An introduction to the human body
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An Introduction to the Human Body. Chapter 1. Anatomy. Study of structure or morphology Study of relationships among structures Derived from the Greek words Anatome – to dissect Ana – apart Tomy - cut. Sub-divisions of Anatomy. Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) Study of large body parts

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An Introduction to the Human Body

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An introduction to the human body

An Introduction to the Human Body

Chapter 1


Anatomy

Anatomy

  • Study of structure or morphology

  • Study of relationships among structures

  • Derived from the Greek words

    • Anatome – to dissect

    • Ana – apart

    • Tomy - cut


Sub divisions of anatomy

Sub-divisions of Anatomy

  • Gross Anatomy (macroscopic)

    • Study of large body parts

      (muscles, bones and internal organs)


Sub divisions of anatomy1

Sub-divisions of Anatomy

  • Histology (microscopic)

    • Study of cells and tissues requiring the use of a microscope


Physiology

Physiology

  • The study of functions of body parts (what they do) and how they work

    • Physio – working

    • Ology - study


Sub divisions of physiology

Sub-divisions of Physiology

  • Neurophysiology - brain and nervous tissue

  • Cardiac physiology – heart

  • Respiratory – lungs, trachea, bronchii

  • Reproductive – reproductive organs

  • Renal – kidneys, bladder, ureters

  • Endocrine – hormone producing glands


Levels of structural organization

Levels of Structural Organization

  • Atoms

  • Molecules

  • Organelles

  • Cells

  • Tissues

  • Organs

  • Systems

  • Organism


Atoms

Atoms

  • Building blocks of all matter

  • Atoms important to life:

    • Carbon

    • Oxygen

    • Hydrogen

    • Nitrogen

    • Phosphorus

    • Sulfur

    • Potassium

    • Calcium

    • Iron


Levels of structural organization1

Levels of Structural Organization

  • Molecules

    • Chemical combinations of 2 or more atoms

  • Examples of important molecules for life

    • Proteins

    • Carbohydrates

    • Fats

    • Nucleic acids

    • Vitamins


Molecules

Molecules

DNANA


Levels of structural organization organelles are specialized structures within cells

Levels of Structural OrganizationOrganelles are specialized structures within cells


Levels of structural organization cell

Levels of Structural OrganizationCell

  • Cells are the basic structural units of life

  • Different cells have different structures

  • They perform different functions

  • Specialized structures within cells are organelles


Levels of structural organization2

Levels of Structural Organization

  • Tissues

    • Four basic types of tissues

      • Epithelial

      • Muscle

      • Connective

      • Nervous

  • Each cell within a tissue has a specific funtion

    • For example, parietal cells in the stomach epithelium produce HCl, goblet cells produce mucous and chief cells produce a digestive enzyme called pepsin


Levels of structural organization3

Levels of Structural Organization


Epithelial tissue

Epithelial Tissue


Muscle tissue

Muscle Tissue


Connective tissue

Connective Tissue


Nervous tissue

Nervous Tissue


Organs

Organs

  • Structures composed of two or more tissue types

  • Have specific functions in the body

  • Have specific and recognizable shapes

  • Examples: heart, lungs, brain, kidneys, liver, stomach, spleen


Organ systems

Organ Systems

  • Several organs working together for a common purpose

  • Example: digestive system includes many organs such as stomach, liver, etc.. Ecah with its own function


Characteristics of life

Characteristics of Life


Characteristics of life1

Characteristics of Life

  • Movement

  • Responsiveness

  • Growth

  • Reproduction

  • Respiration

  • Digestion

  • Absorption

  • Circulation

  • Assimilation

  • Excretion


Characteristics of life2

Characteristics of Life

  • Movement

    • Ability to propel oneself

    • Manipulates external environment

    • Occurs voluntarily by allowing movement of body fluids throughout the body


Characteristics of life3

Characteristics of Life

  • Responsiveness

    • Ability to respond to stimuli

    • Examples: organism moves away from danger or moves toward prey


Characteristics of life4

Characteristics of Life

  • Growth

    • Increases in size, volume and number of cells

    • Cell construction must exceed cell destruction


Characteristics of life5

Characteristics of Life

  • Reproduction (sexual or asexual)

    • Give rise to a progeny/off spring/ new organism

    • Cells must be able to reproduce to aid body in growth and repair


Characteristics of life6

Characteristics of Life

  • Respiration

    • Process of making ATP (energy) through the metabolism of nutrients

    • Oxygen is taken up

    • Carbon dioxide is released


Characteristics of life7

Characteristics of Life

  • Digestion

    • Enables body to break down foods into simpler forms to be absorbed into blood for delivery to cells


Characteristics of life8

Characteristics of Life

  • Absorption

    • Passage of digested materials into blood stream, through membranes of the digestive tract.


