What is salient in binocular rivalry
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What is salient in binocular rivalry. Fumihiko Taya* and Ken Mogi**, *Department of Physiology1, Osaka University Medical School **Sony Computer Science Laboratory. Abstract. We studied what stimulus features count as salient in binocular rivalry.

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What is salient in binocular rivalry

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What is salient in binocular rivalry

What is salient in binocular rivalry

Fumihiko Taya* and Ken Mogi**,

*Department of Physiology1, Osaka University Medical School

**Sony Computer Science Laboratory


Abstract

Abstract

  • We studied what stimulus features count as salient in binocular rivalry.

  • We found that motion is very salient and is a determining factor in the ocular dominance pattern in binocular rivalry.

  • We arrive at a model of binocular rivalry involving three layers.


Neural correlates with the ocular dominance pattern in binocular rivalry

Neural correlates with the ocular dominance pattern in binocular rivalry

  • Logothetis et al., 1989

  • Leopold et al., 1996

  • Kovacs et al., 1996

  • Sheinberg et al., 1997

  • Tononi et al., 1997

  • Fries et al., 1997

  • Lumer et al., 1998


Studies on binocular rivalry

Studies on binocular rivalry

  • Studies on binocular rivalry has been conducted in an “all-or-none” paradigm, neglecting the spatial heterogeneity of the dominance pattern.

  • Here, we investigate the spatio-temporal structure of ocular dominance pattern in binocular rivalry.


Method 1 2

Method(1/2)

Left eye

Right eye

Indicator

Fixation point

Phase difference

Visual awareness


Methods 2 2

Methods (2/2)

  • Stimulus we used were:

    • Circles moving at a speed of 2.2 degrees/s

    • Stationary circles

  • We presented rivalrous images to each eyes (visual angle 11 degrees) with Crystal Eyes (StereoGraphics Corporation, Washington D.C., US).

  • Monitor: FlexScan E67T (Eizo) at 150 frames/s.


Visual awareness in binocular rivalry

Visual awareness in binocular rivalry

  • Both of the moving circles were always present in visual awareness

    • Down to 0.3 degrees per second

    • Up to 20 degrees per second

  • Sometimes one or both of the stationary circles disappeared from visual awareness


Change of visual awareness moving circles

Change of visual awareness:moving circles

Time


Change of visual awareness stationary circles

Change of visual awareness:stationary circles


Average number of circles seen in the moving and stationary conditions

Average number of circles seen in the moving and stationary conditions


Quantitative analysis

Quantitative Analysis

  • Subjects were requested to report the perceived color at the position of an indicator which flashed in several position on the screen.


Results 180 degrees

Results: 180 degrees


Results 72 degrees

Results: 72 degrees


Results 0 degrees

Results: 0 degrees


Results left eye

Results: left eye


Results right eye

Results: right eye


Summary of results

Summary of results

  • The spatio-temporal dominance pattern was strongly influenced by the presence of moving circles.

  • The visual system behaves as dynamical adaptive system to represent the salient features at any given psychological moment.


Method

Method

Left eye

Right eye

Indicator

Fixation point

Visual awareness


Results the effective range of moving circles

Results: the effective range of moving circles


Results

Results

  • The effective range of moving circle was about 2.2 degrees, namely the effect of salient features remained for about 1 second.

  • The salient feature only had effect on the subsequent visual awareness.

  • The prediction had no effect on determining the ocular dominance pattern.


Change of visual awareness interactive operation

Change of visual awareness:Interactive operation

Time


Result move circles voluntarily

Result: move circles voluntarily


Three phenomenological layers

Attention

Salient features

Visual qualia

Three phenomenological layers

Visual Awareness


Conclusion

Conclusion


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