Eutrophication. Peter Kristensen European Environment Agency. Review of studies: OECD Environmental Outlook 2001 ( 2020; qualitative assessments; discharge of nitrogen from agriculture ) VMM (Sep.) 2000: Report on the environment and nature in Flanders: scenarios MIRA-S 2000
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European Environment Agency
(Flanders & NL, development of sectors – S&I qualitative – submodules)
Both the Flanders and Dutch Environmental Outlook reports take the offset in projections of the activities in the main sectors (households, industry, agriculture), which in turn drives projections of the main pressures such nutrient surplus for agricultural land and discharge from waste water treatment plants.
·Agriculture: Based on estimates of development of livestock and crops grown and national policies, the nutrient input to soil is calculated. The nutrient surplus is calculated.
·Industry: Based on information on the development in industrial sectors and technological changes, emissions from industry are calculated.
·WWTP: Based on forecasts of the type of wastewater treatment and population connected to treatment plants, the discharge of nutrients is calculated.
Models and methods are used to evaluate the effect of the change in the pressures on the state and impacts in groundwater, inland surface waters and coastal areas. The linkage between pressure and state/impact are generally weakly described.
Nitrate in groundwater
N&P source apportoinment
P&N load Rhine and Meuse
Models: Main drivers Population & economic developmentCause of decrease in phosphorus concentration are construction/upgrading of UWWT plants, recession in AC and phosphate-free detergentsSimilar of decoupling fertiliser use, nutrient balances, pesticide use, ammonia emissions from agricultural production during the 1990s