The respiratory system
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The Respiratory System. Just Breathe!. Interesting Facts. The right lung is slightly larger than the left. We lose half a litre of water per day breathing. At rest, the average adult takes in and breathes out 6 litres of air each minute. Breathing Experiments:. Page 287 - Hold your breath

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The Respiratory System

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The respiratory system

The Respiratory System

Just Breathe!


Interesting facts

Interesting Facts

  • The right lung is slightly larger than the left.

  • We lose half a litre of water per day breathing.

  • At rest, the average adult takes in and breathes out 6 litres of air each minute.


Breathing experiments

Breathing Experiments:

  • Page 287 - Hold your breath

  • Page 287 - Breaths per minute

  • The average adult takes 12 breaths/min

  • In an average lifetime (74 years), does a person take more breaths or heartbeats?

  • Heartbeats! 3 billion to 600 million breaths!


The respiratory system1

O2

CO2

The Respiratory System:

  • Respiration:

    • all processes involved in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between cells & the environment


The respiratory system2

O2

CO2

The Respiratory System:

  • For Animal, Respiration Has 2 Purposes:

    • To get oxygen (O2) to its cells

    • To get rid of excess carbon dioxide (CO2)


Types of respiration p 289

Types of Respiration: (P.289)

External RespirationIn our Lungs!

  • gas exchange between blood and the surrounding air (Diffusion)


Types of respiration

Types of Respiration:

Internal RespirationIn our cells!

  • gas exchange between blood and cells (by diffusion also)

  • Provides O2 for Cellular Respiration


Circulation of oxygen

Circulation of Oxygen

  • Red Blood cells are O2 “Taxis”

  • They contain Hemoglobin!

  • When blood has a low O2 [ ](deoxygenated) the hemoglobin is dark red/purple!

  • When blood has high O2 [ ](oxygenated) the hemoglobin is brightred!


The lungs

The LUNGS

  • Massive amount of surface area…increased gas exchange efficiency!

  • Ave. surface area = 70m2

  • Spread out flat, the lungs would provide enough space for seven cars!

  • The word ‘lung’ comes from the Greek word meaning ‘light’. Lungs are the only human organs light enough to float!

  • The average male will breathe out enough air over his lifetime to fill 250 two-person hot air balloons!

  • That’s a lot of hot air… [audience laughter]


Structures

You’ve got… 2:00

Structures:

Label

Them!

GO!!!


Structures1

1:45

Structures:


Structures2

1:30

Structures:


Structures3

1:15

Structures:


Structures4

1:00

Structures:


Structures5

0:45

Structures:


Structures6

0:30

Structures:


Structures7

0:15

Structures:


Structures8

Time’s Up!!! 0:00

Structures:

  • Nose

  • Mouth

  • Larynx

  • Lung

  • Rt. Bronchus

  • Diaphragm

  • Pharynx

  • Trachea

  • Lt. Bronchus

  • Bronchiole

  • Alveoli


External respiration fxns

External Respiration: Fxns!

  • Nasal Passage: Air is warmed, humidified and filtered & cleaned by cilia and mucous lining.

  • Oral Cavity: Passage of air

  • Pharynx: Common pathway for air and food.

  • Larynx: Adam’s apple. Produces sound (vocal cords)

  • Trachea: Epiglottis opens allowing air to move down the cilia and mucous-lined trachea to one of two bronchi, heading to the lungs.


External respiration fxns1

External Respiration: Fxns!

  • Bronchi: Main branches of the trachea

  • Divide to form bronchioles, and air eventually reaches tiny air sacs called alveoli.

  • Gas exchange occurs at the alveoli – O2 moving into the blood, and CO2 moving out.

  • Oxygen is distributed to the cells of the body via the blood (pumped by the heart!)

  • Ribs: protect the lungs and heart, aid in breathing.

  • Lungs: major organ of respiration


Gas exchange @ the alveoli

Gas Exchange @ the Alveoli

  • Each alveolus is only one cell thick and is very moist. This facilitates diffusion!

  • 240 alveolar membranes stacked together would only be as thick as a sheet of paper!

  • Each lung contains 150 million alveoli!


Alveoli air sacs

Alveoli: Air Sacs!


External respiration

External Respiration:

2 Phases:

  • Inspiration

    • diaphragm contracts and moves downward (flattens), volume increases, creating low pressure and drawing air in

  • Expiration

    • diaphragm relaxes, volume decreases, creating high pressure, forcing air out


The diaphragm

The Diaphragm!

Complete Diaphragm Worksheet!!


Breathing physiology

Breathing Physiology

  • Quickly complete worksheet (use P. 297)

  • Tidal Volume: Demo

  • Vital Capacity

  • Vital Capacity can be…

    - Increased by training (i.e. swimmers ~6L)

    - Decreased by smoking!


Feedback regulation

Feedback Regulation

  • The Medulla Oblongata is the control centre in the brain!

  • CO2 levels in the blood increase, making the blood acidic.

  • Chemoreceptors in the aorta and other large arteries sense this change and relay a message to the brain.

  • Brain sends a message to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles of ribs to increase breathing rate.

  • Homeostasis is restored!


Diseases health problems

Diseases & Health Problems:

  • Obstructive Diseases(e.g., Emphysema, Bronchitis, Asthma)

  • Restrictive Diseases(e.g., Cystic Fibrosis, Alveolar Damage)

  • Vascular Diseases(e.g., Pulmonary Edema)

  • Infectious Diseases: (e.g., Pneumonia, Influenza, Tuberculosis)

  • Environmental Irritants: (e.g., Asbestos, Particulate Pollutants, SMOKING!)

  • F.Y.I. Coughing is of major importance, as it is the bodies main method to remove dust, mucus, saliva, and other debris from the lungs. Inability to cough can lead to infection.


Treatment options

Treatment Options

  • Asthma – Caused by contracting muscles that surround bronchi. Air mov’t is restricted.

  • Puffers contain “bronchodilators” that relax the muscles.


Treatment options1

Treatment Options

  • Bronchitis & Emphysema- Mucous layers are broken down, dirt/particles collect in lungs and damage alveoli.

  • Caused by smoking and other environmental irritants (‘Darts’ contain ~4000 chemicals!).

  • Must use a portable O2 delivery system to compensate for less gas exchange surface.


Any one for a smoke

Any one for a smoke?


Altitude sickness

Altitude Sickness

  • High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (fluid in the lungs) - persistent dry cough, fever and shortness of breath even when resting

  • HAPE can lead to…

  • High Altitude Cerebral Edema (swelling of the brain) - headache that does not respond to analgesics, unsteady walking, increasing vomiting and gradual loss of consciousness

Mount Everest – 8 848 m (29 028 ft)


Mount everest

Mount Everest

  • May 12, 2006: Ed Viesturs became the first American to summit all fourteen 8000m+ peaks without the use of supplemental oxygen!!

  • "I am nothing more than a single narrow gasping lung, floating over the mists and summits." Reinhold Messner

  • Above 8000m is called the “Death Zone”

  • As of 2004, 2,238 people had reached the summit (1,148 of them since 1998) and 186 people have died trying!


Hape treatment

HAPE- Treatment

  • Acclimatize: “Climb high, Sleep Low”

  • Get to lower altitudes quickly!


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