General properties of arthropods phylum arthropoda jointed feet
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GENERAL PROPERTIES OF ARTHROPODS Phylum Arthropoda (jointed  feet) . Doç.Dr.Hrisi BAHAR. The arthropods are. ● T he most successful phylum of animals, both in diversity of distribution and in numbers of species and individuals. Arthropoda.

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GENERAL PROPERTIES OF ARTHROPODS Phylum Arthropoda (jointed  feet) 

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General properties of arthropods phylum arthropoda jointed feet

GENERAL PROPERTIES OF ARTHROPODSPhylum Arthropoda(jointed  feet) 

Doç.Dr.Hrisi BAHAR


The arthropods are

The arthropods are

●The most successful phylum of animals, both in diversity of distribution and in numbers of species and individuals.


Arthropoda

Arthropoda

●They have adapted successfully to life in water, on land and in the air.

●They can survive great extremes of temperature, toxicity, acidity and salinity


Arthropoda1

Arthropoda

●About 80% of all known animal species belong to the Arthropoda

● About 800,000 species have been described.


Characteristics of arthropoda

Characteristics of Arthropoda

●Metamerism- body is segmented.

●Exoskeleton- body covered with a

hard external skeleton.

●Bilateral Symmetry-body can be divided into two identical halves.


Characteristics of arthropoda1

Characteristics of Arthropoda

Jointed Appendages-each segment may have one pair of appendages, such as:

●legs

●wings

●mouthparts


Characteristics of arthropoda2

Characteristics of Arthropoda

● Open Circulatory System-blood washes over organs and is not entirely closed by blood vessels. Our system is a closed one

● Ventral Nerve Cord-one nerve cord, similar to our spinal column


Some of the arthropods are ectoparasite

Some of the arthropods are ectoparasite.

Ectoparasite: arthropod living outside the human body

Some Common Ectoparasites

●Common bedbugs(Cimex lectularius)

●Human fleas(Pulex irritans


Classes of medical importance

Classes of Medical Importance

Subphylum CRUSTACEAETwo Class are medically important

●ClassArachnida

●ClassInsecta


Class aracnida

Class Aracnida

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Prostigmata

Mesostigmata

Mites

Cheyletiella, Neotrombicula

Metastigmata

Mites

Dermanyssus

Rnithonyssus

Ticks

Family Ixodidae

Ixodes

Dermacentor

Rhipicephalus,

Haemaphysalis

Family Argasidae

Argas, Ornithodoros

Astigmata

Mites

Sarcoptes,Notoedres,

Psoroptes,Tyrophagus,

Tyroglyphus, Glyciphagus,

Dermatophagoides


General properties of arthropods phylum arthropoda jointed feet

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Class insecta

D i p t e r a

Nematosera

(mosquitoes, black flies)

Brachisera

(flies)

Anoplura

(Lice)

Cins

Pediculus

Phthirus

Heteroptera

(Bugs)

Cins

Cimex

Oeciacus

Triatoma

Rhodnius

Panstrongylus

Siphonaptera

(Fleas)

Cins

Pulex

Ctenocephalides

Ceratophyllus

Archaeopsylla

Xenopsylla

Tunga

Cins

Anopheles

Culex

Aedes

Simulium

Phlebotomus

Lutzomyia

Cins

Musca, Glossina,

Calliphora,

Cochliomyia,Cordylobia,

Lucilia, Sarcophaga

Wohlfahrtia,Gasterophilus

Hypoderma,Cuterebra


Class insecta

● The insects are the

most numerous and

diverse of all the

groups of arthropods.

There are more

species of insects

than species in all the

other classes of animals

combined.

Class insecta


Class insecta1

● Insects differ from

other arthropods in

havingthree pairs of

legs.In size, insects

range from less than1

mm to 20 cmin length,

the majority being

less than 2.5 cm

long.

Class insecta


Characteristics of insecta

Characteristics ofInsecta

1-3 body segments-  head, thorax ,

abdomen (stomach area).

2- One pair of antennae

3-Tracheal Respiratory System- composed of tubes, with holes (spiracles) through the body that admit air.

● So, they do not have lungs at all.


Characteristics of insecta1

Characteristics ofInsecta

4-Wings- usually two pairs of wings, although some have one pair of wings, or none. No other class of arthropods has wings

5-3 pair of legs, 1pair to each of the 3 thoracic segments. Compound eyes, with facets


Order diptera flies

Order Diptera (Flies)

The larvae of flies.

Flies are common in the warmer months, and love dead, stinky, and rotting material. They lay eggs, and the eggs develop intolarvae (maggot)that need to eat. They appear quite fast (8-12 hours), and will eat away tissue if the conditions are present


Myasis

Disease that results from the infestation of tissues or cavities of the body by larvae(maggots) of flies

Myasis


Anopheles

Anopheles

●Anopheles is a genus ofmosquito (Culicidae).

●There are approximately 460 recognised species: while over 100 can transmit human malaria, only 30-40 commonly transmit parasites of the genusPlasmodiumthat cause malaria which affects humans in endemic areas.

●Anopheles gambiaeis one of the best known, because of its predominant role in the transmission of the deadly species –Plasmodium falciparum.


