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1726 Stephen Hales first measures blood pressure in a horse. 1796 Edward Jenner develops the world's first vaccine, against smallpox. Critics express skepticism, calling it ungodly to inoculate people with material from cows. . 1885 Louis Pasteur develops a vaccine for rabies.

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1726Stephen Hales first measures blood pressure in a horse

1796Edward Jenner develops the world's first vaccine, against smallpox. Critics express skepticism, calling it ungodly to inoculate people with material from cows.


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1885Louis Pasteur develops a vaccine for rabies

vac • cine /noun /From the Latin vaccinus, meaning "from cows"


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1881Louis Pasteur proves the germ theory of disease by inoculating sheep against anthrax.

1902Robert Ross wins the Nobel Prize for his work, using pigeons, showing how malaria is transmitted


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1955Polio vaccine released

1964Dr. Michael DeBakey performs the first coronary bypass surgery using techniques perfected on animals


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1982Treatment for leprosy developed using armadillos

1982Prions are discovered in hamsters. Subsequent studies in mice have shown that these misshaped, disease-causing proteins can be inherited


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1989Organ transplantationadvances developed


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Number and kinds of animals used

  • The Office of Technology Assessment estimates that 17-23 million animals are used in the United States for research every year.

  • **The vast majority of these – about 95% – are rats and mice specifically bred for research.**

  • In 2000, there were 69,516 dogs and 25,560 cats used in research.

  • By comparison, wildlife biologists estimate that overone million animals are killed every day by automobiles – over 365 million per year.

  • Dogs, cats, and non-human primates combined account for less than 3/4 of a percent of the total and their numbers has been declining for nearly 30 years.

  • The number of dogs used in biomedical research has declined 67% since 1973, and the number of cats used in biomedical research has declined 63% since 1973.


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Why are increasing numbers of animals used in research?

  • The number of animals used in research has actually decreased in the past 20-25 years.

  • Best estimates for the reduction in the overall use of animals in research range from 20% - 50%.

  • This reduction is more consistent and striking when comparing species. For example, best government estimates report that the number of cats used in research has dropped 66% since 1967.

  • Due to a variety of factors, including the increase in nonanimal adjunct testing and the refinement of laboratory animal medicine, there are fewer animals used for many research projects.


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Why can't alternatives such as computer models and cell cultures replace animal research?

  • Computer models and cell cultures, as well as other adjunct research methods, are excellent avenues for reducing the number of animals used.

  • These methods are used to screen and determine the toxic potential of a substance in the early stages of investigation, thereby reducing the total number of research animals needed.

  • The final test, however, has to be done in a whole, living system. Even the most sophisticated technology cannot mimic the complicated interactions among cells, tissues and organs that occur in humans and animals.

  • In addition, there are very strong economic incentives to replace animals with computers or other adjunct methods. Research animals are very expensive to acquire and care for and are only used because no alternatives currently exist.


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How can research results derived from animal testing be extrapolated to humans?

  • There are striking similarities between the physiological systems of humans and various species of animals.

  • Much of what we know about the immune system has come from studies with mice,

  • Much of what we know about the cardiovascular system has come from studies with dogs.

  • Research results from animals also provide the information necessary to design human trials that must be completed for legal approval of new devices, drugs or procedures.

  • It is important to be able to gauge how a new drug or procedure will affect a whole biological system before using it on humans.


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What assurances exist that stolen or lost pets are not used in research?

  • The vast majority of laboratory animals are rodents specifically bred for research.

  • Nearly half of the dogs and cats needed for research are also bred for that purpose.

  • Since state laws and local policies prevent many animal pounds and shelters from providing dogs and cats to research facilities, animal dealers are the primary source for the other half of the animals scientists require.

  • These dealers must be licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and must adhere to Animal Welfare Act standards of care.


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Both dealers and research facilities can obtain dogs and cats only from specified sources.

They must comply with detailed record-keeping and waiting-period requirements.

USDA conducts unannounced inspections of dealers and research facilities for compliance to help ensure research animals are not missing pets.


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Why is it important to conduct product safety tests on animals when "cruelty-free" products are available?

