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Fig. 9-0a. Fig. 9-0b. Wolf. Chinese Shar-Pei. Ancestral canine. Akita. Siberian Husky. Alaskan Malamute. Basenji. Afghan hound. Saluki. Rottweiler. Sheepdog. Retriever. Fig. 9-2a. Fig. 9-2b. Petal. Stamen. Carpel. White. Removed stamens from purple flower. 1. Fig. 9-2c-1.

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Fig 9 0a

Fig. 9-0a


Fig 9 0b

Fig. 9-0b

Wolf

Chinese Shar-Pei

Ancestral

canine

Akita

Siberian Husky

Alaskan Malamute

Basenji

Afghan hound

Saluki

Rottweiler

Sheepdog

Retriever


Fig 9 2a

Fig. 9-2a


Fig 9 2b

Fig. 9-2b

Petal

Stamen

Carpel


Fig 9 2c 1

White

Removed

stamens from

purple flower

1

Fig. 9-2c-1

Stamens

Carpel

Transferred

pollen from stamens of white

flower to carpel of purple flower

2

Parents

(P)

Purple


Fig 9 2c 2

White

Removed

stamens from

purple flower

1

Fig. 9-2c-2

Stamens

Carpel

Transferred

pollen from stamens of white

flower to carpel of purple flower

2

Parents

(P)

Purple

Pollinated carpel

matured into pod

3


Fig 9 2c 3

White

Removed

stamens from

purple flower

1

Fig. 9-2c-3

Stamens

Carpel

Transferred

pollen from stamens of white

flower to carpel of purple flower

2

Parents

(P)

Purple

Pollinated carpel

matured into pod

3

Planted seeds

from pod

4

Offspring

(F1)


Fig 9 2d

Flower color

Purple

White

Fig. 9-2d

Flower position

Axial

Terminal

Seed color

Green

Yellow

Seed shape

Wrinkled

Round

Pod shape

Inflated

Constricted

Green

Pod color

Yellow

Tall

Stem length

Dwarf


Fig 9 3a 1

P generation

(true-breeding

parents)

Purple flowers

White flowers

Fig. 9-3a-1


Fig 9 3a 2

P generation

(true-breeding

parents)

Purple flowers

White flowers

Fig. 9-3a-2

F1 generation

All plants have

purple flowers


Fig 9 3a 3

P generation

(true-breeding

parents)

Purple flowers

White flowers

Fig. 9-3a-3

F1 generation

All plants have

purple flowers

Fertilization

among F1 plants

(F1´ F1)

F2 generation

of plants

have purple flowers

of plants

have white flowers

1

4

3

4


Fig 9 3b

Genetic makeup (alleles)

P plants

pp

PP

Fig. 9-3b

Gametes

All

All

p

P

F1 plants

(hybrids)

All Pp

p

P

1

2

1

2

Gametes

Sperm

p

P

P

PP

Pp

F2 plants

Phenotypic ratio

3 purple : 1 white

Eggs

Genotypic ratio

1 PP : 2 Pp : 1 pp

Pp

pp

p


Fig 9 4

Gene loci

Dominant

allele

Fig. 9-4

B

a

P

b

P

a

Recessive

allele

Bb

PP

Genotype:

aa

Homozygous

for the

recessive allele

Heterozygous

Homozygous

for the

dominant allele


Fig 9 5a

Hypothesis: Independent assortment

Hypothesis: Dependent assortment

rryy

P

generation

rryy

RRYY

RRYY

Fig. 9-5a

ry

ry

Gametes

RY

Gametes

RY

RrYy

F1

generation

RrYy

Sperm

Sperm

RY

1

4

Ry

ry

1

4

1

4

1

4

rY

ry

RY

1

2

1

2

RY

1

4

F2

generation

RY

1

2

RrYy

RRYY

RrYY

RRYy

Eggs

1

4

rY

ry

1

2

RrYY

rrYY

RrYy

rrYy

Eggs

Yellow

round

9

––

16

Ry

1

4

RRYy

RRyy

Rryy

RrYy

Green

round

3

––

16

1

4

ry

Hypothesized

(not actually seen)

Yellow

wrinkled

Rryy

rrYy

rryy

3

––

16

RrYy

Actual results

(support hypothesis)

Green

wrinkled

1

––

16


Fig 9 5b

Fig. 9-5b

Blind

Blind

Chocolate coat, normal vision

bbN_

Black coat, normal vision

B_N_

Black coat, blind (PRA)

