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Conflict Prevention Mainstreaming at UNDP in FYR Macedonia. JPO Regional Workshop 25-29 October, 2004 Sarajevo. Goal. To support CPR knowledge development by sharing mainstreaming strategies from UNDP in FYR Macedonia (henceforth: Macedonia). Objectives.

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Conflict Prevention Mainstreaming at UNDP in FYR Macedonia

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Conflict Prevention Mainstreaming at UNDP in FYR Macedonia

JPO Regional Workshop

25-29 October, 2004

Sarajevo


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Goal

  • To support CPR knowledge development by sharing mainstreaming strategies from UNDP in FYR Macedonia (henceforth: Macedonia)


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Objectives

  • To substantiate the need for CPR mainstreaming in UNDP Country Offices

  • To demonstrate how CPR principles can be applied in practice

  • To illustrate structural and programmatic approaches to CPR mainstreaming


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Agenda

  • Political overview of Macedonia

  • UNDP Macedonia operational and resource framework for CPR

  • PDA mandate to enhance CPR objectives

  • CPR Programs at UNDP Macedonia

  • Summary

  • Lessons learned


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Political Overview: Background

  • Total pop 2.1M, approx. 64% eMacedonian, 25% eAlbanian, 11% other.

  • Independence since 1991, upon break-up of former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia

  • Transition from socialist, planned economy to market economy ongoing and slow.

  • Rights of minorities enshrined in Constitution but not enforced. Inter-ethnic relations, particularly between eM and eA, are tense.

  • Conflict and unrest in western Balkans since 1992 sustains political instability throughout the region. Ongoing ethnic tension between eSerbs and eAlbanians in Kosovo a particular concern for stability in Macedonia.


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Political Overview: Background

  • 2001: short conflict launched by eAlbanian National Liberation Army against Government to force constitutional negotiation over status of eAlbanians. Peace brokered in after six months, called Ohrid Framework Agreement (OFA).

  • NLA became DUI (Democratic Union for Integration) and after parliamentary elections became the second largest party in the ruling coalition.

  • OFA intended to promote ethnic integration. Consequently it requires important changes to the status quo regarding minority rights, particularly for eAlbanians.

  • OFA implementation has become the most important government agenda item, not least because it is a precondition for EU and NATO accession which are coveted goals for Macedonia.

  • However, political and economic reforms are slow and difficult and the quality of governance remains a serious concern.


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Political Overview: Key Challenges

  • 1. Government decentralization: an essential milestone of the OFA and a weathervane of the GoM’s willingness to institute power-sharing reforms across ethnic lines. November 7 referendum could result in delays and spike the political crisis.

  • 2. Rule of law: lack of enforceability of contracts is a serious handicap to human rights and economic development.

  • 3. Trafficking and SALW: human, narcotics and weapons trafficking feeds criminal elements and sustains insecurity.

  • 4. Refugees and DPs: cross-border and domestic returns since the 2001 crisis are slow because of persisting insecurity and lack of inter-ethnic confidence.

  • 5. Unemployment: well over 37%, sustains grey/black market activity. Youth unemployment a serious concern for economic and political security in the face of ongoing ethnic tensions.


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Political Overview: Summary

  • Failure of the state to effectively manage inter-ethnic issues through democratic, accountable government processes has sharpened the root causes of conflict to the point of political crisis and instability. Continued support through a visible IC presence is needed. UNDP role is to deliver programs building on the capacity of the state to anticipate crises and address them effectively through sound human development approaches. Challenge for UNDP is to carefully protect its neutrality in a highly politicized environment.


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UNDP Macedonia Operational and Resource Framework for CPR: What

  • UN Common Country Assessment (CCA): broad situation analysis, identifies major development concerns to be addressed through concerted efforts of UN Country Team. 2005-2009 Assessment for Macedonia identifies conflict prevention as a discrete area of intervention and suggests need to develop a national capacity for early warning analysis.

  • UN Country Program Document (CPD): identifies desired outcomes, outputs, indicators and partners for the UN country program. In Macedonia, the desired outcome for conflict prevention is to help develop a culture of peace by building trust and confidence among ethnic groups.