  • As recently as several decades ago, consumers were subjected to products that were not adequately tested prior to use, resulting in reports of permanent harm, including blindness.

  • Product safety testing ensures that products are safe when used as directed.

  • Testing provides scientific data for poison control centers and emergency room physicians in the event a product is misused.

  • Adequate testing of products is a legal obligation to the public.

  • It is important to remember the circumstances that led to safety testing of all new consumer ingredients and products, particularly cosmetics.


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  • The use of animals in product safety testing provides a whole, living system that can reflect how certain substances will react in or on the body.

  • The term "cruelty-free" is often misused and misunderstood.

  • Companies that claim they conduct no animal testing either contract testing to an outside laboratory or use compounds known to be safe through previous animal testing.


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Aren't the animals in laboratories suffering and in pain? whole, living system that can reflect how certain substances will react in or on the body.

  • The use of animals in research and testing is strictly controlled, particularly regarding potential pain.

  • Federal laws, the Animal Welfare Act and the Public Health Service Act, regulate the alleviation and elimination of pain, as well as such aspects of animal care as caging, feeding, exercise of dogs and the psychological well-being of primates.

  • Further, each institution must establish an animal care and use committee that includes an outside member of the public as well as a veterinarian. This committee oversees, inspects and monitors every potential experiment to help ensure optimal animal care.


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Pain and distress whole, living system that can reflect how certain substances will react in or on the body.

  • The majority of animals used in biomedical research do not experience significant pain or distress.

  • According to the 2000 USDA Annual Report, in seven percent of the procedures, neither anesthesia nor pain medication could be used, as they would have interfered with research results.

  • However, when this is the case, pain is minimized as much as possible.


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One of the most widely held misconceptions of animal research is that no regulatory system exists to protect the welfare of laboratory animals.

It is common to hear animal activists claiming that scientists can do "anything they want" to laboratory animals without justification.

Activists also imply that there is an endless supply of research dollars, and that scientists can qualify for funding simply by contriving an animal experiment that has not been tried in the past.


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Animal Welfare Act research is that no regulatory system exists to protect the welfare of laboratory animals.

  • This federal law sets forth standards for the care and treatment of laboratory animals, including housing, feeding, cleanliness, ventilation and veterinary care.

    • AWA regulations do not cover rats and mice bred specifically for research.

  • All facilities using laboratory animals covered under the AWA must register with and be inspected by the United States Department of Agriculture's enforcement arm, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS).

  • It is the responsibility of APHIS – through random, unannounced inspections – to ensure that institutions are complying with all USDA regulations. The AWA also mandates the use of anesthesia or painkilling drugs for potentially painful procedures and for postoperative care unless the research precludes it.

  • The Animal Welfare Act also requires that each institution establish an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).


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The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) research is that no regulatory system exists to protect the welfare of laboratory animals.

  • Responsible for evaluating the total animal care program,

    Must scrutinize all proposed animal experiments.

    The committee must include at least one person who is unaffiliated with the institution and one veterinarian.

    Researchers proposing a procedure must explain to the committee in writing the number of animals they plan to use, why a certain species is necessary, and what steps will be taken to prevent unnecessary suffering.

    The committee has the power to reject any research proposal and stop ongoing projects if it believes USDA standards are not being met.


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  • The scientific community advocates the highest quality of animal care and treatment for two key reasons.

  • First, the use of animals in research is a privilege, and those animals that are helping us unlock the mysteries of disease deserve our respect and the best possible care.

  • Second, a well-treated animal will provide more reliable scientific results, which is the goal of all researchers.


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PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) animal care and treatment for two key reasons.

www.peta.org

ALF (Animal Liberation Front)

www.animalliberationfront.com

Classified as a terrorist organization by the Federal Government

Animal Welfare Act

Enforced by USDA

Public Health Service

Major funder of research

Enforces rules for mice, rats, etc.

Institutions must file (and update annually) Animal Welfare Assurances with the NIH office.

Documentation of institutional commitment

Description of the animal care and use program

Implementation procedures.

Animal Rights vs. Animal Welfare


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Most of the information for this slide show came from the animal care and treatment for two key reasons.

Foundation for Biomedical Research and its website

http://www.fbresearch.org


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