B_nn

Phenotypes

Genotypes

Chocolate coat, blind (PRA)

bbnn

BbNn

Mating of heterozygotes

(black, normal vision)

BbNn

9 black coat,

normal vision

3 black coat,

blind (PRA)

3 chocolate coat,

normal vision

1 chocolate coat,

blind (PRA)

Phenotypic ratio

of offspring


Fig 9 6

Fig. 9-6

Testcross:

B_

Genotypes

bb

Two possibilities for the black dog:

BB

Bb

or

B

b

B

Gametes

b

Bb

b

Bb

bb

Offspring

1 black : 1 chocolate

All black


Fig 9 7

F1 genotypes

Bb male

Formation of sperm

Fig. 9-7

Bb female

Formation of eggs

B

b

1

2

1

2

B

B

b

B

B

1

2

1

4

1

4

b

b

b

B

b

1

2

1

4

1

4

F2 genotypes


Fig 9 8a

Recessive Traits

Dominant Traits

Fig. 9-8a

Freckles

No freckles

Widow’s peak

Straight hairline

Attached earlobe

Free earlobe


Fig 9 8aa

Fig. 9-8aa

Freckles

No freckles


Fig 9 8ab

Fig. 9-8ab

Straight hairline

Widow’s peak


Fig 9 8ac

Fig. 9-8ac

Free earlobe

Attached earlobe


Fig 9 8b

First generation

(grandparents)

Ff

Ff

Ff

ff

Fig. 9-8b

Second generation

(parents, aunts,

and uncles)

ff

Ff

ff

Ff

ff

FF

or

Ff

Third generation

(two sisters)

ff

FF

or

Female

Male

Ff

Affected

Unaffected


Fig 9 9a

Parents

Normal

Dd

Normal

Dd

´

Fig. 9-9a

Sperm

d

D

Dd

Normal

(carrier)

DD

Normal

D

Offspring

Eggs

Dd

Normal

(carrier)

dd

Deaf

d


Fig 9 9b

Fig. 9-9b


Fig 9 9c

Fig. 9-9c


Fig 9 9ca

Fig. 9-9ca


Fig 9 10a

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

Amniocentesis

Needle inserted

through abdomen to

extract amniotic fluid

Ultrasound

monitor

Suction tube inserted

through cervix to extract

tissue from chorionic villi

Ultrasound

monitor

Fig. 9-10a

Fetus

Fetus

Placenta

Placenta

Chorionic

villi

Uterus

Cervix

Cervix

Uterus

Centrifugation

Amniotic

fluid

Fetal

cells

Fetal

cells

Biochemical

tests

Several

weeks

Several

hours

Karyotyping


Fig 9 10b

Fig. 9-10b


Fig 9 10ba

Fig. 9-10ba


Fig 9 10bb

Fig. 9-10bb


Fig 9 11a

P generation

Red

RR

White

rr

Fig. 9-11a

r

R

Gametes

F1 generation

Pink

Rr

1

2

1

2

R

r

Gametes

Sperm

r

R

1

2

1

2

F2 generation

rR

RR

R

1

2

Eggs

Rr

rr

r

1

2


Fig 9 11b

Genotypes:

Fig. 9-11b

HH

Homozygous

for ability to make

LDL receptors

hh

Homozygous

for inability to make

LDL receptors

Hh

Heterozygous

Phenotypes:

LDL

LDL

receptor

Cell

Normal

Severe disease

Mild disease


Fig 9 12

Fig. 9-12

Reaction When Blood from Groups Below Is Mixed

with Antibodies from Groups at Left

Blood

Group

(Phenotype)

Antibodies

Present in

Blood

Red Blood Cells

Genotypes

O

A

B

AB

Anti-A

Anti-B

ii

O

IAIA

or

IAi

Carbohydrate A

Anti-B

A

IBIB

or

IBi

B

Carbohydrate B

Anti-A

IAIB

AB


Fig 9 12a

Blood

Group

(Phenotype)

Genotypes

Red Blood Cells

Fig. 9-12a

O

ii

IAIA

or

IAi

Carbohydrate A

A

IBIB

or

IBi

B

Carbohydrate B

IAIB

AB


Fig 9 12b

Reaction When Blood from Groups Below Is Mixed

with Antibodies from Groups at Left

Blood

Group

(Phenotype)

