Using arbitrage pricing theory to analyse uk and usa property cycle differences
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Using Arbitrage Pricing Theory To Analyse UK and USA Property Cycle Differences. European Real Estate Society Stockholm, Sweden June 2009 Terry V. Grissom Ph.D.* Jasmine L.C. Lim Ph.D.* James L. DeLisle Ph.D.** *School of the Built Environment University of Ulster, Jordanstown

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Using Arbitrage Pricing Theory To Analyse UK and USA Property Cycle Differences

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Using arbitrage pricing theory to analyse uk and usa property cycle differences

Using Arbitrage Pricing Theory To Analyse UK and USA Property Cycle Differences

European Real Estate Society

Stockholm, Sweden

June 2009

Terry V. Grissom Ph.D.*

Jasmine L.C. Lim Ph.D.*

James L. DeLisle Ph.D.**

*School of the Built Environment University of Ulster, Jordanstown

**College of Built Environments University of Washington, Seattle


Using arbitrage pricing theory to analyse uk and usa property cycle differences

  • Investor concerns seeking potential timing market turnaround

  • An Expectation is that an upturn in USA property/investment market will proceed an upturn in the UK: correlation analysis supports this position

  • However analysis of historic property and economic cycles differences suggests alternative scenarios

  • Expectation is not supported by lead-lag analysis


Exhibit 2 correlation of property returns in the uk and us and systematic factors

Exhibit 2: Correlation of Property Returns in the UK and US and Systematic Factors


Using arbitrage pricing theory to analyse uk and usa property cycle differences

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Using arbitrage pricing theory to analyse uk and usa property cycle differences

  • The differences in pricing/performance of cross markets in time suggest the arbitrage potential that may not support an equilibrium clearance of differences.

  • This suggest a limited integration and possible segmentation of the two property/equity markets associated with divergent regimes due to differences in economic fluctuations.

  • This suggests the use of an APT macroeconomic variable model to address differences in the cyclical patterns observed.

  • The DCF construct of the APT model suggest pricing differences associated with behavioural differences observed in the two markets.


Using arbitrage pricing theory to analyse uk and usa property cycle differences

  • One test of a behavioural pricing differences is noted by Hendershott and MacGreger (2005)

  • They note that investment behaviour difference between UK and USA property markets based on mean/trend reversion behaviour. Where:

    • UK is rational reflecting trend reversion pricing

    • USA is non-rational with no trend reversion pricing noted


Using arbitrage pricing theory to analyse uk and usa property cycle differences

  • The implication that differences in investor behaviour may contribute to pricing and timing differences defining the two markets fits the construct of the MVM Arbitrage Price Models

  • This achieved using a spline analytic for cycle regime delineation as employed by Grissom & DeLisle (1999). This variable assist in identifying the potential timing and turnarounds observed and expected for both the UK and USA property markets.

  • The theoretical constructs and the procedural steps employed in this analysis is illustrated in the following set of equations


Using arbitrage pricing theory to analyse uk and usa property cycle differences

APT (UK) with Expected risk free rate and US Property Performance

R2 = 65.66

Intercept & Beta

t statistic

APT (UK) with Expected Zero Beta reflecting US Property Performance

R2 = 65.66

0.022861 + -0.199716() - 1.101734(U) + 0.021012() + 0.029849() +0.244874Rit|US

1.897037 -0.652772 -4.355030 0.164764 0.564750 2.099157

Intercept & Beta

t statistic

(0.070599) -0.199716() - 1.101734(U) + 0.021012() + 0.029849() +0.244874Rit|US

1.897037 -0.652772 - 4.355030 0.164764 0.564750 2.099157


Uk returns as a function us mvm factors

UK Returns as a function US MVM factors


Using arbitrage pricing theory to analyse uk and usa property cycle differences

KnotE(Rit|)

coefficient

Recessionary Spline

t-Statistic

R2

-value

UK

1988-91

2.0958

5.5915

97.95

0.0000

1994-95

-19.1563

-1.6583

88.91

0.1358

1998-99

2.3055

1.1847

40.31

0.2738

2001-02

0.9952

31.8677

98.70

0.0000

2007-09

3.7072

1.2936

51.83

0.9465

US

1990-91

1.4878

5.6030

86.07

0.0000

2001-02

3.6434

6.0746

80.45

0.0000

2007-09

0.3499

1.1229

75.62

0.2818


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • The UK Property investment market is at best is only moderately integrated with the US property and capital markets suggesting the potential for similar pricing activities.

  • However cycle investigation shows a difference in lead lag associations across markets.

  • This suggest the possibility of arbitrage across markets and time.

  • The application of the APT model shows that an integration of the US property returns and general economic factors however reduce the explanatory effect of MVM factors.


Conclusions1

Conclusions

  • This suggested a difference in pricing behaviour across the 2 markets.

  • One previously hypothesized reason is that the two markets reflect pricing differentials as a function of mean/trend reversion behaviour, suggesting that the UK more rationally prices general economic variables, while the US shows a decoupling of financial and real economic variables in the estimation of property returns


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