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ALGEBRA I and GEOMETRY VOCABULARY. KEY. CONVERSIONS. 1 FOOT = 12 INCHES YARD = 3 FEET 1 MILE = 1,760 YARDS 1 MILE = 5,280 FEET 1 ACRE = 43,560 SQUARE FEET. CONVERSIONS. 1 METER = 100 CENTIMETERS 1 METER = 1000 MILLIMETERS 1 KILOMETER = 1000 METERS

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ALGEBRA I and GEOMETRY VOCABULARY

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ALGEBRA I andGEOMETRY VOCABULARY


KEY


CONVERSIONS

1 FOOT = 12 INCHES

  • YARD = 3 FEET

    1 MILE = 1,760 YARDS

    1 MILE = 5,280 FEET

    1 ACRE = 43,560 SQUARE FEET


CONVERSIONS

1 METER = 100 CENTIMETERS

1 METER = 1000 MILLIMETERS

1 KILOMETER = 1000 METERS

1 LITER = 1000 MILLILITERS

1 LITER = 1000 CUBIC CENTIMETERS

1 GRAM = 1000 MILLIGRAMS

1 KILOGRAM = 1000 GRAMS


CONVERSIONS

  • CUP = 8 FLUID OUNCES

    1 PINT = 2 CUPS

  • QUART = 2 PINTS

    1 GALLON = 4 QUARTS

    1 POUND = 16 OUNCES

    1 TON = 2,000 POUNDS


A


ACUTE ANGLE

AN ANGLE THAT HAS A

MEASURE BETWEEN

0 DEGREES and

90 DEGREES.


ADDITIVE IDENTITY

THE NUMBER ZERO ( 0 ).

WHEN ZERO ( 0 ) IS

ADDED TO ANOTHER

NUMBER, THE SUM IS

THE NUMBER ITSELF.

0 + 3 = 3


ADDITIVE INVERSE PROPERTY

A NUMBER AND ITS

ADDITIVE INVERSE HAVE

A SUM OF ZERO ( 0 )

  • + -3 = 0

    3 and - 3 ARE INVERSES

    OF EACH OTHER


ALTITUDE

THE PERPENDICULAR

DISTANCE FROM A

VERTEX IN A POLYGON

TO ITS OPPOSITE SIDE.


ANGLE

TWO RAYS EXTENDING

FROM A COMMON

ENDPOINT CALED THE

VERTEX

In this illustration the

vertex is B


ANGLE of DEPRESSION

AN ANGLE DEFINED BY A

HORIZONTAL RAY AND A

RAY EXTENDING FROM THE

COMMON ENDPOINT TO A

POINT BELOW THE

HORIZONTAL RAY


ANGLE OF ELEVATION

AN ANGLE DEFINED BY A

HORIZONTAL RAY AND A

RAY EXTENDING FROM

THE COMMON ENDPOINT

TO A POINT ABOVE THE

HORIZONTAL RAY


APOTHEM

THE PERPENDICULAR

DISTANCE FROM THE

CENTER OF A REGULAR

POLYGON TO THE

MIDPOINT OF ANY OF

ITS SIDES


ARC

A CONTINUOUS PART OF A

CIRCLE. THE MEASURE OF

AN ARC IS THE MEASURE OF

THE ANGLE FORMED BY TWO

RADII WITH ENDPOINTS AT

THE ENDPOINTS OF THE ARC


AREA

THE MEASURE, IN SQUARE

UNITS, OF THE INTERIOR

REGION OF A CLOSED

TWO-DIMENTIONAL

FIGURE


ASSOCIATIVE PROPERTY

THE WAY IN WHICH

THREE OR MORE

NUMBERS ARE GROUPED

FOR ADDITION OR

MULTIPLICATION DOES

NOT CHANGE THEIR SUM

OR PRODUCT


AXIOM

POSTULATE

A MATHEMATICAL

STATEMENT ACCEPTED AS

TRUE WITHOUT PROOF

IS CALLED AN

AXIOM


B


BASE

THE SEGMENT OR FACE

OF A GEOMETRIC FIGURE

THAT IS PERPENDICULAR

TO THE HEIGHT


BASE OF A POWER

THE NUMBER OR VARIABLE

THAT UNDERGOES

REPEATED

MULTIPLICATION.


BINOMIAL

A POLYNOMIAL WITH

TWO TERMS

IN

2X + 5

THE TERMS ARE

2X AND 5

BI = TWO


BISECT

TO DIVIDE

INTO TWO

CONGRUENT PARTS


BREAK

A ZIGZAG ON THE X- OR

Y- AXIS IN A LINE OR BAR

GRAPH INDICATING THAT THE

DATA BEING DISPLAYED DO

NOT INCLUDE ALL OF THE

VALUES THAT EXIST ON THE

NUMBER LINE USED.

