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Conceptions of Professionalism and Professionality. Andrew Wilson Hull College. To discuss . [It is] argued that professionalism is synonymous with quality and the current practices relating to maintaining and monitoring standards are issues of contentious debate. Warrior (2002).

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Presentation Transcript
to discuss
To discuss

[It is] argued that professionalism is synonymous with quality and the current practices relating to maintaining and monitoring standards are issues of contentious debate.

Warrior (2002)

what is your view
What is your view?

What is a profession and what is a professional?

What is your definition of profession and professional


Is your view evidence or opinion based?

dictionary definitions
Dictionary definitions


…an occupation requiring special training in the liberal arts or sciences, especially one of the three learned professions, law, theology, or medicine.

dictionary definitions1
Dictionary definitions


of, relating to, suitable for, or engaged in as a profession

engaging in an activity for gain or as a means of livelihood

extremely competent in a job


Dictionary definitions are not the full story

Most theorists indicate that working for the public good is a characteristic of a profession.

profession academic definition
Profession (Academic definition)

…an occupation with a crucial social function, requiring a high degree of skill and drawing on a systematic body of knowledge.


models of professionalism
Models of Professionalism

A number of theorists saw a profession as an organisation whose members satisfied specific and measurable criteria

millerson s 1964 model of professionalism
Millerson’s (1964) Model of Professionalism
  • A skill based on theoretical knowledge
  • Intellectual training and education
  • The testing of competence
  • Closure of the profession by restrictive organisation
  • A code of conduct
  • An altruistic service in the affairs of others

…professionalism is not some social-scientific absolute, but a historically changing and socially constructed concept-in-use

Holroyd (2000)

Can we measure something that lacks a fixed meaning?

hoyle 1974 hoyle john 1995 professionalism and professionality
Hoyle (1974) Hoyle & John (1995) Professionalism and Professionality

Professionalism – strategies and rhetoric employed by members of an occupation to improve status, salary and conditions, and…

Professionality – knowledge, skills and procedures employed by teachers in the process of teaching.

hoyle 1974 hoyle john 1995 professionalism and professionality1
Hoyle (1974) Hoyle & John (1995) Professionalism and Professionality

Suggested 2 forms of professionality…

…restricted and extended

hoyle hoyle john
Hoyle, Hoyle & John

The extended form of professionality which goes beyond classroom skills to a wider range of knowledge and skills is seen as important.

They identified three major problems in acquiring this wider range



Teachers tend to obtain job satisfaction from classroom activities, with relatively little interest in educational theory/research. Question of how far they can gain further satisfaction and feel comfortable in challenging situation of extended professionality.

Perception that extended professionality achieved at expense of effective restricted professionality – career orientation rather than expertise in teaching situation


Mastery of theoretical knowledge

Commitment to continuous learning

Capacity to solve problems


Ability to create knowledge as well as possess it

Enthusiasm and commitment to stakeholders

Applying theoretical knowledge to practice


The teaching profession suffers from a vicious circle of low status, lack of competitive resources, inability to control their own selection, training and qualification, divided and consequently ineffective organisation and a degree of state interference and control suffered by almost no other profession all leading to low bargaining power, low remuneration and low status.



Collins English Dictionary (7th Edition:2005) Harper Collins: Glasgow.

Holroyd, C. (2000) Are assessors professional? Active Learning in Higher Education, 1(1), 28-44.

Hoyle, E. (1974) ‘Professionality, professionalism and control in teaching’. London Educational Review,3 (2), Summer 1974, pp.13-19

Hoyle, E. & John, P, D. (1995) Professional Knowledge and Professional Practice, Cassell: London

Millerson, G. (1964) The qualifying associations: a study in professionalization, Routledge & KeganPaul: London.

Perkin, H. (1985) The Teaching Profession and the Game of Life. In P. Gordon (1985) Is Teaching a Profession? University of London, Institute of Education, 12–25.

Sockett, H. (1985) Towards a Professional Code in Teaching. In P. Gordon (1985) Is Teaching a Profession? University of London, Institute of Education, 26-43.

Warrior, R. (2002) Reflections of an Education Professional. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism. (1):2, 57 – 63.