Characteristics of life9

Characteristics of Life

  • Circulation

    • Movement of substances throughout the body

    • Substances travel via blood, lymph and other body fluids


Characteristics of life10

Characteristics of Life

  • Assimilation

    • Includes breaking down complex to simple

    • Involves the digestive, respiratory, circulatory and lymphatic system


Characteristics of life11

Characteristics of Life

  • Excretion

    • Removal of wastes after digestion and metabolism

    • Examples: CO2, fecal matter, urine,


Maintenance of life

Maintenance of Life


Survival needs of an organism

Survival Needs of an Organism

  • Nutrients

    • Carbohydrates

    • Proteins

    • Fats

    • Vitamins


Survival needs of an organism1

Survival Needs of an Organism

  • Oxygen

    • Used for metabolism and other chemical reactions

    • 20% of the air we breathe

  • Water

    • 60 – 80% of body weight

    • Most abundant chemical substance in body – must be regulated


Survival needs of an organism2

Survival Needs of an Organism

  • Body Temperature

    • 37° C or 98.6° F

    • As body temperature drops, so does metabolic rate (but if outside temperature drops, body up regulates metabolism to produce more heat)

  • Atmospheric Pressure

    • External force of the atmosphere on the body


Homeostasis

Homeostasis

  • The body’s ability to maintain a constant and stable internal environment

    • Sweating when hot

    • Insulin when blood sugar is high/glucagon when it is low

    • Kidneys maintain water levels in body


Body systems

Body Systems


Body systems1

Body Systems

  • Integumentary

  • Skeletal

  • Muscular

  • Nervous

  • Endocrine

  • Cardiovascular

  • Lymphatic and Immune

  • Respiratory

  • Digestive

  • Urinary

  • Reproductive


Integumentary

Integumentary

  • Skin and structures such as hair, nails, and sweat and oil glands

  • Functions:

    • Maintenance of body temperature

    • Protection

    • Elimination of some wastes

    • Production of vitamin D

    • Stimuli receptor


Skeletal

Skeletal

  • All bones, associated cartilage, ligaments and joints

  • Functions:

    • Support

    • Protection

    • Movement

    • Blood cell production (hemopoiesis)

    • Mineral storage


Muscular

Muscular

  • Skeletal muscle tissue

  • Functions:

    • Movement

    • Maintains body posture

    • Produces heat


Nervous

Nervous

  • Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors

  • Functions:

    • Body control by:

      • Detecting nerve impulses (action potential)

      • Interpreting changes

      • Acting upon changes


Endocrine

Endocrine

  • Includes all hormone producing glands, such as pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, ovaries, testes, etc.

  • Functions:

    • Controls body activities through the release of hormones into blood stream – these hormones target distant cells


Cardiovascular

Cardiovascular

  • Blood, heart, and blood vessels

  • Functions:

    • Distributes oxygen and nutrients to cells

    • Carries CO2 and wastes away from cells

    • Helps maintain acid-base balance

    • Protects against disease

    • Clot formation

    • Regulates body temperature


Lymphatic and immune

Lymphatic and Immune

  • Lymph, lymphatic vessels, and structure such as lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, thymus gland

  • Functions:

    • Filter body fluids (interstitial)

    • Help protect against disease


Respiratory

Respiratory

  • Lungs and other passageways

  • Functions:

    • Supplies O2

    • Eliminates CO2

    • Helps regulate acid-base balance

    • Produces vocal sounds


Digestive

Digestive

  • Associated organs: salivary glands, liver, pancreas, and G.I tract

  • Functions:

    • Physical and chemical breakdown of foods

    • Absorption of nutrients

    • Eliminates solid materials


Urinary

Urinary

  • Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

  • Functions:

    • Regulates volume and chemical composition of blood

    • Eliminates wastes

    • Regulated fluid and electrolyte balance

    • Regulates acid-base and calcium balance

    • Regulates red blood cell production (hormone- erythropoietin)


Reproductive

Reproductive

  • Testes, ovaries, Fallopian tubes (oviducts), uterus, epididymus, vas deferens, penis, vagina

  • Functions:

    • Production of gametes (sex cells)

    • Combining of gametes from different organism

    • Gestation and birth of offspring


Organization of the human body

Organization of the Human Body


Body segments

Body Segments

  • The human body is divided into 2 distinct segments:

    • The axial portion which comprises of the head, neck and trunk

    • The appendicular portion which comprises of the upper limbs (arms) and lower limbs (legs)


Axial vs appendicular

Axial vs. Appendicular


Body cavities

Body Cavities

  • The axial portion contains 2 cavities or hollow area

    • The dorsal cavity which is made up of:

