior Support Methods in the Classroom:
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Maximizing Effectiveness Using Positive Behavior Support Methods in the Classroom: Ecological Adaptations. Objectives. Identify 3 main types of ecological adaptations in the classroom Identify 2 broad ways of adapting the environment Recognize both group and individual ecological adaptations

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Maximizing Effectiveness Using Positive Behavior Support Methods in the Classroom:Ecological Adaptations


Objectives
Objectives Methods in the Classroom:

  • Identify 3 main types of ecological adaptations in the classroom

  • Identify 2 broad ways of adapting the environment

  • Recognize both group and individual ecological adaptations

  • Make adaptations to environment


Three types of adaptations
Three types of Adaptations Methods in the Classroom:

Adaptations

Curriculum

Adapt what is taught

Instructional

Adapt how it is taught and how learning is demonstrated

Ecological

Adapt the setting – where, when, and with whom


Research shows that the most effective schools are those with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations. (Harry Wong, 1998)

Well Ordered

Elementary


Ecological adaptations
Ecological Adaptations with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Ecological adaptations involve modifying the environment (physical and interpersonal settings) rather than the curriculum or the instruction.

  • Curriculum and instructional adaptations depend on a sound environment

  • Ecological adaptations are necessary for curricular and instructional adaptations to be successful, but are not sufficient alone to change most problem behavior.


Ecological adaptations1
Ecological Adaptations with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • The purpose of ecological adaptations is to enable a student with social, behavioral, or emotional needs to cope with the demands of the environment while learning new skills.


Initial classroom assessment ecological factors
Initial Classroom Assessment: Ecological Factors with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.


Initial classroom assessment ecological factors1
Initial Classroom Assessment: Ecological Factors with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.


Initial classroom assessment ecological factors2
Initial Classroom Assessment: Ecological Factors with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.


Aspects of effective classroom climate
Aspects of Effective Classroom Climate with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Social Environment

    • The interaction patterns you promote in the classroom

  • Organizational Environment

    • The physical or visual arrangement of the classroom

  • Because goals change from lesson to lesson and week to week, so too must your classroom climate that supports the goals


Social environment
Social Environment with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Authoritarian

    • Teacher is the primary provider of information, opinions, and instruction

  • Shared Responsibilities

    • Students are given freedom of choice and judgment under your direction

  • Laissez-faire

    • Students are the primary provider of information, opinions, and instruction


Classroom social climate
Classroom (Social) Climate with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Types

    • Competitive

    • Cooperative

    • Individualistic

  • Targets

    • Full Class

    • Groups

    • Individual

What is my Classroom

Social Climate?


Competitive climate
Competitive Climate with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Students compete for right answers among themselves or with a standard established by teacher. The teacher is the sole judge of the appropriateness of a response.

  • Example Activity: Drill and practice

  • Authority Vested in Students: None

  • Authority Vested in Teacher: To reorganize the instruction, present the stimulus material, and evaluate correctness of responses


Targets competitive
Targets: Competitive with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Full Class: Students compete with other students by having the correct answer when it’s their turn.

  • Groups: Subgroups compete against each other as opposing teams.

  • Individual: Individuals compete with each other by having to respond to the same question. The quickest most accurate response “wins.”


Cooperative climate
Cooperative Climate with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Students engage in dialogue that is monitored by the teacher. The teacher systematically intervenes in the discussion to sharpen ideas and move the discussion to a higher level.

  • Example Activity: Small and large group discussion

  • Authority Vested in Students: To present opinions, to provide ideas, and to speak and discuss freely and spontaneously

  • Authority Vested in Teacher: To stimulate the discussion, arbitrate differences, organize and summarize student contributions


Targets cooperative
Targets: Cooperative with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Full Class: Students are allowed to call out hints or clues when a student is having difficulty finding the right answer.

  • Groups: Subgroups work on different but related aspects of a topic combining their results into a final report to the class.

  • Individual: Pairs of individuals cooperate by exchanging papers, sharing responses, or correcting each other’s errors.


Individualistic climate
Individualistic Climate with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Students complete assignments monitored by the teacher. Students are encouraged to complete the assignment with the answers they think are best. Emphasis is on getting through and testing one’s self.

  • Example Activity: Independent seatwork

  • Authority Vested in Students: To complete the assignment with the best possible responses

  • Authority Vested in Teacher: To assign the work and see that orderly progress is made toward its completion


Targets individualistic
Targets: Individualistic with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Full Class: The entire class recites answers in unison.

  • Groups: Each subgroup completes its own assigned topic that is independent of the topics assigned the other subgroups. No shared report is given to the class.