ALSO CALLED A SQUIGGLE


C


CENTER OF DILATION

THE INTERSECTION OF

THE LINES THAT

CONNECT EACH POINT

OF A FIGURE WITH THE

CORRESPONDING POINT

OF THE SIMILAR FIGURE


CENTRAL ANGLE

AN ANGLE THAT HAS ITS

VERTEX AT THE CENTER

OF A CIRCLE AND WITH

RADII AS ITS SIDES

X

X


CENTROID

THE POINT OF

CONCURRENCY OF THE

THREE MEDIANS OF A

TRIANGLE


CHORD

A LINE SEGMENT

WITH ENDPOINTS

ON THE CIRCLE


CIRCLE AREA


CIRCUMCENTER OF A TRIANGLE

THE POINT OF

CONCURRENCY OF THREE

PERPENDICULAR

BISECTORS OF A

TRIANGLE


CIRCUMFERENCE

THE DISTANCE

AROUND

A CIRCLE


CIRCUMSCRIBED

A DESCRIPTOR FOR A

GEOMETRIC FIGURE THAT

IS DRAWN AROUND AND

ENCLOSES ANOTHER

GEOMETRIC FIGURE

( POINTS ARE TOUCHING )


CLOSED FIGURE

A TWO DIMENTIONAL

FIGURE THAT DIVIDES THE

PLANE INTO TWO PARTS

THE PART INSIDE AND

THE PART OUTSIDE


COEFFICIENT

THE NUMBER THAT

MULTIPLIES THE VARIABLE

IN AN ALGEBRAIC

EXPRESSION

IF NO NUMBER IS

SPECIFIED THEN THE

COEFFICIENT IS 1


COMMUTATIVE PROPERTY

THE ORDER IN WHICH

TWO NUMBERS ARE

ADDED OR MULTIPLIED

DOES NOT CHANGE

THEIR SUM OR PRODUCT


COMPLEMENT OF SET A

DENOTED BY A’ OR A

THE SET OF ALL

ELEMENTS IN THE

UNIVERSAL SET THAT ARE

NOT IN A


COMPLEMENTARY ANGLES

TWO ANGLES IN WHICH

THE MEASURES HAVE THE

SUM OF EXACTLY

90 DEGREES


COMPOUND INEQUALITY

TWO INEQUALITIES THAT

ARE COMBINED INTO ONE

STATEMENT BY THE

WORDS

AND OR OR


CONCAVE POLYGON

A POLYGON WITH ONE

OR MORE DIAGONALS

THAT HAVE POINTS

OUTSIDE THE POLYGON


CONCENTRIC CIRCLES

TWO OR MORE COPLANAR

CIRCLES THAT SHARE THE

SAME CENTER


CONCLUSION

THE “THEN” PART

OF A CONDITIONAL

STATEMENT

“IF” … “THEN”


CONDITIONAL STATEMENT

A LOGICAL STATEMENT

CONSISTING OF TWO

PARTS, A HYPOTHESIS

AND A CONCLUSION


CONGRUENT

HAVING THE EXACT

SIZE AND SHAPE


CONJECTURE

AN UNPROVEN STATEMENT

BASED ON OBSERVATION


CONTRAPOSITIVE

THE STATEMENT FORMED

BY NEGATING AND

REVERSING THE

HYPOTHESIS AND

CONCLUSION OF A

CONDITIONAL STATEMENT


CONVERSE

THE STATEMENT FORMED

BY REVERSING THE

HYPOTHESIS AND

CONCLUSION OF A

CONDITIONAL STATEMENT


CONVEX POLYGON

A POLYGON WITH EACH

INTERIOR ANGLE

MEASURING LESS THAN

180 DEGREES

ALL DIAGONALS OF A

CONVEX POLYGON LIE

INSIDE THE POLYGON


COORDINATE GRID

A TWO-DIMENTIONAL

NETWORK OF HORIZONTAL

AND VERTICAL LINES THAT

ARE PARALLEL AND EVENLY

SPACED; ESPECIALLY

DESIGNED FOR LOCATING

POINTS, DISPLAYING DATA,

DRAWING MAPS


COORDINATES

NUMBERS THAT

CORRESPOND TO POINTS

ON A COORDINATE PLANE

IN THE FORM ( X,Y )

OR A NUMBER THAT

CORRESPONDS TO A

POINT ON A NUMBER LINE


COSINE ( COS )

IN A RIGHT TRIANGLE THE

RATIO OF THE LENGTH

OF THE LEG ADJACENT

TO THE REFERENCE

ANGLE TO THE LENGTH

OF THE HYPOTENUSE


CROSS PRODUCT OF SETS

THE SETS OF ALL PAIRS

WHEREIN THE FIRST

ELEMENT IS A MEMBER

OF SET A

AND THE SECOND

ELEMENT IS A MEMBER

OF SET B

A = ( 1, 2 )

