Applications of eddy covariance measurements, Part 1:
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Applications of eddy covariance measurements, Part 1: Lecture on Analyzing and Interpreting CO 2 Flux Measurements. Dennis Baldocchi ESPM/Ecosystem Science Div. University of California, Berkeley. CarboEurope Summer Course, 2006 Namur, Belgium. Outline. Philosophy/Background Processing

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Dennis Baldocchi ESPM/Ecosystem Science Div. University of California, Berkeley

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Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Applications of eddy covariance measurements, Part 1:Lecture on Analyzing and Interpreting CO2 Flux Measurements

Dennis Baldocchi

ESPM/Ecosystem Science Div.

University of California, Berkeley

CarboEurope Summer Course, 2006

Namur, Belgium


Outline

Outline

  • Philosophy/Background

  • Processing

  • Time Series Analysis

    • Diurnal

    • Seasonal

    • Interannual

  • Flux Partitioning

    • Canopy photosynthesis

    • Ecosystem Respiration

  • Processes

    • Photosynthesis

      • f(T,PAR, LAI, soil moisture)

    • Respiration

      • f(photosynthesis, soil C &N, T, soil moisture, growth)

    • Functional Type

    • Disturbance

  • Space

    • Cross-Site Analyzes


Philosophy background

Philosophy/Background

  • Philosophy

    • What, How, Why, Will be?

  • BioPhysical Processes

    • Meteorology/Microclimate

      • Light, temperature, wind, humidity, pressure

    • Vegetation

      • Structure (height, leaf area index, leaf size)

      • Physiology (photosynthetic capacity, stomatal conductance)

    • Soil

      • Roots

      • Microbes

      • Abiotic conditions (soil moisture, temperature, chemistry, texture)

  • Spatial-Temporal Variability

    • Spatial

      • Vertical (canopy) and Horizontal (footprint, landscape, functional type, disturbance)

    • Temporal

      • Dynamics

      • Diurnal

      • Seasonal

      • Inter-annual


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

What a Tower Sees


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

What the Atmosphere Sees

Schulze, 2006 Biogeosciences


Eddy covariance

Eddy Covariance


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Reality


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

From the Field to your Dissertation


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Time Series Analysis: Raw Data


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Time Series: FingerPrint


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Time Series: Diurnal Pattern


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Time Series: Mean Diurnal Pattern


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Night time Biased Respiration


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

CO2 Storage ‘Flux’


Deciduous broadleaved forests

Deciduous Broadleaved Forests


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Fourier Transforms


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Time Series: Spectral Analysis

Baldocchi et al., 2001 AgForMet


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Stoy et al. 2005 Tree Physiol


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Time Series: Interannual Variability

Data of Wofsy, Munger, Goulden, Harvard Univ


Intern annual lag effects due to drought heat stress

Intern-annual Lag Effects Due to Drought/Heat Stress

Knohl et al Max Planck, Jena


Processes

Processes

  • Canopy Photosynthesis

    • Light

    • Temperature

    • Soil Moisture

    • Functional Type

  • Ecosystem Respiration

    • Temperature

    • Soil Moisture

    • Photosynthesis


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Concepts:

NEE and Environmental Drivers

From E. Falge


Pulses switches and lags are important too

Pulses, Switches and Lags are Important too!

  • They are Features of Complex Dynamical Systems

  • Biosphere is a Complex Dynamical System

    • Constituent Processes are Non-linear and Experience Non-Gaussian Forcing

    • Possess Scale-Emergent Properties

    • Experiences Variability Across a Spectrum of Time and Space Scales

    • Solutions are sensitive to initial conditions

    • Solutions are path dependent

    • Chaos or Self-Organization can Arise


Light and photosynthesis leaves canopies and emerging processes

Light and Photosynthesis:Leaves, Canopies and Emerging Processes


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

CO2 uptake-Light Response Curve: Crops

Linear Function and High r2 (~0.90)


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

CO2 uptake-Light Response Curve: Forest

Function is Non-Linear and Low r2 (~0.50)


Co 2 flux vs sunlight at different lai

CO2 flux vs Sunlight at different LAI

Xu and Baldocchi, 2003, AgForMet


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Use Theory to Interpret Complex Field Data Patterns


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Ac vs Qp: Daily Sums Become Linear!?

Leuning et al. 1995, PCE


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Role of Averaging Period:

Hourly vs Daily

Sims et al. AgForMet, 2005


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Role of Averaging Period:

Snap Shot vs Daily Integral

Sims et al 2005, AgForMet


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Canopy Light Response Curves: Effect of Diffuse Light


Co 2 flux and diffuse radiation

CO2 Flux and Diffuse Radiation

Niyogi et al., GRL 2004


C fluxes and remote sensing npp and ndvi of a grassland

C Fluxes and Remote Sensing: NPP and NDVI of a Grassland

Xu, Gilmanov, Baldocchi


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Rahman et al 2005 GRL


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Linking Water and Carbon:

Potential to assess Gc with Remote Sensing

Xu + DDB


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) plotted with daily NEE for 2004/2005

Land Surface Water Index LSWI = (ρ860 - ρ1640)/(ρ860 + ρ1640)

PRI and NEE

PRI = (r531 - r570) / (r531 + r570)

Falk, Baldocchi, Ma


Partitioning carbon fluxes

Partitioning Carbon Fluxes


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Law and Ryan, 2005, Biogeochemistry


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

De-Convolving Soil Respiration

Kuzyakov, 2006


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

From E. Falge


Deconstructing nep flux partitioning into r eco and gpp

Deconstructing NEP:Flux Partitioning into Recoand GPP

Falge et al

Xu and Baldocchi


Ecosystem respiration

Ecosystem Respiration

Is Q10 Conservative?

Xu + Baldocchi, AgForMet 2003


Environmental controls on respiration

Environmental Controls on Respiration

Xu + Baldocchi, AgForMet 2003


Rains pulse do not have equal impacts

Rains Pulse do not have Equal Impacts

Xu, Baldocchi Agri For Meteorol , 2004


Rain pulses heterotrophic respiration

Rain Pulses: Heterotrophic Respiration


Respiration time constant ppt

Respiration time Constant & ppt

Xu + DDB


Respiration and photosynthesis

Respiration and Photosynthesis

Tonzi Open areas

Tang, Baldocchi, Xu, Global Change Biology, 2005


Lags and leads in ps and resp diurnal

Lags and Leads in Ps and Resp: Diurnal

Tang et al, Global Change Biology 2005.


Cross site analyses

Cross-Site Analyses


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

What is Wrong with this Picture?

Valentini et al., 2000, Nature


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Longitudinal Gradients across Continents in T and ppt

Break the Relationship


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Falge et al., 2002


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Law et al 2002 AgForMet


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Temperature Acclimation

Falge et al; Baldocchi et al.


Respiration temperature and acclimation

Respiration: Temperature and acclimation

Analyst: Enquist et al. 2003, Nature


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Atkin


Spatial gradients nee and length of growing season

Spatial Gradients:NEE and Length of Growing Season


D re vs d gpp

DRe vs DGPP


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Soil Temperature:

An Objective Indicator of Phenology??

Data of Pilegaard et al.


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Soil Temperature:

An Objective Measure of Phenology, part 2

Data of: ddb, Wofsy, Pilegaard, Curtis, Black, Fuentes, Valentini, Knohl, Yamamoto. Granier, Schmid

Baldocchi et al. Int J. Biomet, in press


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Disturbance and Carbon Fluxes

Amiro et al., 2006


Dennis baldocchi espm ecosystem science div university of california berkeley

Coursolle et al. 2006


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