Menstruation
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MENSTRUATION. Euphemisms for Menstrual Period all anal sex week aunt Rose (Ruby, May, etc.) is visiting bitchy witchy week Bloody Mary blow job week crimson tide, crimson wave the Curse closed for maintenance code red. MENSTRUATION. Euphemisms for Menstrual Period (Cont’d)

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Menstruation

MENSTRUATION

  • Euphemisms for Menstrual Period

    • all anal sex week

    • aunt Rose (Ruby, May, etc.) is visiting

    • bitchy witchy week

    • Bloody Mary

    • blow job week

    • crimson tide, crimson wave

    • the Curse

    • closed for maintenance

    • code red


Menstruation1

MENSTRUATION

  • Euphemisms for Menstrual Period (Cont’d)

    • Dracula’s tea bag

    • red flag

    • leak week

    • Little Red Riding Hood in the woods

    • monthly visitor

    • Mother Nature’s gift

    • Mother Nature’s curse

    • oil change

    • Old Faithful


Menstruation2

MENSTRUATION

  • Euphemisms for Menstrual Period (Cont’d)

    • the rag

    • rag time

    • raining down South

    • riding the cotton cowboy

    • scarlet letter

    • shark bait

    • TOM (time of the month)

    • trolling for vampires

    • wound of Eve


Menstruation3

MENSTRUATION

Menses: latin plural of ‘month’: mensis

  • Onset:

    • Menarche – mean age: 12.6

  • 1900:

    • Mean age 16

  • Diet changes, body fat

  • Lasts until Age 45-55


Menstruation4

MENSTRUATION

  • Historically menses rare event:

    • Pregnant or lactating

  • This Century:

    • 38 years x 12 months = 456 periods subtract two kids: 24 months = 432 periods vs. about 40 before.

    • More estrogen circulating = reproductive cancers?

  • Is there a comparable event or process in males?

  • First ejaculation: spermarche (with or without orgasm) around age 13-14, usually does not contain mature sperm until 1-2 years later. Nocturnal emissions or wet dreams.


Menstruation5

MENSTRUATION

PSYCHO-SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT

  • Ancient views:

    • power, bleed but don’t die!

  • Ceremonies:

    • red ochre, many cultures

    • associated with the moon, “moon blood”

    • goddesses of ancient religions associated with the moon, fertility

    • calendars based on the moon

    • blood seen as cleansing and with magic powers

  • Patriarchal societies:

    • dangerous

    • evil, dirty

    • ruins crops, food

    • isolation


Menstruation6

Contemporary view:

disease model

pain

disability

mood swings

bloating, discomfort

shameful

curtail activities

no sex

PMS

MENSTRUATION

PSYCHO-SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT (CONT’D)


Psycho socio cultural context cont d

PSYCHO-SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT (CONT’D)

MENSTRUATION

  • Attributed to hormonal fluctuations – no scientific data

  • Men’s hormones fluctuate in 24 hrs. many times

  • Social contagion


Psycho socio cultural context cont d1

PSYCHO-SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT (CONT’D)

MENSTRUATION

  • Amenorrhea

    • primary

    • secondary (medications, weight loss, pregnancy, etc.)

  • Dysmenorrhea: pain – prostaglandins


Menstruation7

MENSTRUATION

  • Role of Pharmaceutical Industry

  • Very negative expectations  anxiety  physical symptoms

  • Unhealthy diet, no exercise, smoking

  • Endometriosis

  • Diane Ruble’s research

  • Katharina Dalton (England) murder acquittals due to PMS


Menstruation8

MENSTRUATION

  • Feminine role:

    • sweet

    • soft

    • pliable

    • never angry

  • PMS:

    • allowed to rage

      Severe PMS: PREMENSTRUAL DYSPHORIC DISORDER (DSM) very contested, not evidence based


Menstruation9

MENSTRUATION

  • Medicalization:

    • 50’s Valium

    • 90’s Prozac (Sarafem)

  • PMS not universal

    • studies failed to show a decrement or fluctuation in physical (sports) or intellectual performances in the LUTEAL or premenstrual phase


Menstruation10

MENSTRUATION

  • Sex During Menstruation:

    • cultural, religious taboos

    • up to people involved

    • no medical contraindication

    • orgasm relieves cramps


Menstruation11

MENSTRUATION

Sex Drive and Cycle:

  • 3 Reported Peaks:

    • at ovulation:

      • increase in testosterone causes more interest in sex

      • increase in estrogen makes women sexier, more attractive to men

    • just before/during menses

    • just after menses


Menstruation12

MENSTRUATION

  • Why not have sex during menses?

