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Unit 6 Save the Oceans. Unit 6. Save the oceans. Radar. Crew’s quarters. Factory deck. Engine room. Fuel tank. Cold store. Unit 6 Save the Oceans. What are the problems that our oceans face?.  Over-fishing

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Unit 6 Save the Oceans

Unit 6

Save the oceans


Radar

Crew’s quarters

Factory deck

Engine room

Fuel tank

Cold store

Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

Over-fishing

Improved fishing equipment has greatly increased the amount of fish caught, fishermen can now travel further out to sea.


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

 Over-fishing

The boats are fitted with sonar equipment to locate fish shoals. Fishermen use nets with smaller mesh sizes, so young fish was caught.


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

Fish with commercial value are regularly caught in large quantities are decreasing rapidly.

Over-fishing

Whale

Over-fishing has depleted many fish stocks such as salmon, tuna and whale.

Tuna

Salmon


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

Many species of whale are now near extinction. Today, less than 1% of the original population of the giant blue whale remains.

Over-fishing

Blue whale

Of the hump-back whales, only 3% remains.

Humpback whale


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

Pollution

The release of harmful substances into the environment.

For a long time man has looked upon oceans as a bottomless dumping ground for waste.

The amount of waste discharged into oceans has greatly increased because of the rapid development of industries and cities along the coast.


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

Pollutant:Industrial waste from industries along the coast.


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

Pollutant :City sewage from densely populated coastal regions.


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

Pollutant :Fertilizers and pesticides used in farming carried into the sea by rivers.


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

Pollutant:Oil leakage from ships and offshore oil mining.


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

Pollutant :Fallout from nuclear tests and dumping radioactive waste into oceans.

Radioactive waste should be handled carefully, otherwise our ocean will be seriously polluted.


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

 Toxic chemicals

They affect the reproductive ability of fish, marine animals and birds.

Pollutants found in oceans include plastics, toxic chemicals such as DDT and PCBs, and heavy metals such as lead, mercury and zinc.

These pollutants enter the food chain and stay inside the body of fish and marine animals.


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

Oil as a pollutant

Oil is leaked out from ships in accidents or from oil wells. The damage done by oil spills is enormous. The ecosystems of marine plants and animals are ruined.


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

On 24th March 1989, the oil super-tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska.250 000 barrels of oil poured into the sea.

Internet


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

A large amount of oil was released into the Persian Gulf during the Gulf War in 1991.

More than 770 km of the coast of Saudi Arabia was coated with a thick dark layer of oil.


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

Nuclear waste

The United States and France have repeatedly carried out nuclear tests in the South Pacific.

These tests destroy the delicate coral islands and the fallouts pollute the seas around them.

Oceans are used as a burial ground for radioactive waste.


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

What are the problems that our oceans face?

Dredging of the seabed

The dredging of the seabed and the dumping of materials muddy the sea water.

The fish and animal population falls as food becomes less and their breeding grounds destroyed.


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

How can we save our oceans?

Each day Hong Kong discharge over 1.5 million

cubic metres of untreated sewage into Victoria Harbour.

Blackish coloured water

Bacterial contamination is extremely high

Very poor coastal water quality

Very bad smell


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

How can we save our oceans?

In 1989, the Environmental Protection Department completed the Sewage Strategy Study which developed an overall strategy for the management of sewage.

A major part of the strategy was the Strategic Sewage Disposal Scheme which would collect sewage in the harbour areas through deep tunnels and transport it to a treatment plant at Stonecutters Island.

The sewage would be treated, by adding chemicals followed by sedimentation, then discharged in the deep ocean water south of Lamma Island.

The Environment Hong Kong 1997

Treatment of sewage


Kwai Chung SP

Tsing Yi Island SP

To Kwa Wan SP

Stonecutters treatment plant

Kwun Tong SP + PS

North Point SP

Tseung Kwan O SP

Central SP

Treatment Plant

Shau Kei Wan SP

Wanchai East SP

Chai Wan SP

Sandy Bay SP

Aberdeen SP

Ap Lei Chau SP

Lamma Island PS

Screening Plant

SP

Treatment Plant

Pumping Station

PS

Tunnel

Effluent Discharge

km

N

Unit 6 Save the Oceans

The Strategic Sewage Disposal Scheme

The Strategic Sewage Disposal Scheme ensures that all sewage will be treated before being discharged into deep ocean to the south of Lamma Island in future.


United Nations offices in Vienna, Austria

Unit 6 Save the Oceans

How can we save our oceans?

International co-operation is needed for the successful protection of the marine environment.

Ban nuclear tests and dumping of waste

Nations should agree to stop the dumping of toxic waste into oceans.

Industrial waste and sewage should be properly treated before being discharged into the sea.


+

Unit 6 Save the Oceans

How can we save our oceans?

Ban nuclear tests and dumping of waste

Nuclear tests should be banned to stop nuclear fallout from polluting our oceans.


Salmon

Humpback whale

Unit 6 Save the Oceans

How can we save our oceans?

Better management of ocean fisheries

There is a need for all fishing nations to agree on fish catch quotas. Depleted species must be allowed the time and space to breed and grow again.

Minimum net mesh sizes should be set to allow smaller, younger fish to live and grow.


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

How can we save our oceans?

The International Whaling Commission has established whale sanctuaries in the Indian Ocean, the Atlantic west to South Africa, the Southern Ocean near Antarctica and in the South Pacific.

Sanctuaries for endangered species

Internet

Whale meat

The International Whaling Commission


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

How can we save our oceans?

Sanctuaries for endangered species

Since 1999 the Chinese Government has banned fishing by trawlers in the South China Sea in June and July each year.

The purpose of the ban is to allow fish to regenerate and to stop further depletion.


The Hong Kong Marine Conservation Society

Unit 6 Save the Oceans

How can we save our oceans?

Internet

Environmental awareness

As individuals we must develop a responsible attitude towards the marine environment.

The best way to do this is by joining local green groups.

Internet

Internet

Internet


Unit 6 Save the Oceans

Terms to Learn

Fish shoals (魚群)-- large groups of fish swimming together.

Sewage (污水)-- liquid waste materials that flow in pipes to the sea or to a treatment plant.

Pollutants (污染物)-- substances harmful to humans or the environment.

DDT-- a toxic chemical. Its full name is Dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane.

PCBs -- a toxic chemical. Its full name is Polychlorinated biphenyls.


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