  • Individual: Individuals complete seatwork on their own without direct teacher involvement.


Organizational environment
Organizational Environment with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • The social climate created by your words and actions always should match the organizational climate created by the physical arrangement of your classroom.

  • Where, When, and Who


Ecological adaptations2
Ecological Adaptations with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

Three types of ecological adaptations

Who

Adapt the staff or grouping

When

Adapt the schedule

Where

Adapt the place


Activity self check on your physical space
Activity: Self-Check with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations. on your Physical Space

  • How many students will you have in the room at one time?

  • How should your pupil’s seats be grouped?

  • What kinds of activities will be taking place in your classroom?

  • Do any students need to be isolated? If so, is it for certain activities or for most of the day?

  • How is movement in the classroom to be regulated?

  • What can you do to create a sense of well-being and safety for your students in your classroom?


Helpful hints physical space
Helpful Hints: Physical Space with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Classrooms should contain options for students

    • e.g., quiet work areas, group interaction areas, and whole-class discussion areas

  • Interest areas should be clearly defined

  • Areas should be located within easy access of any external requirements

    • e.g., water, electrical outlets, quiet

  • Incompatible activities should be separated

    • e.g., creative dramatics and listening centers

  • Areas should be clearly labeled and easy to see


Helpful hints physical space cont
Helpful Hints: Physical Space cont with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations. .

  • Aisles and pathways should be clear and not pass through work areas

  • Large, open spaces that may invite inappropriate physical activities should be avoided

  • The teacher’s desk should be located out of the way to encourage the teacher’s movement around the room

  • Instructional materials should be accessible and easily retrieved


Classroom arrangements
Classroom Arrangements with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

Desks in rows

Desks in a horseshoe


Classroom arrangements1
Classroom Arrangements with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

Desks in clusters

Desks in circles


Overview where
Overview: Where with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Change the place

    • Provide access to privacy for a student has difficulty concentrating or staying on task (study carrel, trip to another teacher’s room)

    • Minimize congestion and clear traffic lanes

    • Groups/stations positioned to minimize distractions

    • Clear lines of vision to the students

    • Students see all instructional displays

    • Behavioral expectations clearly posted

    • Create a background sense of well-being and safety within classroom


Where strategies
Where: Strategies with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Social Interpretation or Reframing (Maag, 1999)

    • Helps students understand the meaning of and clarify their thinking regarding behavior that is directed toward them

  • Relationship Transfer

    • Using a positive relationship between two people to engender other relationships that can assist a fearful student in adapting to a new setting

  • Positive Unconditional Regard (i.e., Respect)

    • Exhibiting ongoing respect and caring for a student regardless of the student’s successes or failures


Where strategies1
Where: Strategies with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Use of Literature

    • Having students identify with characters in a novel or story and experience a different understanding of their difficulties or new solutions to their own problems

  • Rapport building

    • Verbally and nonverbally communicating interest in a student and in his/her life situations

  • Debriefing

    • Student reflects on his/her own behavior with teacher

  • Behavioral momentum

    • Positioning a usually resisted request after a series of requests that have a high probability of compliance


Where group example
Where - Group Example with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • After minimizing classroom congestion, clearing the traffic lanes, establishing groups/stations across the room, and clearing the lines of vision to the students, Mrs. Andrews began focusing on establishing a caring classroom environment. She began making positive phone calls home, made a point to check in with each and every student every morning to see how they were doing to build rapport.


Where individual example
Where - Individual Example with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Student Snapshot

  • Andyis a 9 year old in a V.E. classroom. He is an intelligent and conscientious boy who experiences a significant amount of frustration in his work. During independent seatwork his frustration at becoming distracted by those around him leads to self-injurious behavior.

  • Hypothesis – When there is movement and noise around him during seatwork, Andy becomes distracted and engages in self-injurious behavior to get himself to attend to the task at hand.

  • Curriculum adaptations – Andy was given the opportunity to work at his regular desk, or in a study carrel. When Andy became distracted, he could move to the carrel where he could complete his work without distractions.