B = ( X, Y, Z )

Then

A x B = (1,X), (1,Y), (1,Z),

(2,X), (2,Y), (2,Z)


CUBE

A SOLID FIGURE WITH

SIX CONGRUENT SQUARE

FACES


D


DEGREE OF MONOMIAL

THE SUM OF THE

EXPONENTS OF THE

VARIABLES IN A

MONOMIAL


DEGREE OF A POLYNOMIAL

THE GREATEST DEGREE OF

THE MONOMIALS IN A

POLYNOMIAL


DEPENDENT VARIABLE

THE OUTPUT OF A

FUNCTION


DIAMETER

A LINE SEGMENT FROM

ANY POINT ON A CIRCLE

OR SPHERE PASSING

THROUGH THE CENTER

TO ANOTHER POINT ON

THE CIRCLE OR SPHERE


DILATION

A TRANFORMATION OF A

POLYGON THAT INVOLVES

A PROPORTIONAL

INCREASE OR DECREASE

IN SIZE OF ALL

DIMENSIONS


DISTANCE FORMULA


DISTRIBUTIVE PROPERTY

THE DISTRIBUTION OF

MULTIPLICATION OVER

ADDITION


DODECAHEDRON

A POLYHEDRON WITH

TWELVE FACES

Dodecahedron net


DOMAIN

THE COMPLETE SET OF

POSSIBLE VALUES OF THE

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

IN A FUNCTION

( ALL VALUES OF X )


