Epidemiology of diving accidents and deaths
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Epidemiology of Diving Accidents and Deaths. 2006 Report (2004 Data). Medical Services Volume. 120. 40. Dives. 35. 100. DCS. 30. DCS/10,000 dives. 80. 25. 60. 20. 15. 40. 10. 20. 5. 0. 0. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 00. 01. 02. 03. 04.

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Epidemiology of Diving Accidents and Deaths

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Epidemiology of Diving Accidents and Deaths

2006 Report (2004 Data)


Medical Services Volume


120

40

Dives

35

100

DCS

30

DCS/10,000 dives

80

25

60

20

15

40

10

20

5

0

0

95

96

97

98

99

00

01

02

03

04

Cumulative Project Dive Exploration Progress

DCS

Thousands


Annual Record of Dive Injuries

Number of Cases

Year


Annual Record of U.S. & Canadian Diving Fatalities

Number of Fatalities

Year


Annual Record of U.S. & Canadian Breath-hold Diving Injuries

Number of Cases

Year


Annual DCS Incidence Rates/10,000 Dives at Scapa Flow and in the Caribbean Among Divers Enrolled in PDE

DCS Per 10,000 Dives


Annual DCS Incidence Rates/10,000 Divers at Scapa Flow and in the Caribbean Among Divers Enrolled in Project Dive Exploration

DCS Per 10,000 Divers


Annual Diving Death Incidence Rates/ 100,000 Divers for DAN and BSAC Members

Fatalities per 100,000 Members


Cumulative Number of PDE Dives Collected from 1995-2004

N = 105,135

Dive Exposures

(Thousands)

Year


Contributors of PDE Data


Age and Gender of Divers

N = 1,521

Percentage of Divers

Age Group (Years)


Age Distribution of Pre-teen and Teenage Divers

N = 65

Frequency

Age (Years)


Percentage of 2004 PDE Volunteers by Certification of Divers and Gender

Percent of Divers

N = 1,521


Percentage of PDE Volunteers by Number of Years Since Certification


Chronic Health Conditions Reported by PDE Volunteers

N = 1,521

Percent of PDE Divers


Acute Health Problems Before Diving Reported by PDE Divers

N = 1,521

Percent of PDE Divers


Percentage of the PDE Sample by Dive Platform

N = 23,947

Percentage of PDE Dives


Subjective Thermal Comfort

N = 23,947

Percentage of PDE Dives


Reported Thermal Comfort in PDE Dive Groups (N = 23,912)


Percentage of PDE Sample Reporting the Indicated Subjective Workload

N = 23,912

Percentage of PDE Dives


Reported Work Rate in PDE Subgroups (N = 23,912)


Single, Repetitive and Multi-day Dives

N = 3,265

Percentage of Dive Series


Number of Days in Dive Series

N = 3,265

Percentage of Dive Series

Days Diving


Number of Dives in Dive Series

N = 3,265

Percentage of Dive Series

Number of Dives


Maximum Depths of PDE Dives

16,512 Dives by Males

7,395 Dives by Females

Percentage of Dives

Depth (fsw)


Depth of Deepest and Last Dive in PDE Dive Series (N = 3,265)

Percent of Dive Series

Depth (fsw)


Dive Depth by Day Sequence in Dive Series

N = 23,907

Mean Depth (fsw)

Dive Day Sequence


Distribution of Dive Depths Among PDE Subgroups

Percent of Dives

Depth (fsw)


Number of Dives by Dive Planning Method

N = 23,912

Percentage of Dives


Dive Planning Method Among PDE Subgroups


Dives With Decompression or Safety Stop in PDE Subgroups


Percentage of PDE Divers Reporting Altitude Exposure After Diving

N = 3,265

Percentage of Dive Series

Type of Altitude Exposure After Diving


Summary of Outcomes


PDE Dives With Reported Procedural Problems

Percentage of Dives


PDE Dives with Reported Equipment Problems (N = 439)


International Source of Injury Reports for 2004

Percent of Injury Reports


Percentage of Cases by Reported Diagnoses

N = 487

Source of Injury Reports

(%)


Confidence in DCS and AGE Diagnoses

Diagnostic Confidence

(Percent of Group)


Diver Age Groups

Frequency of Age Group

Median Age of Group (Years)


Certification Level

Percent of Injured Divers


Omitted Decompression and Rapid Ascent


Days of Diving and Dives in Series


Maximum Depth (fsw) of Last Dive by Diagnosis


Maximum Depth (fsw) of the Last Dive Before Injury by Gender


Number of Symptoms Per Diver

N = 264

Number of Reported

Symptoms

Number of Symptomatic Divers


Percent of Reports by Individual Symptom

N = 264

Percent of Symptom

Reports


Specific Symptoms by Frequency Reports (N = 551)

Number of Reported Symptoms


Location of Specific Symptoms by Frequency of Reports (N = 551)

Symptom Location

Number of Reported Symptoms


Location of Specific Symptoms by Frequency of Reports (N = 551)

Symptom Location

Number of Reported Symptoms


Onset Time of Specific Symptoms

Symptom Onset Time (hours)


Number of Treatments Per Diver

Diagnostic Confidence


Recompression Tables Used

N = 132

Number of Treatments


General Outcome (based on DIRF data only; N = 173)

Percent of Cases


Specific Outcomes


1. Frequency of Diving Deaths by Country


2. Frequency of Diving Deaths by Country


3. Frequency of Diving Deaths by Country


Regional Distribution of Fatalities in the U.S.

N = 53

Number of Fatalities


Distribution of Fatalities by Age and Gender

Percent of Fatalities

Age (Years)


Classification of Fatalities by BMI

N = 49

Percent of Fatalities

BMI Classification


Certification of Divers Who Died

Percent of Fatalities

Certification


Number of Years Since Initial Certification of Divers Who Died

N = 57

Percent of Fatalities

Number of Years Diving


Number of Dives in 12 Months Prior to Accident

N = 44

Percent of Fatalities

Number of Dives in Past 12 Months


Time Between Previous Dive and Fatal Dive

N = 40

Percent of Fatalities

Time Between Previous Dive and Fatal Dive


Month When Diver Deaths Occurred

N = 88

Percent of Fatalities

Month


Diving Activity

N = 55

Percent of Fatalities

Diving Activity


Dive Platform

N = 88

Percent of Fatalities

Dive Platform


Maximum Dive Depth

N = 59

Percent of Fatalities

Depth of Last Dive (fsw)


Breathing Gear and Gas for U.S. Cases

N = 73

Percent of Fatalities


Distribution of Fatalities by Dive Phase

N = 88

Percent of Fatalities

Dive Phase


Accidents by Stage of Dive


Cause of Death

N = 88

Percent of Fatalities


Disabling Injury

N = 71

Percent of Fatalities


Disabling Agents

N = 88

Percent of Fatalities


Initial Triggering Event

N = 88

Percent of Fatalities


Number of Divers in Party

N = 66

Percent of Fatalities

Number of Divers in Party


Number of Divers in Team

N = 66

Percent of Fatalities

Dive Team


Distribution (%) of Described Primary Activity for Breath-hold Incident Victims in 2004

N = 22

Percent of Cases

Breath-Hold Activity


Age and Gender Distribution of Breath-hold Incident Victims in 2004 (N = 22)

Number of Cases

Age (years)


Recovery Depth of Body by Depth for Fatal Breath-hold Incident Victims in 2004

N = 14

Number of Cases

Recovery Depth (ft)


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