General properties of arthropods phylum arthropoda jointed feet

●Some species of Anopheles also can serve as the vectors for FilariidaeWuchereria bancrofti

●Mosquitoes in other genera (Aedes,Culex) can also serve as vectors of disease agents.

Anopheles gambiae


Culex

Adults of theCx. Pipiens

complexare light brown

mosquitoes that lack

distinctive markings on

the proboscis and legs,

and are not readily

separated from other

Culex (Culex) mosquitoes.

Adult females of the complex

are usually identified by the

presence of distinctive, basal,

pale abdominal bands.

Culex


Phlebotomus sand flies

Phlebotomus(sand flies)

The female sand fly carries the Leishmania protozoa from infected animals after feeding, thus transmitting the disease, while the male feeds on plant nectar.Phlebotomus species are also vector for

phlebotomus fever,anarboviruscaused byToscana virus.


General properties of arthropods phylum arthropoda jointed feet

Adults are small sizedabout 1.5-3 mm, yellowish

in colour with

conspicuous black eyes,hairy body, wings andlegs.


Anoplura lice

Anoplura (Lice)

  • Pediculus

    ●Pediculus humanus capitis

    ●Pediculus humanus corporis

  • Phthirus

    ●Phthirus pubis


General properties of arthropods phylum arthropoda jointed feet

Morphology

●Wingless insects.

●Permanent ectoparasite.

●Host specific parasites,each lice species is found on only a single species of host.

Lice


Pediculus humanus

Pediculus humanus

Pediculus humanus capitis(head louse)

localization and sites of oviposition

Hair on the head, rarely on beard hairs or hairy sites on

upper body.

● Pediculus humanus corporis(body louse)

localization and sites of oviposition

Stitching, seams, and folds in clothes, especially where

it is in direct contact with the body.


Phthirus pubis crab louse

Phthirus pubis (crab louse)

localization and sites of oviposition

Hair of pubic area, more rarely in the

abdominal and axillar regions, beard,

eyebrows, and eyelashes.


Order heteroptera bugs

Cimex

Cimex lectularius

Order Heteroptera(Bugs)

●They are about 3–4mm long

●Dorsoventrally flattened

bodies

●Greatly reduced wings

●A bloodsucking proboscis

thatcan be folded back

ventrally


Siphonaptera fleas

Siphonaptera -Fleas

Pulex

Pulex irritans(Pulex)

  • This flea is about 2–5mm long,

    ●Laterally flattened,

    ●Wingless

    ●Have three pairs of legs,

    the hindmost of which

    are highly adapted for

    jumping.


Fleas are competent vectors for numerous microbial pathogens of medical and veterinary importance

Fleas are competent vectors for numerous microbial pathogens of medical and veterinary importance

● Ctenocephalides felis (Cat flea)

Vector of

-Cat scratch disease (Bartonella species)

-Spotted fever (Rickettsia felis)

-Plague (Yersinia pestis)

●XenopsillaCheopis(Rat flea)

Vector of

-Plague (Yersinia pestis)

● Pulex irritans(human flea)

Vector of

-Plague (Yersinia pestis)


Class arachnida ticks ixodida

Class ArachnidaTicks (Ixodida)

●They are blood-sucking, opportunistic parasites that can attach to the skin of a variety of vertebrate hosts.

●They have no segmentation and are dorso-ventrally flat with four pairs of legs


Ixodes ricinus

Ixodes ricinus

●Vector of the causative agents ofLyme borreliosis and Tickborne encephalitis

●Human tick bites in central Europe are in most cases caused by

I. ricinusand only occasionally by other tick species.


Tick bite

Tick bite


Diseases for which hard ticks are carriers

DISEASES FOR WHICH HARD TICKS ARE CARRIERS

BACTERIAL DISEASES 

** Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

The causativeagent,Ricketsia rickettsii,

**Tularemia

The causative agent ,Francisella tularensis

**Q Fever

The causative agent, Coxiella burnetii


Diseases for which hard ticks are carriers1

DISEASES FOR WHICH HARD TICKS ARE CARRIERS

BACTERIAL DISEASES

**Human erlichiosis

The causativeagent, bacteria of the Ehrlichia family.

**Lyme Dısease

The causativeagent Borrelia burgdorferi(USA)

Borrelia garinii orBorrelia afzelii ( In Europe )


Diseases for which hard ticks are carriers2

DISEASES FOR WHICH HARD TICKS ARE CARRIERS

VIRAL DISEASES

** Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

The causativeagent Nairovirus.

** Tıck -Born EncephalitisThe causativeagent,Tick-borne encephalitis virus


Mites

Mites

Sarcoptes scabieiCausative agent of scabies

Scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabei) is the cause of scabies and is distributed worldwide. Epidemics of the disease may occur for long periods but mites may be common at all times in very poor communities with inadequate washing facilities.


Sarcoptes scabiei

Sarcoptes scabiei

  • Transmission is by close contact (sexual partners, family,members, school children, healthcare staff)from person to person,

  • Indirect transmission on clothes (underclothes), bed linens is not a primary route, but should be considered as a factor in control measures.

  • Without a host, mites usually die off within a few days. Mite infections can also be acquired from animals to which humans have close skin contact.


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