E


EDGE

A LINE SEGMENT WHERE

TWO FACES OF A

POLYHEDRON MEET


ELEMENT

A NUMBER, LETTER,

POINT, LINE, OR ANY

OTHER OBJECT

CONTAINED IN A SET


ENLARGEMENT

A DILATION IN WHICH THE

SCALE FACTOR OR SIZE

CHANGE IS GREATER

THAN ONE


EQUATION

A MATHEMATICAL

SENTENCE STATING THAT

THE TWO EXPRESSIONS

HAVE THE SAME VALUE

=


EQUALATERAL TRIANGLE

A TRIANGLE WITH THREE

CONGRUENT SIDES


EXPONENT

THE VALUE THAT

INDICATES HOW MANY

TIMES THE BASE OCCURS

AS A FACTOR

THE NUMERAL 2 IS

CALLED THE BASE AND

THE NUMERAL 6 IS

CALLED THE EXPONENT

2 X 2 X 2 X 2 X 2 X 2


EXPRESSION

A COLLECTION OF

NUMBERS, SYMBOLS,

AND / OR OPERATION

SIGNS THAT STANDS FOR

A NUMBER


EXTERIOR ANGLE

THE ANGLE FORMED BY

ANY SIDE OF A POLYGON

AND AN EXTENDED

ADJACENT SIDE


F


FACE

ONE OF THE PLANE

SURFACES BOUNDING A

THREE-DIMENSIONAL

FIGURE

- A SIDE -


FLOW CHART PROOF

A CONVINCING ARGUMENT

THAT USES BOXES AND

ARROWS TO SHOW THE

LOGICAL CONNECTIONS

BETWEEN THE

STATEMENTS


FORMAL PROOF

A CONVINCING ARGUMENT

CONTAINING STATEMENTS

AND REASONS


FUNCTION

A RELATION IN WHICH

EACH VALUE OF THE

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

IS PAIRED WITH A

UNIQUE VALUE OF THE

DEPENDEDNT VARIABLE


G


GEOMETRIC MEAN

THE GEOMETRIC MEAN

BETWEEN TWO POSITIVE

NUMBERS a AND b

IS THE POSITIVE NUMBER

x WHERE a/x = b/x


GREAT CIRCLE

A CIRCLE FORMED WHEN

A PLANE INTERSECTS A

SPHERE WITH ITS

CENTER AT THE CENTER

OF THE SPHERE

A GREAT CIRCLE DIVIDES A

SPHERE INTO TWO

HEMISPHERES


H


HEXAHEDRON

A POLYGON WITH SIX

FACES

NET


HYPOTENUSE

THE SIDE OPPOSITE THE

RIGHT ANGLE


HYPOTHESIS

THE “IF” PART OF A

CONDITIONAL STATEMENT

PLURAL: HYPOTHESES


I


ICOSAHEDRON

A POLYHEDRON WITH

TWENTY FACES


INCENTER

THE POINT OF

CONCURRENCY OF THE

THREE ANGLE BISECTORS

OF A TRIANGLE


INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

THE INPUT OF A

FUNCTION


INDIRECT PROOF

A PROOF IN WHICH THE

STATEMENT TO BE

PROVEN IS ASSUMED TO

BE FALSE AND THIS

ASSUMPTION LEADS TO A

CONTRADICTION


INEQUALITY

A SENTENCE THAT STATES

ONE EXPRESSION IS

GREATER THAN, GREATER

THAN OR EQUAL TO,

LESS THAN, LESS THAN

OR EQUAL TO, OR NOT

EQUAL TO, ANOTHER

EXPRESSION


INSCRIBED ANGLE

AN ANGLE THAT HAS A

VERTEX ON A CIRCLE

AND SIDES THAT CONTAIN

CHORDS OF THE CIRCLE


INTERCEPT

ON A GRAPH THE VALUES

WHERE A FUNCTION

INTERSECTS THE AXES


INTERIOR ANGLE

AN ANGLE FORMED BY

TWO SIDES OF A

POLYGON SHARING A

COMMON VERTEX


INTERSECTION OF SETS

THE INTERSECTION OF

SETS A AND B IS THE

SET OF ELEMENTS OF

A THAT ARE ALSO

ELEMENTS OF B

IT IS DENOTED BY

A ∩ B AND IS READ

“ A INTERSECTION B ”


