Semantically enabled collaboration via annotation
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Semantically Enabled Collaboration via Annotation. Ian Lumb http://ianlumb.wordpress.com/tag/annotation/ CANHEIT 2007. Outline. Introduction Annozilla Examples Implementation Standards Semantic Web Discussion. erin.el : Emacs editing mode for TWiki pages

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Semantically enabled collaboration via annotation

Semantically Enabled Collaboration via Annotation

Ian Lumb

http://ianlumb.wordpress.com/tag/annotation/

CANHEIT 2007


Outline

Outline

  • Introduction

  • Annozilla

    • Examples

    • Implementation

    • Standards

  • Semantic Web

  • Discussion


Semantically enabled collaboration via annotation

erin.el: Emacs editing mode for TWiki pages

http://www.neilvandyke.org/erin-twiki-emacs/

http://dafizilla.sourceforge.net/viewsourcewith/


Annotating with annozilla

Annotating with Annozilla

  • Contextually rich and expressive editorial metadata

    • Non-invasive

    • Pre-categorized

    • Of flexible usage

  • Empowering but not distracting or overwhelming

    • Encourages sequential processing

  • Best suited to static Web pages

    • Effort required to ensure relevance in wikis

  • Stored locally or remotely

Annotation goes mainstream!


Semantically enabled collaboration via annotation

http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/firefox/

http://annozilla.mozdev.org/


Annotation servers

Annotation Servers

  • Local Server

  • Remote Servers

    • W3C

    • DIY

      • Linux

      • Perllib

      • MySQL

        • RDF datastore

      • Apache

        • Annotations script

        • Access control

        • Access script

        • Algae script

http://www.w3.org/1999/02/26-modules/User/Annotations-HOWTO.html


Annotations with google earth

Annotations with Google Earth

J. Freemantle, OARS Presentation, December 2006


Definitions

Definitions

  • “Annotation is the linking of a new commentary node to someone else's existing node. It is the essence of a collaborative hypertext.”

    • TBL, W3 Archive, c. 1990

  • "... the addition of information to existing documents without changing the originals.”

    • Passin, Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web, 2004


Definitions1

Definitions

  • “Annotations are comments, notes, explanations, or other types of external remarks that can be attached to a Web document or a selected part of the document. As they are external, it is possible to annotate any Web document independently, without needing to edit that document. From the technical point of view, annotations are usually seen as [editorial] metadata, as they give additional information about an existing piece of data.”

    • Amaya 9.52, W3C


Semantically enabled collaboration via annotation

http://protege.stanford.edu/


Semantically enabled collaboration via annotation

doc

src

External

Location

Internal

Modified Document

Original Document

+ Annotation

Outcome


Dissecting an annozilla annotation

Dissecting an Annozilla Annotation

<?xml version="1.0"?>

<RDF:RDF xmlns:NS4="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.0/"

xmlns:NS3="http://www.w3.org/2000/10/annotation-ns#"

xmlns:NS2="http://www.w3.org/2000/10/annotationType#"

xmlns:NS1="http://cnx.rice.edu/annotations/localServer#"

xmlns:NC="http://home.netscape.com/NC-rdf#"

xmlns:RDF="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#">


Rdf resource description framework

RDF - Resource Description Framework

  • A framework for describing resources on the web

    • Makes relationships explicit

  • Provides a model for data, and a syntax so that independent parties can exchange and use it

  • Designed to be read and understood by computers

    • Not designed for being displayed to people

  • Written in XML

  • Part of the W3C's Semantic Web Activity

  • A W3C Recommendation

    • http://www.w3.org/RDF/

After http://www.w3schools.com/rdf/rdf_intro.asp


Dissecting an annozilla annotation 2

Dissecting an Annozilla Annotation (2)

<NS2:Question RDF:about="urn:annot1541202659"

NS4:creator="Ian Lumb"

NS3:created="2007-05-26T09:32:50-04:00"

NS4:date="2007-05-26T09:32:50-04:00"

