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2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project.. 2. Lesson 2. The Expansion of Islam Lesson Two. 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project.. 3. Rapid Growth of Islam. Why and How?Arabic numerals versus Ro

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1. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 1 EWI Title Slide

2. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 2 The Expansion of Islam Lesson Two

3. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 3 Rapid Growth of Islam Why and How? Arabic numerals versus Roman numerals Christopher Columbus used maps & instruments derived from Muslim technology Tulip came from Muslim Turkey not Holland Muslims protected Jews & Christians through higher taxes (dhimmi). Muslims protected Christians from “Christian” Byzantines. Islam flowered during Europe’s Dark Ages on learning, art, medicine, law, engineering, military arts. Monopoly on silk, slaves and spices on trade Only in the latter half of the 19th century Europeans caught Muslim world economically, militarily & culturally.

4. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 4 Muslims and Arabs 1.3 billion people are Muslims. 21 % of the world’s 6 billion people are Muslim. One fifth of humanity. 250 million people speak Arabic. 19% of Muslims. Millions of Arabs are Christians and Jews. Arabic is the world’s fifth most widely spoken language. Population by religion, by province and territory (2001 Census) Canada – Muslim population 579,640

5. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 5 Muslims and the Middle East While many Muslims live in the Middle East and North Africa, most Muslims do not! Indonesia – 170 million Pakistan – 150 million India – 130 million Bangladesh – 110 million China – 80 million

6. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 6 Muslims and the U.S. 6 million Muslims live in the U.S. The U.S. has more Muslims than Jews. While many Muslims are immigrants, over 1/3 are converts to Islam While many non-immigrant Muslims are African American, a large percentage are Caucasian

7. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 7 1st Caliph—AbuBakr—632-634

8. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 8 Consolidation of control and governance. Corruption of the Quraysh. Establishes official text of the Qur’an. 4th Caliph – ALI – 656 – 661 He is the son in law of Muhammad by Fatima. His followers felt that the succession should by in the family of the prophet. He is an earlier and faithful follower and tries to curtail the corruption of the Quraysh. He had not given his allegiance to the other Caliphs. His death leads to the split of the Sunni (Umayyad Caliphs) and the Shi‘a (the party of Ali and the Imams). 3rd Caliph—Uthman—644-656

9. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 9 Rashidun-The Rightly Guided Caliphs (632-661) Arbitration KarbalaArbitration Karbala

10. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 10 Early Expansion Subjugation Arab tribes to Islamic rule rather than Muhammad’s personality. Establishment of the rule of law, courts, salaried troops and taxes. Christians and Jews as protected subjects. Taxes (Zakat vs. Jizyah – “protection”) Dhimmi Relief from Byzantine and Persian Oppression State of Christianity Our Ideas of War and Battles – “death by the sword” Caught in the net No Bible in Arabic (1271 – 1680s) Ransom or enslave you opponent More advantage in a tax base than forced conversion Perisan Nestorians revealed from Zorastian oppression Arab speaking Christians releaved of Greek rule (brothers) Copts as well Tone of Miller and ZmewerCaught in the net No Bible in Arabic (1271 – 1680s) Ransom or enslave you opponent More advantage in a tax base than forced conversion Perisan Nestorians revealed from Zorastian oppression Arab speaking Christians releaved of Greek rule (brothers) Copts as well Tone of Miller and Zmewer

11. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 11 The Umayyad Period (660-750) Under Muawiyah I, Muslims advance across North Africa with unity and zeal. Capture the island of Rhodes and entered island of Sicily. In the Northeast Muslims crossed the Oxus. In the West they laid siege of Constantinople. 711-713 brought victories in Spain crossed over to France in the west the Sind in the east and Transoxiana in the north. Under the Umayyads the Muslims dominions constituted the largest empire in the world – Spain to Afghanistan.

12. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 12 The Umayyad Period (660-750) The Umayyads continued to organize the state administration in Damascus. They constructed cities, administration posts, and buildings. They enjoyed economic prosperity for its citizens, promoted learning, research, translation, and established numerous centers of learning. Marks the beginning of an intellectual flowering.

13. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 13 The Umayyads in Spain (756-1031) While the east become Abbasid, the Umayyads maintain control in Spain. Modern agriculture, irrigation works increased cultivated land. Roads, bridges, trade, and industry flourished. Especially textile and leather works. The Umayyad patronized art and learning. Cordova came to be known as the “Jewel of the World”.

14. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 14 The Abbasid Dynasty (Persian) The early period (750-945) The capital moved to Baghdad Abbasid came to power by successful bloody revolt against the Umayyads Many Shi‘a revolts were suppressed and many members of the family of the prophet were killed

15. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 15 Europe Islamic Debt During the middle and dark ages of Europe, the Muslims were the leaders of the intellectual world. They were the pioneers in various fields of knowledge and learning. When Europe embarked on its quest for knowledge, it utilized the Islamic sources. Muslims made two-fold contribution to knowledge: Preserved all learning of the ancient world into Arabic. Islam produced great scientists and scholars in areas such as astronomy, medicine, mathematics, physics, philosophy, geography, music, and history.

16. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 16 Science : Jabir, Jahiz and Baytar. Mathematics : Khawarizmi, Omar Khayyam, Abul Wafa, and Nasir-Ud Tusi, Al-Jaber. Astronomy : Farabi, Ibn Sina, Ghazali and Ibn Rushd, Ibn Arabi. Philosophy : Tabari, Ibn Maskawayah, Ibn Athir. History : Ibn Khaldun. Geography : Masudi, Idrisi, and Ibn Hauqal. Music : Farabi, Zalzal, Ziryab, and Ibrahim Mousli. Islamic universities spread throughout the Islamic empire, they flourished with scholars from Europe, particularly from Spain. Europe Islamic Debt

17. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 17 “Muslim Spain wrote one of the brightest chapters in the intellectual history of medieval Europe. Between the middle of the 8th and the beginning of the 13th centuries the Arabic speaking peoples were the main bearers of the torch of culture and civilization throughout the world. They were the median through which ancient science and philosophy were recovered, supplemented, and transmitted in such a way as to make possible the renaissance of western Europe.” Phillip K. Hitti, History of the Arabs

18. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 18 “It was under the influence of Moorish revival of culture and not in the 15th century that the real renaissance took place. Spain and not Italy was the cradle of the rebirth of Europe. After sinking lower and lower in Barbarism, it had reached the darkest depth of ignorance and degradation while the cities of Sarcenic world, Baghdad, Cairo, Cordova, Toledo, Damascus, etc. were growing centers of civilization and intellectual activity. It was there that the new life arose which was to go into a new phase of human evolution. From the time when the influence of their culture made itself felt began the stirring of new life.” Robert Briffault, The Making of Humanity

19. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 19 Western Culture owes a deep debt to Islamic society We still use many Arabic terms like alchemy, alkali, alcohol, antimony, algebra, algorithm, and azimuth. Our number system (with the zero) is an Arabic numeral system. Christopher Columbus sails to the “New World” with Muslim maps and instruments. Roger Bacon (1214-1294) is regarded as the father of European renaissance and the origin of the experimental methods in science. His source material was Islamic. Tulips don’t come from Holland…They come from Turkey!

20. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 20 Other Muslim Empires Abbasids (945-1258) Fatimids in Egypt (967-1150) Al Azhar Seljuks (1037-1194) Crusades Mongols (1125-1260) Genghis Khan Mamluks (1250-1517) Timur (1369-1404) Timbuktu (13th)

21. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 21 The Crusades (1071-1375) Manzikert 1071 Anitoch 1084Manzikert 1071 Anitoch 1084

22. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 22 Sean Gabb, Independent Journal And I shuddered because the Turks were a threat not in the sense that the Mongol Hordes or the Soviet Empire were threats. They were so threatening because what they had to offer was often so very attractive. They were relaxed in matters of nationality, and they were tolerant in religion. So long as the appropriate taxes were paid and respect given, they allowed each ethnic and religious group to govern itself. That last, heroic defence of Constantinople was undercut by the unwillingness of many Orthodox Christians to pay the cost of remaining in Christendom. I am not sure if the Western powers were able in the fifteenth century to give the effectual help the Byzantine Government was so desperate to obtain. What I do know is that the price of any support was too great for the Orthodox—involving as it did submission to Rome in all matters of doctrine. It was Lucas Notaras, the last Byzantine Grand Admiral, who said "Better the Sultan's turban than the Cardinal's hat".

23. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 23 Ottomans (1250-1922) Constantinople falls in 1453 Siege of Vienna in 1529 Janissaries Selected from Christian families ages 7-14. Competent Leadership as late as 1683 New World Gold. French in Algeria (1830), Brits in Egypt (1882)

24. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 24 Spread of Islam South into Africa (1000) and East into Central Asia (1000), China (755) and Indonesia (1300’s) Gradual growth along coasts, trade and caravan routes i.e. the “Silk Road” Nominally win their employees and then educated the children By Sufi Mystics and Tradesmen Syncretism Involvement in the Slave trade Monopolies in certain commodities. i.e. Spices

25. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 25 Recent History World War I – Abolished Caliphate Modern Imperialism Israel Oil – The Haves and Have Nots Failed Nationalism & Poverty Growth in migration in Europe and the U.S. Growing Orthodoxy

26. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 26 Islamic Beliefs Lesson Three

27. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 27 Ponder This… Why are Islamic beliefs attractive? What are the external expressions of my beliefs? How do I demonstrate in my behavior, my core belief: Christ in you: The hope of Glory God’s Riches At Christ’s Expense (GRACE)

28. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 28 The Five Pillars - Practices

29. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 29 Confession (Shahada) Birth and Death How you become a MuslimsBirth and Death How you become a Muslims

30. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 30 Ritual prayer five times a day (Salat) Prescribed form, gestures, words, times, washing, direction Daniel prayed towards Jerusalem Lord’s Prayer Prescribed form, gestures, words, times, washing, direction Daniel prayed towards Jerusalem Lord’s Prayer

31. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 31

32. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 32

33. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 33 Sacrifice – not atonement

34. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 34 Fasting (Saum) Observed during the lunar month of Ramadam (29-30 days) Observed sun up to sun down Other spiritual rituals are also performed. Travelers, expectant mothers and the ill are exempt. Goal: Cleansing, discipline and identificationObserved during the lunar month of Ramadam (29-30 days) Observed sun up to sun down Other spiritual rituals are also performed. Travelers, expectant mothers and the ill are exempt. Goal: Cleansing, discipline and identification

35. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 35 Celebration Sura 2:183 – to learn self-restraint Matt. 6:16-18 When you fast… do not appear to be fasting …except to your Father

36. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 36 Pilgrimage (Haj) The place where Abraham supposedly sacrificed Ishmael. Every “able bodied” Muslim must visit Mecca once in the lifetime. Perform rituals. Walking seven times around the Kaaba The stoning of “Satan” (symbolized by a rock). Re-enacting Hagar’s search of water. Kissing/touching the black stone (Kaaba). Millions substitute “local” pilgrimageThe place where Abraham supposedly sacrificed Ishmael. Every “able bodied” Muslim must visit Mecca once in the lifetime. Perform rituals. Walking seven times around the Kaaba The stoning of “Satan” (symbolized by a rock). Re-enacting Hagar’s search of water. Kissing/touching the black stone (Kaaba). Millions substitute “local” pilgrimage

37. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 37 Islamic Beliefs - Basic Convictions God is completely ‘other’ (no human equal) and unkonwable Jihad and the assurance of eternal life Original SinGod is completely ‘other’ (no human equal) and unkonwable Jihad and the assurance of eternal life Original Sin

38. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 38 Name of God Aramaic – Elah Germanic – Gott Arabic speaking Christians Tribal deity association and form Acts 17:23 - Paul on Mars Hill Missiological principle Should Christians use word Allah in their translation of the Bible?

39. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 39 Qur’an – The voice of God THE QURAN: The Voice of God I. Revealed to Muhammad Through the angel Gabriel In Arabic Muhammad recited these visions and scribes wrote them down. Finally “canonized” in 650 A.D. To Muslims – The Word of God (Islam is more cultural than theological) In Arabic Unchangeable (translation vs. interpretation) Extremely revered (worshipped?) “Whereas in Christianity, in the beginning was the Word and the Word became flesh, in Islam, in the beginning was the Word and the Word became a Book!” (Answering Islam by Norman Geisler and Abdul Saleeb, page 98.) THE HADITH: Traditions I. The authority regarding practice of Islam. Started as “living traditions” or “Sunnah”. Later “written traditions” or Hadith. C. Six volumes or “versions” currently exist. OTHER HOLY BOOKS I. Designated as “holy” by the Quran. Torah (The Writings of the Prophet Moses) Zabur (The Writings of the Prophet David) Injil (The Writings of the Prophet Jesus) Different that what we see as the N.T., but yet we can use it. Respected but generally not seen as authoritative. THE “PILLARS”: Required Duties Source: Hadith and Quran (Merit is achieved from God for the successful completion of each pillar.) I. The confession or creed (Shahadah) “There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His Prophet” (in Arabic). To recite this with meaning is all it takes become a Muslim. Recited into the ear of the newborn. Recited into the ear of the dying. Prayer (formal prayers = Salat) Five times per day. Predetermined postures (from the Hadith) Aims (Zakat) A. Graduated scale for giving (from the Hadith) 2.5% of one’s income 5% of agricultural products 10% of all imported goods Fasting (Sawm) Observed during the lunar month of Ramadam (29-30 days) Observed sun up to sun down Other spiritual rituals are also performed. Travelers, expectant mothers and the ill are exempt. Goal: Cleansing, discipline and identification V. The Pilgrimage (Hajj) The place where Abraham supposedly sacrificed Ishmael. Every “able bodied” Muslim must visit Mecca once in the lifetime. Perform rituals. Walking seven times around the Kaaba The stoning of “Satan” (symbolized by a rock). Re-enacting Hagar’s search of water. Kissing/touching the black stone (Kaaba). Millions substitute “local” pilgrimage Holy War (Jihad) Most Muslims do not say Jihad is a Pillar. Definition: “to strive or exert force” (Muhammad rode into Mecca to conquer; Jesus rode into Jerusalem to die). Various levels THE BELIEFS Basic Convictions I. God God is completely “other” (no human equal) To claim equality with God is “Shirk”, the greatest of all sins. He is one. The essential nature of God in Islam is power. The ninety-nine names of God II. Prophets A prophet for every age, from Adam to Muhammad (120,000) Every prophet has a Holy Book; only 3 (apart from the Quran) have survived. Muhammad is the last and greatest prophet. III. Holy Books Quran Others of less importance: Torah Zabur changed, unreliable Injil IV. Angels Created beings Each person is given a good and a bad angel (on each shoulder), which endeavors to sway influence over him/her and to record behavior. V. Judgment Day Each person is judged by God on the basis of his/her works (deeds). Deeds weighed on a “scale”. No assurance of salvation except through martyrdom in Jihad. Hell – a place of fire and continuous torture. Heaver – (paradise) a very sensuous place (for men). Jesus is returning to usher in the final age of Islam. VI. The will of God (In-Sha-Allah) God is absolutely sovereign. Everything that happens is because God wills it (fatalism). THE COMMUNITY: Brotherhood of Islam (Umma) I. Functions in two capacities Support (the “social security” system) Food, water, clothing in times of need. Education Vocation Self policing “force” (exercises “the will of God” on errant Muslims). II. Confusing to Westerners Integration of church and state.THE QURAN: The Voice of God I. Revealed to Muhammad Through the angel Gabriel

40. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 40 Qur’an – the miracle Considered miracle from God, eternal and uncreated, sent down from heaven in Arabic by direct dictation. ‘Mechanical Revelation’ versus Organic Revelation “Muslims have continually insisted that the internal proof that the Qur’an Is the word of God is its literary majesty: “If you could just understand it and hear it being chanted in Arabic, you would know it is the truth” “Doctrine & Covenant 9:8  “But, behold, I say unto you, that you must study it out in your mind; then you must ask me if it be right, and if it is right I will cause that your bosom shall burn within you; therefore, you shall feel that it is right.” No textual nor historical criticism of Qur’an. A true translation of Qur’an is not possible. The Summary of Christian Doctrine by Louis Berkhof, Chap 3 on Scripture.The Summary of Christian Doctrine by Louis Berkhof, Chap 3 on Scripture.

41. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 41 Hadith - Traditions An authority regarding practice of Islam Includes both the way of the Prophet, Sunna and the non-revelatory sayings of the Prophet Six volumes are most commonly used

42. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 42 Other Holy Books Torah of Moses (Musa) Psalms of David (Daud) Gospel of Jesus (Isa) Respected but generally not seen as authoritative.

43. © 2005 All Rights Reserved. Encountering the World of Islam is a trademark of Caleb Project. 43 True Path Put my own Online Mission’s material…

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