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European Explorers. 1450-1750. European Exploration. Portuguese exploration Prince Henry of Portugal determined to increase Portuguese influence Portuguese mariners emerged as the early leaders; result will be global trade. European Exploration.

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european exploration
European Exploration
  • Portuguese exploration
    • Prince Henry of Portugal determined to increase Portuguese influence
    • Portuguese mariners emerged as the early leaders; result will be global trade
european exploration1
European Exploration
  • Slave trade expanded in the 15th c.- Portuguese traders ventured down the west coast of Africa and traded guns and textiles for gold and slaves
indian ocean trade
Indian Ocean Trade
  • Portuguese search for sea route Cape of Good Hope, entered the Indian Ocean, 1488
  • Vasco da Gama arrived at Calicut in 1498, returned to Lisbon with huge profit
  • Portuguese ships with cannons launched European imperialism in Asia
christopher columbus
Christopher Columbus
  • 1492, led three ships to the Caribbean Sea, believed he was near Japan
  • Result– increased interest in transoceanic travel and trade
ferdinand magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
  • Portuguese navigator, in service of Spain
    • Crossed both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans 1519-1522
    • 1 ship of 5 completed the circumnavigation of world; Magellan died in conflict in Philippines
captain james cook
Captain James Cook
  • 1728-1779
    • British explorer
    • Went to Australia
  • By late 18th century, Europeans had reasonably accurate geographic knowledge of the world
motives for exploration
Motives for exploration
  • 3 Gs
    • God, Gold, and Glory
  • Missionary efforts of European Christians
    • New Testament urged Christians to spread the faith throughout the world
    • Crusades and hold wars against Muslims in early centuries
    • Reconquista (Christians removing Muslims) of Spain inspired Iberian crusaders
motives for exploration1
Motives for Exploration
  • Direct trade without Muslim intermediaries– Asian spices and African gold, ivory, slaves
  • Honor and power
technology
Technology
  • Technology of exploration enabled European mariners to travel offshore
    • Caravel- fast, maneuverable ship with a sternpost and astrolabe (determines latitude)
    • Knowledge of winds and currents enables Europeans to travel reliability
      • Trade winds north and south of the equator
      • Regular Monsoons in Indian Ocean basin
      • Volta do mar- navigational technique by Portuguese navigators based on ocean circulations
trade and conflict in early modern asia
Trade and Conflict in Early Modern Asia
  • Trading-post empires
    • Portuguese build more than fifty trading posts between west African and east Asia
    • English and Dutch established parallel trading posts in Asian coasts
trade and conflict
Trade and Conflict
  • European conquests in southeast Asia
    • Spanish conquest of the Philippines, 1565
    • Conquest of Java by the Dutch (1825)
trade and conflict1
Trade and Conflict
  • Commercial rivalries and the Seven Years’ War
    • Global competition and conflict
      • Dutch forces expelled most Portuguese merchants from southeast Asia
      • Conflict between England and France merchants over control of Indian cotton and tea in early 18th century
      • Competition in the Americas among English, French, and Spanish forces
conflict
Conflict
  • Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)
    • British and Prussians, against France, Austria, and Russia (fought in Europe, India, Caribbean, and North America)
      • Outcome: British hegemony (leadership or dominance by one country or social group over others)
        • British gained control of India, and Canada
        • War paved the way for the British empire in the nineteenth century
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