  • CPD Action Plan: goes beyond the CPD by identifying specific activities for achieving the desired CPR outcomes. In Macedonia, this includes the production of Early Warning Reports, confidence-building consultations, and a reduction in SALW proliferation and use. Local partners (government and NGOs) are identified as the key implementing channels.


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UNDP Macedonia Operational and Resource Framework for CPR: What (continued)

  • CPR program cluster: in Macedonia this is the principal locus of implementation for discrete CPR projects. CPR objectives are also achieved through the Governance and Decentralization, Economic Development and Environment clusters. This is where assistance with mainstreaming becomes important.

  • Peace and Development Advisor: has been dedicated to the Country Office to help deepen and enhance the CPR program strategy, mainstream CPR into all program clusters and support the development of Country Office capacity.


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UNDP Macedonia Operational and Resource Framework for CPR: How

  • Dedicated CPR project cluster allows the CO to mount strategic and responsive programming. Helps support political stability and enhance sustainable development in a critical post-conflict period marked by ongoing political crisis.

  • Through regional programs implemented at the country level, i.e. SALW reduction, the CO can draw from resources and capacities of the Belgrade-based SEESAC office and help support regional objectives for conflict prevention in critical areas of intervention


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UNDP Macedonia Operational and Resource Framework for CPR: How (continued)

  • Through the production ofrelevant policy instruments: a new series of Early Warning Reports is being produced, with the first issue to come out before the upcoming referendum, on 2 November. Nationalization component supports the objective of developing government’s capacity to identify, assess, and respond appropriately to conflict indicators.

  • Targeted support through missions from HQ and consultants and ongoing assistance from regional resources.

  • Addition of a PDA to enhance strategic programming and capacity development.


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UNDP Macedonia Operational and Resource Framework for CPR: PDA Mandate

The UN seeks to promote inter-ethnic reconciliation and consolidate peace by:

  • Making planning decisions that are sensitive to ongoing political developments; and

  • Preventing the recurrence of violent conflict through harmonized programming approaches.


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UNDP Macedonia Operational and Resource Framework for CPR: PDA Mandate

Political analysis

  • The PDA takes a regular pulse of developments in the country by summarizing events, highlighting issues of concern and recommending action by the appropriate UNCT member. This involves meeting with political actors, NGOs, IC members and other key players to discuss emerging issues, explore their perspectives and formulate objective assessments. UNDP’s neutral position and good reputation in Macedonia’s politically polarized environment give legitimacy and credibility to the role of the PDA. Weekly reports and less frequent thematic reports are shared with the UNCT, RBEC, BCPR and DPA.


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UNDP Macedonia Operational and Resource Framework for CPR: PDA Mandate

Programming

  • The PDA steers the development of a multi-year program strategy for UNDP’s CPR cluster, inspired by the CCA and CPD. A workplan has been formulated to strategize program development by the PDA that will guide the CPR program strategy. Responsive projects are formulated in response to emerging issues, with funding dedicated to support the PDA. To date, funding has been secured for a project in support of government decentralization and for a strategy for the economic revitalization of Macedonia’s Former Crisis Area.


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UNDP Macedonia Operational and Resource Framework for CPR: PDA Mandate

Capacity development and mainstreaming

  • Support goes primarily to the UNDP Country Office as the principal programming agency in the area of conflict prevention.

  • Capacity development includes delivery of training modules adapted to each programming cluster. Beneficiaries are Cluster Managers and Project Managers. Purpose is to sensitize program staff to CPR triggers when developing projects, to avoid doing harm and enhance project sustainability, and to build their capacity to mainstream CPR directly.

  • Mainstreaming ensures that ongoing projects and proposals duly consider and address root causes of conflict in all projects. The PDA role is to recommend modifications to respond to vulnerabilities or address emerging issues.


