The Space Station Power System
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The Space Station Power System Solar Array Battery Power Management & Distribution. Dave McKissock NASA Glenn Research Center May 24, 2006 [email protected] Compare ISS & Your Home Scratch off items not applicable to both locations. Bath tub Exercise Machine

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The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

The Space Station Power SystemSolar ArrayBatteryPower Management & Distribution

Dave McKissock

NASA Glenn Research Center

May 24, 2006

[email protected]


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

Compare ISS & Your HomeScratch off items not applicable to both locations

  • Bath tub

  • Exercise Machine

  • Kitchen Table & Chairs

  • Weekly cleaning

  • Cable TV

  • Thermal Control

  • Hot Water Heater

  • Smoke Alarm

  • Electrical Power

  • Trash removal

  • Clean Gutters

  • Replenish O2

  • Waste water removal

  • Swim Suit

  • Lawn Maintenance

  • Food Preparation


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

ISS Batteries

38 cells wired in series make one Battery Orbital Replacement Unit (Battery ORU)


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

ISS Batteries

Battery Charge Discharge Unit (BCDU)

One Battery = 2 Battery ORUs

Battery ORU

Battery ORU


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

Space Station Power SystemOne Channel


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

What’s Next in Space Power?

  • Crew Exploration Vehicle

  • Lunar Lander

  • Lunar Rover

  • Lunar Base (?)

  • Mars Base (?)


Poll question 1

Poll Question #1

Do you support the new plan for space exploration that returns the space shuttle to flight, completes assembly of the space station, builds a replacement for the shuttle, returns to the Moon and then on to Mars and beyond?


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

July 2004 Gallup Survey Results

  • With funding for NASA’s program expected not to exceed 1% of the federal budget, 42% of adults surveyed say they support the proposed Exploration program


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

  • Solar cells make electricity from sunlight

Electricity


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

Electricity is described in two ways:

  • Voltage (Volts, V)

  • Current (Amperes, A)

V

A

{ Power = Voltage * Current }


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

A

  • Connect solar cells together…

    • Series (end to end): to build up voltage

    • Parallel (side by side): to build up current

    • This makes a solar array


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

end to end

Series

or

side by side

Parallel?

end to end

Series

or

side by side

Parallel?

V

(currents add)

(voltages add)


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

  • Example: Airplane model propeller motor

    • Electric motor wants 12 volts and ½ amperes

    • Each solar cell can provide:

      • ½ volt and ¼ amperes

    • How do you connect the solar cells?


Poll question 2

Poll Question #2

  • Need 12V at ½ Amp

  • Each cell generates ½ V at ¼ Amp

  • What do I need?


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

Discussion of Poll AnswerD: Both A & C

  • 24 cells (end-to-end)

    • Add ½ volt plus ½ volt 24 times = 12V (or ½ x 24 = 12)

  • 2 cells (side by side)

    • Add ¼ amp plus ¼ amp = ½ amp

  • Individual cell performance varies as environment changes


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

Two popular ways to store electrical energy…

BatteryFuel Cell


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

  • In battery cell, chemicals react at 2 electrodes and separate charges

    • stores charges, builds up voltage

    • if connected to a light bulb, charges flow (current)


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

  • In a fuel cell stack, “stuff” is fed to metal plates, reacts and gives/takes charges

    • separate charges to build up voltage

O

H

Remember H20 ?


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

A

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Parallel

Currents add

Series  Voltages add

V

Energy Storage


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

Batteries on Space Station

  • Desire 114 Volts

  • Willing to take whatever current you get

  • Each Nickel-Hydrogen cell (NiH2) produces 1.5V, rated at 81 Amp-Hours

  • What series / parallel arrangement do you recommend?


Poll question 3

Poll Question #3

  • Need 114V at whatever Amps

  • Each cell generates 1½ V at 81 Amp-Hr

  • What will I need?


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

Discussion of Poll Results

  • Correct Answer is “A”, 76 cells in series at 1.5 volts per cell yields 76 x 1.5 = 114 V

  • No spare cells for voltage redundancy

    • Batteries designed to last 6.5 years and provide needed voltage

  • Nuclear power not an option in low earth orbit


The space station power system solar array battery power management distribution

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