INVERSE

THE STATEMENT FORMED

BY NEGATING BOTH THE

HYPOTHESIS AND

CONCLUSION OF A

CONDITIONAL STATEMENT


IRRATIONAL NUMBERS

THE SET OF REAL

NUMBERS THAT CANNOT

BE EXPRESSED AS A

RATIO OF TWO INTEGERS


ISOSCELES TRIANGLE

A TRIANGLE WITH AT

LEAST TWO CONGRUENT

SIDES


K


KITE

A QUADRILATERAL WITH

TWO DISTICT PAIRS OF

ADJACENT CONGRUENT

SIDES


L


LATERAL EDGE

THE EDGES FORMED BY

THE INTERSECTION OF

THE LATERAL FACES OF

A PRISM OR PYRAMID


LATERAL FACE

A FACE OF A PRISM OR

PYRAMID THAT IS NOT

BEING USED AS A BASE


LEADING COEFFICIENT

THE COEFFICIENT OF THE

FIRST TERM OF A

POLYNOMIAL WHOSE

TERMS ARE WRITTEN IN

DESCENDING ORDER

FROM LARGEST DEGREE

TO SMALLEST DEGREE


LINE OF BEST FIT

A LINE DRAWN ON A

SCATTER PLOT OF DATA

THAT COMES CLOSEST

TO ALL POINTS IN THE

DATA SET


LINE OF SYMMETRY

THE LINE OVER WHICH

TWO FIGURES ARE

MIRROR IMAGES OF EACH

OTHER


LINE SEGMENT

A PART OF A LINE THAT

CONSISTS OF TWO

DEFINED ENDPOINTS AND

ALL THE POINTS IN

BETWEEN


M


MAPPING DIAGRAM

A DIAGRAM THAT

ILLUSTRATES HOW THE

ELEMENTS OF A

RELATION’S DOMAIN ARE

PAIRED WITH THE

ELEMENTS OF THE

RELATION’S RANGE


MEDIAN OF A TRIANGLE

THE LINE SEGMENT THAT

CONNECTS A VERTEX

WITH THE MIDPOINT OF

THE OPPOSITE SIDE


MIDPOINT OF A LINE SEGMENT

THE POINT ON A LINE

SEGMENT THAT IS

EQUIDISTANT FROM THE

ENDPOINTS


MIDPOINT BETWEEN TWO POINTS


MONOMIAL

A NUMBER, VARIABLE, OR

THE PRODUCT OF A

NUMBER AND ONE OR

MORE VARIABLES WITH

WHOLE NUMBER

EXPONENTS


N


NET

A TWO-DIMENSIONAL

DIAGRAM THAT CAN BE

FOLDED OR MADE INTO

A THREE-DIMENSIONAL

FIGURE


O


OBLIQUE

A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN

LINES AND/OR PLANE

FIGURES THAT IS NOT

PERPENDICULAR OR

PARALLEL


OBTUSE ANGLE

AN ANGLE WITH A

MEASURE BETWEEN

90 DEGREES AND

180 DEGREES


OCTAHEDRON

A POLYHEDRON WITH

EIGHT SIDES


ORDERED PAIR

THE LOCATION OF A

SINGLE POINT ON A

RECTANGULAR COORDINATE

SYSTEM WHERE THE FIRST

AND SECOND VALUES

REPRESENT THE POSITION

RELATIVE TO THE X-AXIS

AND Y-AXIS RESPECTIVELY


ORIGIN

THE POINT OF

INTERSECTION OF THE

X- AND Y-AXES

IN A RECTANGULAR

COORDINATE SYSTEM WHERE

THE X-COORDINATE AND THE

Y-COORDINATE ARE BOTH

ZERO


ORTHOCENTER

THE POINT OF

CONCURRENCY OF THE

THREE ALTITUDES OF A

TRIANGLE


P


PARABOLA

THE SHAPE OF THE

GRAPH OF A QUADRATIC

FUNCTION


PARAGRAPH PROOF

A CONVINCING ARGUMENT

THAT USES STATEMENTS

AND REASONS CONNECTED

IN SENTENCES


PARALLEL LINES

TWO LINES THAT ARE

COPLANAR AND DO NOT

INTERSECT


PARALLELOGRAM

A QUADRILATERAL IN

WHICH BOTH PAIRS OF

OPPOSITE SIDES ARE

PARALLEL


PARALLELOGRAM AREA


PERIMETER

THE DISTANCE AROUND

A POLYGON


PERPENDICULAR

LINES, LINE SEGMENTS,

RAYS, OR PLANES THAT

INTERSECT TO FORM A

RIGHT ANGLE


PI

THE SYMBOL DESIGNATING THE

RATIO OF THE

CIRCUMFERENCE OF A CIRCLE

TO ITS DIAMETER

IT IS AN IRRATIONAL NUMBER

WITH COMMON

APPROXIMATIONS OF EITHER

3.14 OR 22/7


PLATONIC SOLID

A POLYHEDRON FOR WHICH THE

FACES ARE REGULAR CONGRUENT

POLYGONS WITH THE SAME

NUMBER OF EDGES MEETING AT

EACH VERTEX

TETRAHEDRON - HEXAHEDRON

OCTAHEDRON - DODECAHEDRON

ICOSAHEDRON


POINT

A SPECIFIC LOCATION IN

SPACE THAT HAS NO

DISCERNIBLE LENGTH

OR WIDTH


POINT OF CONCURRENCY

A POINT WHERE THREE

OR MORE LINES

INTERSECT


POINT-SLOPE FORM

A FORM OF A LINEAR

EQUATION

Y – Y = M(X – X )

WHERE M IS THE SLOPE

OF THE LINE AND

(X ,Y ) IS A POINT ON

THE LINE

1

1

1

1


POLYGON

A CLOSED-PLANE FIGURE

HAVING AT LEAST THREE

SIDES THAT ARE LINE

SEGMENTS AND ARE

CONNECTED AT THEIR

ENDPOINTS


POLYGON AREA (REGULAR)


POLYHEDRON

A SOLID FIGURE

BOUNDED BY POLYGONS

POLYHEDRA


POLYNOMIAL

A MONOMIAL OR THE SUM

OR DIFFERENCE OF TWO

OR MORE MONOMIALS


POSTULATE

A MATHEMATICAL

STATEMENT ACCEPTED AS

TRUE WITHOUT PROOF

ALSO CALLED AN AXIOM


PRISM

A POLYHEDRON THAT HAS

TWO CONGRUENT AND

PARALLEL FACES JOINED

BY FACES THAT ARE

PARALLELOGRAMS

PRISMS ARE NAMED BY

THEIR BASES


PROOF

A LOGICAL ARGUMENT THAT

DEMONSTRATES THE TRUTH OF

A GIVEN STATEMENT

IN A FORMAL PROOF EACH STEP

CAN BE JUSTIFIED WITH A

REASON SUCH AS A GIVEN,

A DEFINITION, AN AXIOM, OR

A PREVIOUSLY PROVEN PROPERTY

OR THEOREM


PROPORTION

A MATHEMATICAL

EQUATION STATING THAT

TWO RATIOS ARE EQUAL


PYRAMID

A THREE-DIMENSIONAL

FIGURE IN WHICH THE

BASE IS A POLYGON AND

THE FACES ARE

TRIANGLES WITH A

COMMON VERTEX


Q


QUADRATIC FORMULA


R


RADICAL

AN EXPRESSION THAT HAS A ROOT:

SQUARE ROOT – CUBE ROOT…

ANY NUMBER CAN BE SPECIFIED

BY AN INDEX NUMBER.

A RADICAL WITHOUT

AN INDEX NUMBER IS UNDERSTOOD

TO BE A SQUARE ROOT.


