What is salient in binocular rivalry
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What is salient in binocular rivalry. Fumihiko Taya* and Ken Mogi**, *Department of Physiology1, Osaka University Medical School **Sony Computer Science Laboratory. Abstract. We studied what stimulus features count as salient in binocular rivalry.

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What is salient in binocular rivalry

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What is salient in binocular rivalry

Fumihiko Taya* and Ken Mogi**,

*Department of Physiology1, Osaka University Medical School

**Sony Computer Science Laboratory


Abstract

  • We studied what stimulus features count as salient in binocular rivalry.

  • We found that motion is very salient and is a determining factor in the ocular dominance pattern in binocular rivalry.

  • We arrive at a model of binocular rivalry involving three layers.


Neural correlates with the ocular dominance pattern in binocular rivalry

  • Logothetis et al., 1989

  • Leopold et al., 1996

  • Kovacs et al., 1996

  • Sheinberg et al., 1997

  • Tononi et al., 1997

  • Fries et al., 1997

  • Lumer et al., 1998


Studies on binocular rivalry

  • Studies on binocular rivalry has been conducted in an “all-or-none” paradigm, neglecting the spatial heterogeneity of the dominance pattern.

  • Here, we investigate the spatio-temporal structure of ocular dominance pattern in binocular rivalry.


Method(1/2)

Left eye

Right eye

Indicator

Fixation point

Phase difference

Visual awareness


Methods (2/2)

  • Stimulus we used were:

    • Circles moving at a speed of 2.2 degrees/s

    • Stationary circles

  • We presented rivalrous images to each eyes (visual angle 11 degrees) with Crystal Eyes (StereoGraphics Corporation, Washington D.C., US).

  • Monitor: FlexScan E67T (Eizo) at 150 frames/s.


Visual awareness in binocular rivalry

  • Both of the moving circles were always present in visual awareness

    • Down to 0.3 degrees per second

    • Up to 20 degrees per second

  • Sometimes one or both of the stationary circles disappeared from visual awareness


Change of visual awareness:moving circles

Time


Change of visual awareness:stationary circles


Average number of circles seen in the moving and stationary conditions


Quantitative Analysis

  • Subjects were requested to report the perceived color at the position of an indicator which flashed in several position on the screen.


Results: 180 degrees


Results: 72 degrees


Results: 0 degrees


Results: left eye


Results: right eye


Summary of results

  • The spatio-temporal dominance pattern was strongly influenced by the presence of moving circles.

  • The visual system behaves as dynamical adaptive system to represent the salient features at any given psychological moment.


Method

Left eye

Right eye

Indicator

Fixation point

Visual awareness


Results: the effective range of moving circles


Results

  • The effective range of moving circle was about 2.2 degrees, namely the effect of salient features remained for about 1 second.

  • The salient feature only had effect on the subsequent visual awareness.

  • The prediction had no effect on determining the ocular dominance pattern.


Change of visual awareness:Interactive operation

Time


Result: move circles voluntarily


Attention

Salient features

Visual qualia

Three phenomenological layers

Visual Awareness


Conclusion


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