Acids and Bases. Chapter 19. 19.1 Acids and Bases: An Intro. All aqueous solutions contain hydrogen ions (H + ) and hydroxide (OH - ) ions. An acidic solution contains more H + ions than OH - . A basic solution contains more OH - ions than H + ions.
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Acids and Bases
All aqueous solutions contain hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide (OH-) ions.
An acidic solution contains more H+ ions than OH-.
A basic solution contains more OH- ions than H+ ions.
When a solution has the same concentration of H+ and OH- it is said to be neutral.
A hydronium ion (H3O+) is a hydrated hydrogen ion.
H+ and H3O+ mean the same thing and can be used interchangeably.
Identify the conjugate acid-base pairs in this reaction.
HClO2 (aq) + H2O (l) H3O+ (aq) + ClO2- (aq)
Indentify the conjugate acid-base pairs in the following reactions.
a. H2SO3 (aq) + H2O (l) HSO3- (aq) + H3O+ (aq)
b. HPO42- (aq) + H2O (l) H2PO4- (aq) + OH- (aq)
c. HSeO3- (aq) + H2O (l) H3O+ (aq) + SeO32- (aq)
An acid that can donate only one hydrogen ion is called a monoprotic acid.
For example, hydrochloric acid (HCl) and formic acid (HCOOH).
Note: Only those hydrogens that are bonded to electronegative elements are ionizable.
The three ionizations of boric acid are as follows.
H3BO3 (aq) + H2O (l) H3O+ (aq) + H2BO3- (aq)
H2BO3- (aq) + H2O (l) H3O+ (aq) + HBO32- (aq)
HBO32-(aq) + H2O (l) H3O+ (aq) + BO3 3- (aq)
Write the steps in the complete ionization of the following polyprotic acids.
a. Carbonic acid (H2CO3)
b. Chromic acid (H2CrO4)
Acids and Bases
Considering the reaction of the weak acid formic acid
HCOOH (aq) + H2O (l) H3O+ (aq) + HCOO- (aq)
The equilibrium constant expression of the ionization of formic acid in water is as follows:
Ka is the acid ionization constant.
Ka is the value of the equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak acid.
Ka is a measure of the extent of ionization of the acid.
Weak acids have the smallest Ka values.
Polyprotic acids have a Ka value for each ionization, and the Ka values decrease for each successive ionization.
Metallic hydroxides are strong bases which dissociate entirely into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution.
Group 1A and 2A hydroxides are strong bases.
A weak base is a base that ionizes only partially in dilute solution to form an equilibrium mixture.
Just like there is an acid ionization constant there is a base ionization constant.
The Kb value is the value of the equilibrium constant.
Kb is smallest for the weakest bases.
What is pH?
Pure water self-ionizes slightly to form H3O+ and OH- ions, as shown
H2O (l) + H2O (l) H3O+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
It can be simplified by removing one water molecule from each side
H2O (l) H+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
A special equilibrium expression for the self-ionization of water is defined as follows:
Kw = [H+][OH-]
Kw is called the ion product constant for water.
It is the value of the equilibrium constant expression of water.
In pure water at 298 K, the concentration of H+ ions and OH- ions both equal 1.0 x 10-7 M, so the value of Kw = 1.0 x 10-14.
At 298 K, the OH- ion concentration of an aqueous solution is 1.0 x 10-11 M. Find the H+ ion concentration in the solution and determine whether the solution is acidic, basic or neutral.
Because the concentrations of H+ ions are often small, the pH scaled was developed.
The pH of a solution equals the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.
pH = -log [H+]
The pH scale has values from 0 to 14.
Acids have pHs less than 7 and bases have pHs greater than 7.
A pH of 0 is the most acidic and a pH of 14 is the most basic.
A pH of 7 is neutral.
The pOH scale expresses the basicity of a solution.
pOH is the negative logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration.
pOH = -log [OH-]
If either the pH or pOH are known, the other may be determined by using the following relationship.
pH + pOH = 14.00
The pH and pOH values can be determined if either the [H+] or [OH-] is known.
If a certain carbonated soft drink has a hydrogen ion concentration of 7.3 x 10-4 M, what are the pH and pOH of the soft drink?
When the pH of a solution is known, you can determine the concentrations of H+ and OH-.
What are [H+] and [OH-] in an antacid solution with a pH of 9.70?
Remember, that strong acids and bases dissociate completely in water.
This means that for monoprotic acids the concentration is equal to the concentration of the hydrogen ion.
In some acids and bases, there are more than one hydrogen ions or hydoxide ions in the compound.
If you know the pH and the concentration of a solution of a weak acid, you can calculate Ka for the acid.
The pH of a 0.200 M solution of acetic acid (CH3COOH) is 2.72. What is the Ka for acetic acid?
The reaction of an acid and a base in an aqueous solution is called a neutralization reaction.
The products of a neutralization reaction are always a salt and water.
A salt is an ionic compound composed of a positive ion from a base and a negative ion from an acid.
Acid-base neutralizations are used in the procedure called titration, which is a method for determining the concentration of a solution by reacting it with another solution of known concentration.
Neutralization reactions proceed until an equivalence point is reached.
The equivalence point is the point where the moles of H+ ions and OH- ions are equal.
At the equivalence point, a large change in pH occurs that can be detected by a pH meter or an acid-base indicator.
An indicator is a dye whose color is affected by pH changes.
When a strong acid is titrated with a strong base, the equiv. point is 7.
When strong acid, weak base equiv. point is less than 7; when weak acid and strong base the point is greater than 7.
In a titration, 53.7 mL of 0.100 M HCl solution is needed to neutralize 80.0 mL of KOH solution. What is the molarity of the KOH solution?
A 45.0 ml sample of nitric acid solution is neutralized by 119.4 mL of 0.200 M NaOH solution. What is the molarity of the nitric acid solution?
A buffer is a solution that resists changes in pH when moderate amounts of acid or base are added.
A buffer is a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or a weak base and its conjugate acid.