RADICAL SIGN

THE SYMBOL USED BEFORE

A NUMBER TO SHOW

THAT THE NUMBER IS A

RADICAND


RADICAND

THE NUMBER THAT

APPEARS WITHIN THE

RADICAL SIGN IS THE

RADICAND


RADIUS

A LINE SEGMENT

EXTENDING FROM THE

CENTER OF A CIRCLE OR

SPHERE TO A POINT ON

THE CIRCLE OR SPHERE

PLURAL: RADII


RANGE

THE COMPLETE SET OF ALL

POSSIBLE RESULTING

VALUES OF THE

DEPENDENT VARIABLE OF

A FUNCTION


RATE OF CHANGE

THE RATIO THAT COMPARES

THE CHANGE IN THE

DEPENDENT VARIABLE TO

THE CHANGE IN THE

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE


RATIO

THE COMPARISON OF

TWO QUANTITIES


RATIONAL EXPRESSION

AN ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION

THAT CAN BE WRITTEN

AS A FRACTION FOR WHICH

NUMERATOR AND

DENOMINATOR ARE

POLYNOMIALS


RATIONAL NUMBERS

THE SET OF ALL

NUMBERS THAT CAN BE

EXPRESSED AS A RATIO

OF TWO INTEGERS


RAY

A PART OF A LINE THAT

BEGINS AT A POINT AND

GOES ON INDEFINITELY

IN ONE DIRECTION


REAL NUMBERS

THE SET OF ALL RATIONAL

AND IRRATIONAL NUMBERS


RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM

COORDINATE GRID


RECTANGULAR PRISM

A THREE-DIMENSIONAL

FIGURE

  • POLYHEDRON -

    WITH CONGRUENT,

    RECTANGULAR BASES

    AND LATERAL FACES THAT

    ARE PARALLELOGRAMS


RECTANGULAR PRISM SURFACE AREA

or: FIND THE AREA OF EACH FACE AND ADD


RECTANGULAR PRISM VOLUME/CAPACITY


REFLECTION

A TRANSFORMATION THAT

PRODUCES THE MIRROR

IMAGE OF A GEOMETRIC

FIGURE OVER A LINE OR

POINT OF REFLECTION

A reflection over a line

is also called a FLip


REGULAR POLYGON

A POLYGON THAT IS BOTH

EQUILATERAL AND

EQUIANGULAR


REGULAR POLYHEDRON

A SOLID FIGURE WITH

CONGRUENT REGULAR

POLYGONS FOR ALL FACES


RELATION

A SET OF ORDERED PAIRS


RHOMBUS

A PARALLELOGRAM WITH

FOUR CONGRUENT SIDES


RIGHT ANGLE

AN ANGLE FOR WHICH

THE MEASURE IS

EXACTLY 90 DEGREES


RIGHT CIRCULAR CONE

A THREE-DIMENSIONAL

FIGURE THAT HAS A

CIRCULAR BASE,

A VERTEX NOT IN THE

PLANE OF THE CIRCLE,

A CURVED LATERAL SURFACE,

AND AN ALTITUDE THAT

CONTAINS THE CENTER OF

THE BASE.


RIGHT CIRCULAR CONE SURFACE AREA


RIGHT CIRCULAR CONE VOLUME/CAPACITY


RIGHT CIRCULAR CYLINDER

A CYLINDER IN WHICH

THE BASES ARE PARALLEL

CIRCLES PERPENDICULAR

TO THE SIDE OF THE

CYLINDER


RIGHT CIRCULAR CYLINDER SURFACE AREA


RIGHT CIRCULAR CYLINDER VOLUME/CAPACITY


RIGHT PRISM

A PRISM IN WHICH ALL

THE LATERAL FACES AND

EDGES ARE

PERPENDICULAR

TO THE BASES


RIGHT SQUARE PYRAMID

A POLYHEDRON IN WHICH ONE

FACE, THE BASE, IS A

SQUARE AND THE OTHER

FACES, LATERAL FACES, ARE

TRIANGLES WITH A COMMON

VERTEX, WHICH IS DIRECTLY

ABOVE THE CENTER OF THE

BASE

NET FOR RIGHT SQUARE PYRAMID


RIGHT SQUARE PYRAMID SURFACE AREA


RIGHT SQUARE PYRAMID VOLUME/CAPACITY

Volume of Pyramid = (1/3)b²h


RIGHT TRIANGLE TRIGONOMETRY

FINDING THE MEASURES

OF MISSING SIDES OR

ANGLES OF A RIGHT

TRIANGLE WHEN GIVEN

THE MEASURES OF

OTHER SIDES OR ANGLES


RIGHT TRIANGLES - SPECIAL


ROOTS OF A QUADRATIC FUNCTION

ZEROS OF A QUADRATIC

FUNCTION

THE SOLUTION OF AN

EQUATION THAT HAS THE

FORM

Ax + Bx + C = 0

2


ROTATION

A TRANSFORMATION OF A FIGURE BY

TURNING IT ABOUT A CENTER POINT OR

AXIS. THE AMOUNT OF ROTATION IS

USUALLY EXPRESSED IN THE NUMBER OF

DEGREES ROTATION. THE DIRECTION OF

THE ROTATION IS USUALLY EXPRESSED AS

CLOCKWISE OR COUNTERCLOCKWISE.

