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Modern Philosophy. Part two. Baruch Spinoza. Background Early years The road to excommunication Lenses & philosophy Works. Spinoza: Goals & Methods. Goal: Freedom Ethics Method Ethics Foundation Assumptions. Spinoza: Epistemology. Truth Necessity Appearance of contingency Ideas

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baruch spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
  • Background
    • Early years
    • The road to excommunication
    • Lenses & philosophy
    • Works
spinoza goals methods
Spinoza: Goals & Methods
  • Goal: Freedom
    • Ethics
  • Method
    • Ethics
    • Foundation
    • Assumptions
spinoza epistemology
Spinoza: Epistemology
  • Truth
    • Necessity
    • Appearance of contingency
    • Ideas
    • Opinion/Imagination
    • Reason
    • Intuition
spinoza metaphysics
Spinoza: Metaphysics
  • Substance
    • Defining substance
    • Infinity
    • Defining God
    • Ontological Argument for God’s existence
    • God
    • Argument for one substance
    • Pantheism
    • Is God a Person
spinoza metaphysics1
Spinoza: Metaphysics
  • Atheist or Mystic
    • Labels
    • False Dilemma
  • Freedom & necessity
    • Apparent contradiction
    • Creation & Necessity
    • Two types of events
    • Free Will
spinoza metaphysics2
Spinoza: Metaphysics
  • Mind-Body problem
    • God’s attributes
    • Mind-Body
spinoza ethics
Spinoza: Ethics
  • Freedom
    • Overview
    • Method
    • Self Preservation
    • Self-awareness
    • The Mind
    • Comprehensive understanding
spinoza ethics1
Spinoza: Ethics
  • Good & Evil
    • Good & Evil
    • Self-preservation
  • Love & Immortality
    • Intellectual love of God
    • Immortality
spinoza criticism impact
Spinoza: Criticism/Impact
  • Conclusion
    • The Wise man
  • Criticism
    • Desirable
    • Coherent
  • Impact
    • Impact
    • 18th Century
    • 19th Century
    • 20th Century
leibniz background
Leibniz: Background
  • German Culture
    • Stagnant
  • Background for Leibniz
    • Early years
    • Professional career
    • Diplomacy
    • Works
leibniz goal method
Leibniz: Goal & Method
  • Goal
    • Unified
  • Logical Method
    • Logic
    • Method
    • Application of the method
    • Assumptions
leibniz epistemology
Leibniz: Epistemology
  • Innate Ideas
    • Against Locke
    • The Mind
    • Against the empiricists
leibniz epistemology necessity contingency
Leibniz: EpistemologyNecessity & Contingency
  • Truths of Reason & Truths of Fact
    • Truths of reason
    • Truths of fact
    • Necessary & contingent truths
    • Deduction
leibniz metaphysics god
Leibniz: MetaphysicsGod
  • God
    • Proofs for God’s existence
  • Proof of God’s existence by possibility & necessity
    • God
    • Perfection
    • Existence
  • Cosmological Argument
    • Two principles
    • Two kinds of truth
    • Sufficient Reason
    • God
leibniz metaphysics problem of evil
Leibniz: MetaphysicsProblem of Evil
  • Best of All Possible Worlds
    • The best world
    • God’s choice
    • Diversity
  • No Better Possible World
    • Intellectualist view
    • The Problem & Reply
    • The Best
    • Denial of pantheism
leibniz metaphysics problem of evil1
Leibniz: MetaphysicsProblem of Evil
  • Evil as Privation
    • The question
    • Origin of evil-the ancients
    • Origin of evil-intellectualist view
    • Understanding & necessity
  • Analogy of the Boats
    • Boats
    • The Analogy
    • Defects
leibniz metaphysics metaphysical points
Leibniz: MetaphysicsMetaphysical Points
  • Problems & Solutions
    • Introduction
    • Problems with Cartesian matter
    • Problems with Spinoza
    • Rejection of materialism
    • Phenomenology
    • Metaphysical Points
leibniz metaphysics monads
Leibniz: MetaphysicsMonads
  • Nature of Monads
    • Introduction
    • Minds
    • Perception
    • Continuity
    • The identity of indiscernibles
leibniz metaphysics monads1
Leibniz: MetaphysicsMonads
  • Windowless Monads
    • Windowless
  • Pre-Established harmony
    • Inner World
    • One World
  • Space & Time
    • Extended Things
    • Space & Time
leibniz metaphysics monads2
Leibniz: MetaphysicsMonads
  • Mind-Body Problem
    • Bodies
    • Interaction
  • Teleology & Mechanism
    • Reconciliation
    • Two Realms
  • Freedom & Determinism
    • Freedom
    • Compatibilism
leibniz metaphysics monads3
Leibniz: MetaphysicsMonads
  • The City of God
    • Souls
    • Why did God create the world?
    • Harmony, reward & punishment
    • Machinery of Justice
leibniz metaphysics problems impact
Leibniz: MetaphysicsProblems & Impact
  • Problems
    • The best of all possible worlds
    • Freedom
    • Collapse to Spinoza
  • Impact
    • Dominant
    • Lost potential
    • Universal, logically perfect language
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