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European Explorers. 1450-1750. European Exploration. Portuguese exploration Prince Henry of Portugal determined to increase Portuguese influence Portuguese mariners emerged as the early leaders; result will be global trade. European Exploration.

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European exploration
European Exploration

  • Portuguese exploration

    • Prince Henry of Portugal determined to increase Portuguese influence

    • Portuguese mariners emerged as the early leaders; result will be global trade

European exploration1
European Exploration

  • Slave trade expanded in the 15th c.- Portuguese traders ventured down the west coast of Africa and traded guns and textiles for gold and slaves

Indian ocean trade
Indian Ocean Trade

  • Portuguese search for sea route Cape of Good Hope, entered the Indian Ocean, 1488

  • Vasco da Gama arrived at Calicut in 1498, returned to Lisbon with huge profit

  • Portuguese ships with cannons launched European imperialism in Asia

Christopher columbus
Christopher Columbus

  • 1492, led three ships to the Caribbean Sea, believed he was near Japan

  • Result– increased interest in transoceanic travel and trade

Ferdinand magellan
Ferdinand Magellan

  • Portuguese navigator, in service of Spain

    • Crossed both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans 1519-1522

    • 1 ship of 5 completed the circumnavigation of world; Magellan died in conflict in Philippines

Captain james cook
Captain James Cook

  • 1728-1779

    • British explorer

    • Went to Australia

  • By late 18th century, Europeans had reasonably accurate geographic knowledge of the world

Motives for exploration
Motives for exploration

  • 3 Gs

    • God, Gold, and Glory

  • Missionary efforts of European Christians

    • New Testament urged Christians to spread the faith throughout the world

    • Crusades and hold wars against Muslims in early centuries

    • Reconquista (Christians removing Muslims) of Spain inspired Iberian crusaders

Motives for exploration1
Motives for Exploration

  • Direct trade without Muslim intermediaries– Asian spices and African gold, ivory, slaves

  • Honor and power


  • Technology of exploration enabled European mariners to travel offshore

    • Caravel- fast, maneuverable ship with a sternpost and astrolabe (determines latitude)

    • Knowledge of winds and currents enables Europeans to travel reliability

      • Trade winds north and south of the equator

      • Regular Monsoons in Indian Ocean basin

      • Volta do mar- navigational technique by Portuguese navigators based on ocean circulations

Trade and conflict in early modern asia
Trade and Conflict in Early Modern Asia

  • Trading-post empires

    • Portuguese build more than fifty trading posts between west African and east Asia

    • English and Dutch established parallel trading posts in Asian coasts

Trade and conflict
Trade and Conflict

  • European conquests in southeast Asia

    • Spanish conquest of the Philippines, 1565

    • Conquest of Java by the Dutch (1825)

Trade and conflict1
Trade and Conflict

  • Commercial rivalries and the Seven Years’ War

    • Global competition and conflict

      • Dutch forces expelled most Portuguese merchants from southeast Asia

      • Conflict between England and France merchants over control of Indian cotton and tea in early 18th century

      • Competition in the Americas among English, French, and Spanish forces


  • Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)

    • British and Prussians, against France, Austria, and Russia (fought in Europe, India, Caribbean, and North America)

      • Outcome: British hegemony (leadership or dominance by one country or social group over others)

        • British gained control of India, and Canada

        • War paved the way for the British empire in the nineteenth century