ALSO CALLED A TURN


RULE

A MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION

THAT DESCRIBES A PATTERN

OR RELATIONSHIP OR A

WRITTEN DESCRIPTION OF

THE PATTERN OR

RELATIONSHIP


S


SCALAR DRAWING - SCALE MODEL

A DRAWING OR MODEL

THAT USES LENGTHS IN

THE DRAWING THAT ARE

PROPORTIONAL TO THE

ACTUAL IMAGE


SCALE FACTOR

THE CONSTANT THAT IS

MULTIPLIED BY THE

LENGTH OF EACH SIDE

OR A FIGURE TO

PRODUCE AN IMAGE

THAT IS THE SAME

SHAPE AS THE ORIGINAL

FIGURE


SCALENE TRIANGLE

A TRIANGLE WITH

NO CONGRUENT SIDES


SECANT OF A CIRCLE

A LINE THAT INTERSECTS

A CIRCLE IN TWO

POINTS


SECTOR

THE REGION FORMED

BY A CENTRAL ANGLE

AND AN ARC


SET

A COLLECTION OF ITEMS


SIMILAR FIGURES

FIGURES THAT HAVE

CORRESPONDING ANGLES

THAT ARE CONGRUENT

AND HAVE

CORRESPONDING SIDES

THAT ARE PROPORTIONAL

IN LENGTH


SINE - SIN

IN A RIGHT TRIANGLE THE

RATIO OF THE LENGTH

OF THE LEG OPPOSITE

THE REFERENCE ANGLE

TO THE LENGTH OF THE

HYPOTENUSE


SLANT HEIGHT OF A REGULAR PYRAMID

THE DISTANCE FROM THE

VERTEX TO THE

MIDPOINT OF AN EDGE

OF THE BASE


SLANT HEIGHT OF A RIGHT CONE

THE DISTANCE FROM A

VERTEX TO A POINT ON

THE EDGE OF THE BASE


SLOPE

THE RATIO OF CHANGE IN THE

VERTICAL AXIS (Y-AXIS)

TO CHANGE IN THE HORIZONTAL

AXIS (X-AXIS) IN THE FORM OF

RISE/RUN

ALSO, THE CONSTANT, M, IN THE

LINEAR EQUATION FOR THE

SLOPE-INTERCEPT FORM

Y = MX + B


SLOPE FORMULA

Where m = slope and ( x, y ) and ( x ,y ) are points on the line

2

2


SLOPE-INTERCEPT FORM

A FORM OF A LINEAR

EQUATION

Y = MX + B

WHERE M IS THE SLOPE

OF THE LINE AND B

IS THE Y-INTERCEPT


SLOPE-INTERCEPT FORM – LINEAR EQUATION


SPHERE

A THREE-DIMENSIONAL

FIGURE IN WHICH ALL

POINTS ON THE FIGURE

ARE EQUIDISTANT FROM

A CENTER POINT


SPHERE SURFACE AREA


SPHERE VOLUME/CAPACITY


SQUARE ROOT

A POSITIVE REAL NUMBER

THAT CAN BE MULTIPLIED

BY ITSELF TO PRODUCE

A GIVEN NUMBER


SQUIGGLE

SAME AS BREAK

A ZIGZAG ON THE X-AXIS

OR THE Y-AXIS IN A

LINE OR BAR GRAPH

INDICATING THAT DATA BEING

DISPLAYED DOES NOT

INCLUDE ALL VALUES


STANDARD FORM OF LINEAR EQUATION

Ax + By = C


STRAIGHT ANGLE

AN ANGLE THAT MEASURES

EXACTLY 180 DEGREES


SUPPLEMENTARY ANGLES

TWO ANGLES IN WHICH

THE MEASURES HAVE THE

SUM OF EXACTLY

180 DEGREES


SYMMETRY

A TERM DESCRIBING THE RESULT OF A LINE

DRAWN THROUGH THE CENTER OF A FIGURE

SUCH THAT THE TWO HALVES OF THE

FIGURE ARE REFLECTIONS OF EACH OTHER

ACROSS THE LINE.

WHEN A FIGURE IS ROTATED AROUND A POINT

AND FITS EXACTLY ON ITSELF IT HAS

ROTATIONAL SYMMETRY


T


TANGENT (TAN)