Antibodies

Present in

Blood

B

A

AB

O

Fig. 9-12b

Anti-A

Anti-B

O

Anti-B

A

B

Anti-A

AB


Fig 9 13

Individual homozygous

for sickle-cell allele

Sickle-cell (abnormal) hemoglobin

Fig. 9-13

Abnormal hemoglobin crystallizes,

causing red blood cells to become sickle-shaped

Sickle cells

Clumping of cells

and clogging of

small blood vessels

Breakdown of

red blood cells

Accumulation of

sickled cells in spleen

Physical

weakness

Heart

failure

Pain and

fever

Brain

damage

Damage to

other organs

Spleen

damage

Anemia

Impaired

mental

function

Pneumonia

and other

infections

Kidney

failure

Paralysis

Rheumatism


Fig 9 14

P generation

aabbcc

(very light)

AABBCC

(very dark)

Fig. 9-14

F1 generation

AaBbCc

AaBbCc

Sperm

1

8

1

8

1

8

1

8

1

8

1

8

1

8

1

8

F2 generation

1

8

1

8

1

8

20

––

64

1

8

Eggs

1

8

15

––

64

1

8

Fraction of population

1

8

1

8

6

––

64

1

––

64

20

––

64

6

––

64

1

––

64

1

––

64

6

––

64

15

––

64

15

––

64

Skin color


Fig 9 14a

P generation

aabbcc

(very light)

AABBCC

(very dark)

Fig. 9-14a

F1 generation

AaBbCc

AaBbCc

Sperm

1

8

F2 generation

1

8

1

8

1

8

1

8

1

8

1

8

1

8

1

8

1

8

1

8

1

8

Eggs

1

8

1

8

1

8

1

8

20

––

64

6

––

64

1

––

64

1

––

64

6

––

64

15

––

64

15

––

64


Fig 9 14b

20

––

64

Fig. 9-14b

15

––

64

Fraction of population

6

––

64

1

––

64

Skin color


Fig 9 15

Fig. 9-15


Fig 9 16 1

All round yellow seeds

(RrYy)

F1 generation

R

y

r

Y

Fig. 9-16-1

r

R

r

R

Metaphase I

of meiosis

(alternative

arrangements)

y

Y

y

Y


Fig 9 16 2

All round yellow seeds

(RrYy)

F1 generation

R

y

r

Y

Fig. 9-16-2

r

R

r

R

Metaphase I

of meiosis

(alternative

arrangements)

y

Y

y

Y

r

R

r

R

Anaphase I

of meiosis

y

y

Y

Y

r

r

R

R

Metaphase II

of meiosis

y

y

Y

Y


Fig 9 16 3

All round yellow seeds

(RrYy)

F1 generation

R

y

r

Y

Fig. 9-16-3

r

R

r

R

Metaphase I

of meiosis

(alternative

arrangements)

y

Y

y

Y

r

R

r

R

Anaphase I

of meiosis

y

y

Y

Y

r

r

R

R

Metaphase II

of meiosis

y

y

Y

Y

Gametes

y

Y

Y

y

y

y

Y

Y

r

r

R

r

r

R

R

R

1

4

1

4

1

4

Ry

ry

rY

1

4

RY

Fertilization among the F1 plants

F2 generation

9

:3

:3

:1


Fig 9 17

Experiment

Purple flower

PpLl

PpLl

Long pollen

Fig. 9-17

Observed

offspring

Prediction

(9:3:3:1)

Phenotypes

Purple long

Purple round

Red long

Red round

284

21

21

55

215

71

71

24

Explanation: linked genes

PL

Parental

diploid cell

PpLl

pl

Meiosis

Most

gametes

pl

PL

Fertilization

Sperm

PL

pl

PL

PL

PL

Most

offspring

PL

pl

Eggs

pl

pl

pl

PL

pl

3 purple long : 1 red round

Not accounted for: purple round and red long


Fig 9 17a

Experiment

Fig. 9-17a

Purple flower

PpLl

PpLl

Long pollen

Prediction

(9:3:3:1)

Observed

offspring

Phenotypes

Purple long

Purple round

Red long

Red round

284

21

21

55

215

71

71

24


Fig 9 17b

Explanation: linked genes

PL

Parental

diploid cell

PpLl

Fig. 9-17b

pl

Meiosis

Most

gametes

pl

PL

Fertilization

Sperm

PL

pl

PL

PL

PL

Most

offspring

PL

pl

Eggs

pl

pl

pl

PL

pl

3 purple long : 1 red round

Not accounted for: purple round and red long


Fig 9 18a

Fig. 9-18a

b

A

B

A

B

A

b

a

a

B

a

b

Tetrad

Crossing over

Gametes


Fig 9 18b

Fig. 9-18b


Fig 9 18c

Experiment

Gray body,

long wings

(wild type)