NS3:context=

"https://twiki.cns.yorku.ca/twiki/bin/view/Netops/TroubleshootingAbstract#xpointer(string-range(/html[1]/body[1]/div[1]/div[1]/div[1]/div[1]/div[1]/div[1]/div[1]/div[2]/div[4]/div[1]/p[1], &quot;&quot;, 337, 139))"

NS4:language="en">

<NS3:annotates RDF:resource="https://twiki.cns.yorku.ca/twiki/bin/view/Netops/TroubleshootingAbstract"/>

<NS3:body RDF:resource="urn:body1541202659"/>

</NS2:Question>


Dissecting an annozilla annotation 2a

Dissecting an Annozilla Annotation (2a)

urn:annot1541202659

subject

NS4:creator

NS3:context

predicate

object

Ian Lumb

predicate

https://twiki.cns.yorku.ca/twiki/bin/view/Netops/TroubleshootingAbstract#

xpointer(string-range

(/html[1]/body[1]/div[1]/div[1]/div[1]/div[1]/div[1]/div[1]/div[1]/div[2]/div[4]/div[1]/p[1],

&quot;&quot;, 337, 139))

object


Xpointer xml pointer language

XPointer - XML Pointer Language

  • An extension of XPath

    • XPath is used by XLink to locate remote link resources

  • Relative addressing

    • Allows links to places with no anchors

  • Flexible and robust

    • XPointer/XPath expressions often survive changes in the target document

  • Can point to substrings in character data and to whole tree fragments

  • Status

    • The key specification is a Working Draft in the W3C’s Recommendation Track

http://www.w3.org/TR/xptr-xpointer/


Dissecting an annozilla annotation 3

Dissecting an Annozilla Annotation (3)

<RDF:Description RDF:about="https://twiki.cns.yorku.ca/twiki/bin/view/Netops/TroubleshootingAbstract">

<NS1:annotatedBy RDF:resource="urn:annot1541202659"/>

</RDF:Description>

<RDF:Description RDF:about="urn:body1541202659"

NS1:bodyText="&lt;html xmlns=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml&quot;&gt;&lt;head&gt;&lt;title&gt;&lt;/title&gt;&lt;/head&gt;&lt;body&gt;

This is a good start. Can you do a little more on the incorporation side?

&lt;br/&gt;&lt;/body&gt;&lt;/html&gt;" />


Semantically enabled collaboration via annotation

‘infer’

‘compare’

‘relate’

‘describe’

The stack of expressive power

After http://www.w3.org/2005/Talks/0517-boit-tbl/#[27]


Summary

Summary

  • Annotation use cases

    • University IT team’s static and wiki Web

  • Annotations via Annozilla

    • Accessible client/server, standards-based implementation

  • Annotations as external editorial metadata

    • Consistent with Web 2.0 social bookmarking plus some Google technologies

    • Inconsistent with office suites, wikis, formal ontologies

  • Transform data into information into knowledge

    • Realizing the vision of a Semantic Web

      • Web 3.0?


Future work

Future Work

  • Support ongoing development of Annozilla

    • Go forth and annotate!

  • Refactor definition of annotation

    • Develop single schema for annotation types/properties

      • XPointer and OWL each have their own

  • Semantically base annotations

  • Automate annotation ???

  • Consider XPointer-based annotations as an option

    • Emerging common XML-based schema for Word processing software

    • Google Notebook

  • Applications in other areas

    • Teaching and learning


Collaborators

Collaborators

  • Keith Aldridge

    • Professor, York University

  • Jim Freemantle

    • Independent Consultant

  • Jerusha Lederman

    • Ph.D. Candidate, York University


Questions

Questions?


Additional slides

Additional Slides


Numbering of nodes and points

Numbering of Nodes and Points

http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/WD-xptr-xpointer-20021219/


Representing ggp data via esml and rdf

Representing GGP Data via ESML and RDF

Lumb & Aldridge (2005, 2006)


Representing ggp data via esml and rdf with annotation

Representing GGP Data via ESML and RDF with Annotation

Lumb et al. (2007)


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