The Science and Ethics of Reproductive Cloning:
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The Science and Ethics of Reproductive Cloning: Introduction to the Science California Science Center April 15, 2006 Edward RB McCabe, MD, PhD Physician-in-Chief, Mattel Children’s Hospital at UCLA Co-Director, UCLA Center for Society and Genetics www.socgen.ucla.edu

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The Science and Ethics of Reproductive Cloning:Introduction to the ScienceCalifornia Science CenterApril 15, 2006

Edward RB McCabe, MD, PhD

Physician-in-Chief,

Mattel Children’s Hospital at UCLA

Co-Director,

UCLA Center for Society and Genetics

www.socgen.ucla.edu


Science of reproductive cloning l.jpg
Science of Reproductive Cloning

  • What is a clone?

  • How is a clone created?

  • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning?

  • Why clone animals and humans?

  • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed?

  • Who is doing this research and where?


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Science of Reproductive Cloning

  • What is a clone?

  • How is a clone created?

  • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning?

  • Why clone animals and humans?

  • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed?

  • Who is doing this research and where?


Clone l.jpg
Clone

  • A copy of

    • Gene

    • Animal

  • A clone of an animal

    • An exact genetic copy of the original

    • Equivalent to an identical twin


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Science of Reproductive Cloning

  • What is a clone?

  • How is a clone created?

  • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning?

  • Why clone animals and humans?

  • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed?

  • Who is doing this research and where?




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Science of Reproductive Cloning

  • What is a clone?

  • How is a clone created?

  • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning?

  • Why clone animals and humans?

  • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed?

  • Who is doing this research and where?


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Cloning

  • Therapeutic

    • To generate stem cells for use in Regenerative Medicine

  • Reproductive

    • To generate clonal organism(s) from an original individual


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Embryonic Stem Cells

  • Generated from

  • inner cell mass (ICM)

  • of embryo

  • Pluripotent or totipotent –

  • any cell can give rise to a

  • complete organism

  • ES cells in culture growing

  • on spindle-shaped fibroblast

  • feeder layer

  • Will differentiate into embryoid

  • bodies in culture


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Science of Reproductive Cloning

  • What is a clone?

  • How is a clone created?

  • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning?

  • Why clone animals and humans?

  • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed?

  • Who is doing this research and where?


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Why Clone Animals?

  • To generate protein therapeutics that are highly and reproducibly expressed from animal to animal

  • To be used to develop organs for transplantation into humans

  • To save endangered species from distinction

  • To reproduce desirable characteristics, such as speed in a race horse

    • To permit infertile animals with desirable features to reproduce


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Funny Cide

2003

Kentucky Derby

Taz

Champion Racing Mule

Preakness

Idaho Gem

Cloned from

Fetal Sib of

Taz


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Why Clone Humans?

  • To obtain human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) for Regenerative Medicine

  • To generate an identical twin of an existing or previously existing individual

  • To engineer the clone of an individual with a genetic disorder such that the clone would be identical except for the “repaired” gene


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Why Are Cloning and Embryonic Stem Cells Linked?

  • ES cells could be derived from donated, or “abandoned” or “orphaned” embryos

  • For transplantation of immunologically identical tissue

    • ES cells could be derived using SCNT from the individual who would receive the ES cell-derived tissue



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Science of Reproductive Cloning

  • What is a clone?

  • How is a clone created?

  • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning?

  • Why clone animals and humans?

  • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed?

  • Who is doing this research and where?


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Observations in Cloned Animals

  • Extremely low reproductive efficiency

  • High late fetal losses

  • Placental abnormalities

  • Increased birth size

    • Large offspring syndrome

      • Risk to mother and offspring

  • High early neonatal death rates

    • Respiratory deaths


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Science of Reproductive Cloning

  • What is a clone?

  • How is a clone created?

  • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning?

  • Why clone animals and humans?

  • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed?

  • Who is doing this research and where?



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hESC Policies Human EmbryosHoffman, University of Minnesota


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Stem Cell Research Centers Human EmbryosHoffman, University of Minnesota


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Summary Human Embryos

  • What is a clone?

  • How is a clone created?

  • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning?

  • Why clone animals and humans?

  • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed?

  • Who is doing this research and where?


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