Ecological adaptations3
Ecological Adaptations with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

Three types of ecological adaptations

Who

Adapt the staff or grouping

When

Adapt the schedule

Where

Adapt the place


Overview when
Overview: When with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Change the schedule

    • Opportunities for choice and reasonable control

    • Adapt daily schedule to provide additional breaks (e.g., rest and break options, neutralize routines)

    • Daily class schedule posted

    • Individual student schedules are developed if needed (e.g., creative scheduling)

    • Visuals are used if necessary

    • Procedures for transition times and non-transition times are posted

    • Label, label, label

    • Predictable routines and signals

    • Anticipation cues

    • Color code information


When strategies
When: Strategies with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Opportunities for Choice and Reasonable Control

    • Providing options within academic and work tasks and within daily routines

  • Predictability

    • Clarify the daily class schedule, specific activity expectations, and activity beginning and end points

  • Rest and Break Options

    • Providing the student a choice to move to another area of the room or a separate setting to spend a few minutes in a relaxing activity or posture


When strategies1
When: Strategies with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Anticipation Cues

    • Once identified what triggers behavior, teacher removes or alters cues to change the way a student responds

  • Creative Scheduling

    • Arranging and rearranging events during the day to a particular student’s rhythm, pace, and preferences

  • Neutralize Routines (Horner, Day & Day, 1997)

    • Planned opportunities for a student to regain his or her composure through engaging in an activity that is known to help reinstate calm and reorient the student to the task at hand


When group example
When - Group Example with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Ms. Johns labeled her entire classroom (stations, bins, materials) for the students to see, posted the daily schedule at eye-level in large font, and began using a 5-minute warning to assist students in wrapping up their current activity. With these pieces in place, it was easier to offer students choices between activities (e.g., computer center, independent seatwork, or listening center) throughout the day.


When individual example
When - Individual Example with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Student Snapshot

  • Demetriusis an engaging 8 yr. old boy in a classroom for students with mild to moderate mental retardation. During group activities such as circle group, story time, Demetrius is engaged. During independent work activities, especially those which require him to remain seated, Demetrius becomes disruptive.

  • Hypothesis –During activities to be completed independently, Demetrius becomes disruptive to get attention from others.

  • Curriculum adaptations – The schedule was adjusted to ensure that independent activities were alternated with interactive activities. A picture schedule was developed to cue Demetrius that a preferred activity is coming up.


Ecological adaptations4
Ecological Adaptations with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

Three types of ecological adaptations

When

Adapt the schedule

Who

Adapt the staff or grouping

Where

Adapt the place


Overview who
Overview: Who with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Change the people

    • Use a different teacher for a particular subject or activity

    • Find opportunities for a student to spend extra time with preferred adults or peers

    • Reduce the adult-to-student ratio (i.e., provide opportunities for individualized attention)

    • Change the number of peers with whom the student is grouped for instruction

    • Friendships between students with and without disabilities is promoted

    • Opportunities for social inclusion is provided to students with disabilities

    • Mechanisms are in place for daily communication between student and teacher


Who strategies
Who: Strategies with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Peer Buddy Arrangements

    • One student assisting another student for behavioral, academic and/or social purposes

  • Cooperative Learning Activities

  • (Sapon-Shevin, Ayers & Duncan, 1994)

    • Provides social and academic benefits – everyone is good at something and can help others

  • Classwide Peer Tutoring

  • (Greenwood, Delquadri & Carta, 1998)

    • All students receive and provide tutoring


Who strategies continued
Who: Strategies with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations. (continued)

  • Base groups

  • (Jones & Jones, 1998)

    • Fosters a sense of community among a group of students by having them check on each other’s understanding of their work and their progress

  • Extracurricular activities

  • Peer mediators

  • (Bodine & Crawford, 1998)

    • Use negotiation, mediation, and consensus decision-making processes and skills to resolve inter-peer conflicts

  • Positive Communication between Educators and Family

    • Developing home-school partnerships


Who group example
Who - Group Example with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Mr. Adams noticed that his math class did not seem to get along well with each other. To increase peer relations within his classroom, he incorporated class-wide peer tutoring by having his students work on math problems for 15-20 minutes, intermittently exchanging roles that they learned while Mr. Adams modeled the process one day. Then on Wednesdays, he has the students break into their established base groups (groups of 4) for 15-20 minutes to check on everybody’s understanding of each other’s work and progress.


Who individual example
Who - Individual Example with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations.

  • Student Snapshot

  • Alenais a 15 yr. old student diagnosed with autism who is mainstreamed in regular classes. In math and science Alena is frequently non-compliant and occasionally becomes disruptive. In language arts Alena participates appropriately. Teachers recognized that during math and science classes there are in excess of 30 students per class, while in language arts, there are only 20.

  • Hypothesis –When working with a large group of students, Alena is disruptive to get attention from the teacher.

  • Curriculum adaptations – Alena was switched to math and science classes that contained fewer students to enable the teacher to give her the additional attention she needed to be successful in the class.


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