IN A RIGHT TRIANGLE,

THE RATIO OF THE LENGTH

OF THE LEG OPPOSITE THE

REFERENCE ANGLE TO THE

LENGTH OF THE LEG

ADJACENT TO THE GIVEN

ANGLE


TANGENT TO A CIRCLE

A LINE IN THE PLANE OF

THE CIRCLE THAT

INTERSECTS THE CIRCLE

IN EXACTLY ONE POINT,

CALLED THE POINT OF

TANGENCY


TERM

A NUMBER, VARIABLE,

PRODUCT, OR QUOTIENT

IN AN EXPRESSION

A TERM IS NOT A

SUM OR DIFFERENCE


TESSELLATION

A COVERING OF A PLANE

WITHOUT OVERLAPS OR

GAPS USING

COMBINATIONS OF

CONGRUENT FIGURES


TETRAHEDRON

A POLYHEDRON WITH

FOUR FACES


THEOREM

A MATHEMATICAL

STATEMENT THAT CAN BE

SHOWN TO BE TRUE

BASED ON POSTULATES,

DEFINITIONS, OR OTHER

PROVEN THEOREMS


THREE-DIMENSIONAL FIGURE

A FIGURE HAVING

LENGTH, HEIGHT, AND

WIDTH


TRANSFORMATION

AN OPERATION ON A

GEOMETRIC FIGURE BY WHICH

AN IMAGE IS CREATED.

COMMON TRANSFRMATIONS

INCLUDE

REFLECTION = FLIPS

TRANSLATIONS = SLIDES

ROTATIONS = TURNS

DILATIONS = SIZE


TRANSLATION

A TRANSFORMATION IN

WHICH EVERY POINT IN

A FIGURE IS MOVED IN

THE SAME DIRECTION

AND BY THE SAME

DISTANCE

ALSO CALLED A

SLIDE


TRANSVERSAL

A LINE THAT INTERSECTS

TWO OR MORE LINES AT

DIFFERENT POINTS


TRAPEZOID

A QUADRILATERAL WITH

EXACTLY ONE PAIR OF

PARALLEL SIDES


TRAPEZOID AREA


TRIANGLE AREA


TRIGONOMETRIC RATIO

THE RATIO OF TWO SIDES

OF A RIGHT TRIANGLE

COSINE – SINE - TANGENT


TWO-COLUMN PROOF

A PROOF IN WHICH THE

STATEMENTS ARE

WRITTEN IN THE LEFT COLUMN AND

THE REASONS ARE WRITTEN IN THE

RIGHT COLUMN


U


UNION OF SETS

THE UNION OF TWO SETS

A AND B IS THE SET OF

ELEMENTS THAT ARE IN

A OR IN B OR IN BOTH.

IT IS DENOTED BY

AND IS READ

“A UNION B”


V


VARIABLE

A SYMBOL USED TO

REPRESENT A QUANTITY

THAT CAN CHANGE


VENN DIAGRAM

A DIAGRAM THAT SHOWS

RELATIONSHIPS AMONG

SETS


VERTEX

THE POINT COMMON TO THE

TWO RAYS THAT FORM AN ANGLE;

THE POINT COMMON TO ANY TWO

SIDES OF A POLYGON;

THE POINT COMMON TO THREE OR

MORE EDGES OF A POLYHEDRON

PLURAL: VERTICES


VERTICAL ANGLES

THE OPPOSITE OR

NONADJACENT ANGLES

FORMED WHEN TWO

LINES INTERSECT


VOLUME

THE AMOUNT OF SPACE OCCUPIED IN

THREE DIMENSIONS AND EXPRESSED IN

CUBIC UNITS.

BOTH CAPACITY AND VOLUME ARE USED

TO MEASURE EMPTY SPACES; HOWEVER,

CAPACITY USUALLY REFERS TO FLUID

MEASURES WHEREAS VOLUME IS DESCRIBED

BY CUBIC UNITS


X


X-AXIS

THE HORIZONTAL NUMBER

LINE ON A RECTANGULAR

COORDINATE SYSTEM


X-INTERCEPT

THE VALUE OF X AT THE POINT

WHERE A LINE OR GRAPH

INTERSECTS THE X-AXIS.

THE VALUE OF Y IS ZERO AT

THIS POINT.

CAN BE EXPRESSED AS AN

ORDERED PAIR OR X-INTERCEPT

EQUALS A VALUE


Y


Y-AXIS

THE VERTICAL NUMBER

LINE ON A RECTANGULAR

COORDINATE SYSTEM


Y-INTERCEPT

THE VALUE OF Y AT THE POINT WHERE

A LINE OR GRAPH INTERSECTS THE

Y-AXIS.

THE VALUE OF X IS ZERO AT

THIS POINT.

CAN BE EXPRESSES AS AN ORDERED PAIR

OR Y-INTERCEPT EQUALS A VALUE


Z


ZERO PRODUCT PROPERTY

IF THE PRODUCT OF TWO

OR MORE QUANTITIES

EQUALS ZERO, THEN AT

LEAST ONE OF THE

QUANTITIES IS EQUAL

TO ZERO


ZEROS OF A QUADRATIC EQUATION

THE SOLUTIONS OF AN

EQUATION THAT HAS THE

FORM

AX + BX + C = 0

2


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