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Fig. 9-2. Light energy. ECOSYSTEM. Photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Organic molecules. CO 2 + H 2 O. + O 2. Cellular respiration in mitochondria. ATP. ATP powers most cellular work. Heat energy. Fig. 9-19. Glucose. Glycolysis. CYTOSOL. Pyruvate. O 2 present:

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Fig. 9-2

Light

energy

ECOSYSTEM

Photosynthesis

in chloroplasts

Organic

molecules

CO2 + H2O

+ O2

Cellular respiration

in mitochondria

ATP

ATP powers most cellular work

Heat

energy


Fig. 9-19

Glucose

Glycolysis

CYTOSOL

Pyruvate

O2 present:

Aerobic cellular

respiration

No O2 present:

Fermentation

MITOCHONDRION

Acetyl CoA

Ethanol

or

lactate

Citric

acid

cycle


Fig. 9-10

CYTOSOL

MITOCHONDRION

NAD+

NADH

+ H+

2

1

3

Acetyl CoA

Coenzyme A

Pyruvate

CO2

Transport protein


Fig. 9-6-3

Electrons carried

via NADH and

FADH2

Electrons

carried

via NADH

Oxidative

phosphorylation:

electron transport

and

chemiosmosis

Citric

acid

cycle

Glycolysis

Pyruvate

Glucose

Mitochondrion

Cytosol

ATP

ATP

ATP

Substrate-level

phosphorylation

Substrate-level

phosphorylation

Oxidative

phosphorylation


Fig. 9-11

Pyruvate

CO2

NAD+

CoA

NADH

+ H+

Acetyl CoA

CoA

CoA

Citric

acid

cycle

2

CO2

FADH2

3 NAD+

NADH

3

FAD

+ 3 H+

ADP +

P

i

ATP


Fig. 9-12-8

Acetyl CoA

CoA—SH

NADH

H2O

1

+H+

NAD+

Oxaloacetate

8

2

Malate

Citrate

Isocitrate

NAD+

Citric

acid

cycle

NADH

3

+ H+

7

H2O

CO2

Fumarate

CoA—SH

-Keto-

glutarate

4

6

CoA—SH

5

FADH2

CO2

NAD+

FAD

Succinate

NADH

P

i

+ H+

Succinyl

CoA

GDP

GTP

ADP

ATP


CoA—SH

NADH

1

+H+

NAD+

8

Malate

Citric

acid

cycle

3

7

H2O

CO2

Fumarate

CoA—SH

-Keto-

glutarate

4

6

CoA—SH

5

FADH2

CO2

NAD+

FAD

CO2

Succinate

NADH

P

i

+ H+

Succinyl

CoA

GDP

GTP

ADP

ATP


Fig. 9-17

Electron shuttles

span membrane

MITOCHONDRION

CYTOSOL

2 NADH

or

2 FADH2

2 NADH

6 NADH

2 FADH2

2 NADH

Oxidative

phosphorylation:

electron transport

and

chemiosmosis

Glycolysis

Citric

acid

cycle

2

Acetyl

CoA

2

Pyruvate

Glucose

+ 2 ATP

+ 2 ATP

+ about 32 or 34 ATP

About

36 or 38 ATP

Maximum per glucose:


Fig. 9-16

H+

H+

H+

H+

Protein complex

of electron

carriers

Cyt c

V

Q



ATP synthase



H2O

2 H+ + 1/2O2

FADH2

FAD

NAD+

NADH

ADP +

ATP

P

i

(carrying electrons

from food)

H+

Chemiosmosis

Electron transport chain

1

2

Oxidative phosphorylation


Fig. 10-16

Mitochondrion

Chloroplast

MITOCHONDRION

STRUCTURE

CHLOROPLAST

STRUCTURE

Diffusion

H+

Thylakoid

space

Intermembrane

space

Electron

transport

chain

Inner

membrane

Thylakoid

membrane

ATP

synthase

Stroma

Matrix

Key

ADP + P

i

ATP

Higher [H+]

H+

Lower [H+]


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