Black body,

vestigial wings

GgLl

ggll

Female

Male

Fig. 9-18c

Offspring

Black vestigial

Gray vestigial

Gray long

Black long

944

185

965

206

Parental

phenotypes

Recombinant

phenotypes

391 recombinants

2,300 total offspring

= 0.17 or 17%

Recombination frequency =

Explanation

g l

G L

ggll

(male)

GgLl

(female)

g l

g l

g l

g l

g L

G L

G l

Sperm

Eggs

g l

g L

G L

G l

g l

g l

g l

g l

Offspring


Fig 9 18ca

Experiment

Gray body,

long wings

(wild type)

Black body,

vestigial wings

Fig. 9-18ca

ggll

GgLl

Male

Female

Offspring

Gray long

Black vestigial

Gray vestigial

Black long

944

206

185

965

Parental

phenotypes

Recombinant

phenotypes

391 recombinants

2,300 total offspring

= 0.17 or 17%

Recombination frequency =


Fig 9 18cb

Fig. 9-18cb

Explanation

g l

G L

GgLl

(female)

ggll

(male)

g l

g l

g l

g L

g l

G L

G l

Sperm

Eggs

g l

g L

G L

G l

g l

g l

g l

g l

Offspring


Fig 9 19a

Fig. 9-19a

Chromosome

l

g

c

17%

9.5%

9%

Recombination

frequencies


Fig 9 19b

Mutant phenotypes

Cinnabar

eyes

(c)

Brown

eyes

Short

aristae

Black

body

(g)

Vestigial

wings

(l)

Fig. 9-19b

Long aristae

(appendages

on head)

Gray

body

(G)

Normal

wings

(L)

Red

eyes

Red

eyes

(C)

Wild-type phenotypes


Fig 9 20a

Fig. 9-20a

X

Y


Fig 9 20b

(female)

(male)

Fig. 9-20b

44

+

XY

44

+

XX

Parents’

diploid

cells

22

+

X

22

+

X

22

+

Y

Sperm

Egg

44

+

XX

Offspring

(diploid)

44

+

XY


Fig 9 20c

Fig. 9-20c

22

+

XX

22

+

X


Fig 9 20d

Fig. 9-20d

76

+

ZW

76

+

ZZ


Fig 9 20e

Fig. 9-20e

32

16


Fig 9 21a

Fig. 9-21a


Fig 9 21b

Female

Male

Xr Y

XR XR

Fig. 9-21b

Sperm

Xr

Y

Eggs

XR Y

XR

XR Xr

R = red-eye allele

r = white-eye allele


Fig 9 21c

Female

Male

XR Xr

XR Y

Fig. 9-21c

Sperm

Y

XR

XR

XR XR

XR Y

Eggs

Xr Y

Xr

Xr XR


Fig 9 21d

Female

Male

Xr Y

XR Xr

Fig. 9-21d

Sperm

Y

Xr

XR

XR XR

XR Y

Eggs

Xr Xr

Xr Y

Xr


Fig 9 22

Fig. 9-22

Queen

Victoria

Albert

Louis

Alice

Alexandra

Czar

Nicholas II

of Russia

Alexis


Fig 9 un1

Fig. 9-UN1

Fertilization

Homologous

chromosomes

Alleles, residing

at the same locus

Meiosis

Diploid zygote

(containing

paired alleles)

Gamete

from other

parent

Paired alleles,

alternate forms

of a gene

Haploid gametes

(allele pairs separate)


Fig 9 un2

Incomplete

dominance

Fig. 9-UN2

White

rr

Red

RR

Pink

Rr

Pleiotropy

Single

gene

Multiple characters

Polygenic

inheritance

Multiple

genes

Single characters

(such as skin color)


Fig 9 un3

Genes

located

on

alternative

versions called

Fig. 9-UN3

chromosomes

(a)

at specific

locations called

if both same,

genotype called

if different,

genotype called

(c)

heterozygous

(b)

expressed

allele called

unexpressed

allele called

(d)

(e)

inheritance when phenotype

In between called

(f)


Fig 9 un4

Fig. 9-UN4


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