      • Cranial cavity – contains brain

      • vertebral cavity – passes through the vertebrae and contains spinal cord

    • The Ventral cavity which is further divided into:

      • The thoracic cavity, separated by the mediastinum – contains heart, lungs

      • The abdominopelvic cavity which contains:

        • The abdominal cavity – contains digestive organs

        • The pelvic cavity – contains gonads, bladder, rectum


Body cavities1

Body Cavities

The thoracic cavity is divided into 2 sides by the mediastinum. The lungs are in the 2 pleural cavities and the heart is in the pericardial cavity within the mediastinum

The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm


Anatomical positions

Anatomical Positions


Anatomical position

Anatomical Position

  • Body erect

  • Feet together

  • Arms hanging at side

  • Palms facing forward


Directional terms

Directional Terms

  • Superior

  • Inferior

  • Anterior

  • Posterior

  • Medial

  • Lateral

  • Intermediate

  • proximal

  • Ipsilateral

  • Contralateral

  • Distal

  • Superficial

  • Deep

  • Parietal

  • visceral


Superior

Superior

  • Towards the head

  • Upper part of the structure

  • Above

  • Examples:

    • Forehead is superior to the nose

    • Lips are superior to the chin

    • Heart is superior to the liver


Inferior

Inferior

  • Away from the head

  • Towards the lower region of structure or body

  • Examples:

    • The navel is inferior to the ribs

    • The knee is inferior to the hip

    • The stomach is inferior to the lungs


Anterior

Anterior

  • Towards the front

  • In front of

  • Examples:

    • The breast bone is anterior to the spine

    • The incisors are anterior to the molars

    • The sternum is anterior to the heart


Posterior

Posterior

  • Toward or at the back

  • Behind

  • Examples:

    • The heart is posterior to the sternum

    • The molars are posterior to the incisors

    • The esophagus is posterior to the trachea


Medial

Medial

  • Towards the midline

  • The inner side of a structure

  • Examples:

    • The head is medial to the arm

    • The ulna is on the medial side of the arm (anatomical position)


Lateral

Lateral

  • Away from the midline

  • Towards the side

  • Examples:

    • The eyes are lateral to the bridge of the nose

    • The lungs are lateral to the heart


Intermediate

Intermediate

  • Between a more medial and more lateral structure

  • Examples:

    • The collar bone is intermediate to the breast bone and the shoulder

    • The ring finger is intermediate to the pinky and middle finger


Proximal

Proximal

  • Close to a point of origin or point of attachment

  • Sides next to each other

  • Examples:

    • The elbow is proximal to the wrist (i.e. the elbow is closer to the shoulder than is the wrist)

    • The humerus is proximal to the radius


Ipsilateral

Ipsilateral

  • On the same side of the body

  • Examples:

    • The right ring finger is ipsilateral to the right middle and index fingers


Contralateral

Contralateral

  • On the opposite side of the body

  • Example:

    • The ascending and descending colons of the large intestines are contralateral


Distal

Distal

  • Farthest from the origin

  • Examples:

    • The knee is distal to the thigh

    • The wrist is distal to the shoulder

    • The phalanges are distal to the carpels (wrist bones)


Superficial

Superficial

  • Towards the surface

  • Examples:

    • The skin is superficial to the skeleton

    • Muscles of the thoracic wall are superficial to the lungs


An introduction to the human body

Deep

  • More internal

  • Examples:

    • The heart is deep in relation to the skin

    • Nasal sinuses are deep in relation to the nose


Parietal

Parietal

  • Pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity

  • Examples:

    • The parietal pleura forms the outer layer of the pleural sacs that surround the lungs


Visceral

Visceral

  • Pertaining to the covering of an organ within the ventral body cavity

  • Examples:

    • The visceral pleura forms the inner layer of the pleural sacs and covers the external surface of the lungs


Body planes

Body Planes


Body planes1

Body Planes

  • Imaginary lines used to divide the body into sections

    • Sagittal

    • Mid-sagittal

    • Frontal

    • Transverse

    • Oblique


Sagittal

Sagittal

  • Vertical plane

  • Lengthwise

  • Longitudinal

  • Divides the body into right and left portions


Midsagittal

Midsagittal

  • Midline

  • Divides the body into equal right and left portions


Frontal

Frontal

  • Right angles to the sagittal plane

  • Divides the body into anterior and posterior portions


Transverse

Transverse

  • Divides the body into superior and inferior portions


Oblique

Oblique

  • An oblique plane passes at an angle between transverse and frontal planes or transverse and Sagittal planes


Body planes2

Body Planes


The end

THE END


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