    • 70+% avoid it, give these reasons:

  • dirty, unhygienic

  • told not to

  • might catch disease

  • uncomfortable

  • embarrassing

  • Almost 100% no oral sex

  • Masturbation increases


Menstruation13

MENSTRUATION

  • Hormonal Interplay:

    • Hypothalamus:

      • GNRH: gonadotrophin-releasing hormone

    • Uterine Phases:

      • menstrual (days 1-5)

      • proliferative (days 6-13)

      • ovulatory (day 14)

      • secretory (rest of cycle)


Menstruation14

MENSTRUATION

  • Hormonal Interplay (Cont’d):

    • Ovarian Phases:

      • follicular (days 1-12)

      • ovulatory (days 12-15)

      • luteal (days 16-28)

  • Pituitary:

    • FSH

    • LH

  • Ovarian Follicle:

    • Estrogens and Progesterone


Menstruation15

MENSTRUATION

  • MENSTRUAL CYCLE:

    • 28 days

    • Days 1-5:

      • low estrogen in blood signals the pituitary to secrete lots of FSH, which stimulates the follicles in the ovary (one each cycle). An egg ripens. Endometrium grows. Estrogen increases.

    • Days 10-14:

      • Ovum continues to grow and bursts free of follicle on day 14: ovulation. Endometrium at its thickest, in preparation for possible pregnancy. High levels of estrogen signal the pituitary to decrease FSH and also signal the hypothalamus to produce GNRH. GNRH signals the pituitary to produce LH.


Menstruation16

MENSTRUATION

  • MENSTRUAL CYCLE:

    • 28 days

    • Days 15-28:

      • The follicle turns into the corpus luteum (yellow body), which makes lots of progesterone (to maintain pregnancy). High levels of progesterone signal the pituitary to stop LH production, and the corpus luteum degenerates toward day 26. This leads to a sharp decrease in estrogen and progesterone and the cycle starts anew.

  • All these feed-back loops go through the hypothalamus, as only the hypothalamus can influence the pituitary.


Menstruation17

MENSTRUATION

  • Ovulation:

    • Mittelschmerz (pain of the middle of the month)

    • Anovulatory cycles (esp. adolescents and climacteric)

    • Basal body temperature fluctuations

    • There is an OTC kit that analyzes saliva and pinpoints ovulation

      • saliva ferns at ovulation just like ovulatory mucus


Menstruation18

MENSTRUATION

  • Ovulation (Cont’d):

    • Changes in cervical mucus during cycle:

      • Regular functions of non-ovulatory mucus:

        • lubrication

        • bacteriostatic

        • pH regulation (acid)

    • It is cloudy, whitish, thick, most of cycle


Menstruation19

MENSTRUATION

  • Ovulation (Cont’d):

    • Ovulatory cervical mucus:

      • days 12-16 of cycle duration varies, some women only hours. It is transparent, very stretchy, like raw egg white

    • Functions:

      • To help sperm

      • regulating pH (normal to alkaline)

      • sugars

      • conveyor (fern pattern)


Menstruation

CHANGES IN BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE

TEMP.


Menstruation20

MENSTRUATION

  • New Pill Suppresses Menstruation

    • What might the consequences be?

    • Benefits


Menstruation21

MENSTRUATION

  • Warning:

    • Menstrual products can be hazardous to your health!

      • Presence of staphilococcusaureus, particularly when using tampons, can lead to toxic shock syndrome (TSS), can be fatal.

      • Absorbent fibers also absorb normal vaginal secretions, leading to drying and, occasionally, ulceration, painful intercourse.

      • Bleaching chemicals: dioxin – used in “sanitary” products:

        • powerful carcinogen

        • can affect hormones

        • immunosuppressant

        • endometriosis


Environmental damage

Environmental Damage

  • Disposable sanitary products contaminate water sources, both at factory sites and when disposed.

  • Dioxin affects fish, birds, etc.

  • If incinerated, toxic gases released (acid rain, global warming)

  • Alternative products are available!


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