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UNDP Macedonia Operational and Resource Framework for CPR: PDA Mandate (continued)

Capacity development and mainstreaming

  • (continued)

  • The PDA mandate is limited and the CPR cluster will eventually take over CPR mainstreaming for the UNDP Country Program. Consequently, the Cluster Manager needs a high level of confidence to properly champion CPR as a mainstreamed issue and ensure that CPR best practices are utilized in project formulation and implementation.


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PDA Mandate:CPR Funding Sources and Strategic UN Linkages

  • Funding support for the PDA depends on the constellation of UN interests. In Macedonia, the position is funded by UNDP. Track funding from the UNDP RBEC cluster can therefore be mobilized to support projects.

  • BCPR provides significant hard and soft support through project funding, training, resources and advice.

  • UNDPA takes an active interest in all CPR activities that support the UN mandate to help stabilize the region through the UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). The UN’s Conflict Prevention Trust Fund channels funds through the PDA, and the PDA facilitates information flow between DPA and UNDP: strategic linkage.

  • The PDA is a UNCT resource and reports to the Resident Coordinator. This helps facilitate joint programming and build synergies between UNCT agencies on the ground.


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CPR Programs at UNDP Macedonia

Early Warning Reports

  • A new series of quarterly reports will start in November 2004. Objectives: 1) to assess the level of conflict risk based on public polling about economic, political, personal security, and inter-ethnic issues and; 2) point to urgent areas to be addressed by government through public policies and programs.

  • Report will reveal gaps to be addressed through discrete CPR projects and also through other program clusters, i.e. economic development and governance – a mainstreaming outcome.


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CPR Programs at UNDP Macedonia

Safer Communities in Macedonia (SACIM)

  • Phase 1 (completed): support to Ministry of Interior to conduct a small arms collection and destruction program and develop a policy framework to deal with SALW.

  • Phase 2 (ongoing): continued support to capacity development of Ministry of Interior; and launch of pilot “safer communities” project in three mixed-ethnicity communities to reduce SALW use and proliferation at community level.

  • Community-based projects build synergies by seeking linkages and feeding into other cluster projects (i.e., Localizing Sustainable Development) – a mainstreaming outcome.


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CPR Programs at UNDP Macedonia

Economic Revitalization of the Former Crisis Area

  • Objective is to support long-term political stability in the FCA using economic development as a CPR entry point.

  • A comprehensive strategy focusing on human development (best practice), guided by MDGs (international policy commitment), and seeking the engagement of all UNCT members (promote joint programming).

  • Creates space for activities to be launched through other program clusters under the umbrella of the strategy – a mainstreaming outcome.


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CPR Programs at UNDP Macedonia

Support to Promoting Government Decentralization

  • Funded by the UNDPA Conflict Prevention Trust Fund.

  • Promotes public understanding of the human development rationale for decentralization by channelling accessible, digestible information through non-politicized vehicles, i.e. a magazine and a TV documentary. Promotes consultation between government, outside experts and stakeholders through a conference.

  • Project will be implemented through UNDP’s Governance and Decentralization Cluster – a mainstreaming outcome.


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Summary

  • Political overview of Macedonia: the context for CPR responses through UNDP

  • UNDP Macedonia operational and resource framework for CPR: the how, what and why

  • PDA mandate to enhance CPR objectives: a tool for facilitating CPR capacity development and mainstreaming

  • CPR Programs at UNDP Macedonia: how CPR mainstreaming outcomes are being achieved in practice


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Lessons Learned

  • CPR should not only be a discrete programming area. Mainstreaming CPR through other projects is essential for promoting peace and stability and for addressing institutional flaws that reinforce the causes of conflict.

  • Training an important starting point for building confidence among program staff to adopt CPR approaches and mainstream them into their programming.

  • CPR mainstreaming into project design and implementation is a useful way to promote CPR capacity development, provided it is participatory.

  • PDAs are effective channels to support CPR mainstreaming. With the right support from headquarters and the Country Office, their role can be optimized.


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Conflict Prevention Mainstreaming at UNDP in FYR Macedonia

Good luck with your CPR

programming and mainstreaming initiatives!

Thank you


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