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The Space Station Power System Solar Array Battery Power Management & Distribution. Dave McKissock NASA Glenn Research Center May 24, 2006 david.b.mckissock@nasa.gov. Compare ISS & Your Home Scratch off items not applicable to both locations. Bath tub Exercise Machine

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The Space Station Power System Solar Array Battery Power Management & Distribution

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The Space Station Power SystemSolar ArrayBatteryPower Management & Distribution

Dave McKissock

NASA Glenn Research Center

May 24, 2006

david.b.mckissock@nasa.gov


Compare ISS & Your HomeScratch off items not applicable to both locations

  • Bath tub

  • Exercise Machine

  • Kitchen Table & Chairs

  • Weekly cleaning

  • Cable TV

  • Thermal Control

  • Hot Water Heater

  • Smoke Alarm

  • Electrical Power

  • Trash removal

  • Clean Gutters

  • Replenish O2

  • Waste water removal

  • Swim Suit

  • Lawn Maintenance

  • Food Preparation


ISS Batteries

38 cells wired in series make one Battery Orbital Replacement Unit (Battery ORU)


ISS Batteries

Battery Charge Discharge Unit (BCDU)

One Battery = 2 Battery ORUs

Battery ORU

Battery ORU


Space Station Power SystemOne Channel


What’s Next in Space Power?

  • Crew Exploration Vehicle

  • Lunar Lander

  • Lunar Rover

  • Lunar Base (?)

  • Mars Base (?)


Poll Question #1

Do you support the new plan for space exploration that returns the space shuttle to flight, completes assembly of the space station, builds a replacement for the shuttle, returns to the Moon and then on to Mars and beyond?


July 2004 Gallup Survey Results

  • With funding for NASA’s program expected not to exceed 1% of the federal budget, 42% of adults surveyed say they support the proposed Exploration program


  • Solar cells make electricity from sunlight

Electricity


Electricity is described in two ways:

  • Voltage (Volts, V)

  • Current (Amperes, A)

V

A

{ Power = Voltage * Current }


A

  • Connect solar cells together…

    • Series (end to end): to build up voltage

    • Parallel (side by side): to build up current

    • This makes a solar array


A

-

-

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+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

end to end

Series

or

side by side

Parallel?

end to end

Series

or

side by side

Parallel?

V

(currents add)

(voltages add)


  • Example: Airplane model propeller motor

    • Electric motor wants 12 volts and ½ amperes

    • Each solar cell can provide:

      • ½ volt and ¼ amperes

    • How do you connect the solar cells?


Poll Question #2

  • Need 12V at ½ Amp

  • Each cell generates ½ V at ¼ Amp

  • What do I need?


Discussion of Poll AnswerD: Both A & C

  • 24 cells (end-to-end)

    • Add ½ volt plus ½ volt 24 times = 12V (or ½ x 24 = 12)

  • 2 cells (side by side)

    • Add ¼ amp plus ¼ amp = ½ amp

  • Individual cell performance varies as environment changes


Two popular ways to store electrical energy…

BatteryFuel Cell


  • In battery cell, chemicals react at 2 electrodes and separate charges

    • stores charges, builds up voltage

    • if connected to a light bulb, charges flow (current)


  • In a fuel cell stack, “stuff” is fed to metal plates, reacts and gives/takes charges

    • separate charges to build up voltage

O

H

Remember H20 ?


A

-

+

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-

-

-

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+

+

+

+

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Parallel

Currents add

Series  Voltages add

V

Energy Storage


Batteries on Space Station

  • Desire 114 Volts

  • Willing to take whatever current you get

  • Each Nickel-Hydrogen cell (NiH2) produces 1.5V, rated at 81 Amp-Hours

  • What series / parallel arrangement do you recommend?


Poll Question #3

  • Need 114V at whatever Amps

  • Each cell generates 1½ V at 81 Amp-Hr

  • What will I need?


Discussion of Poll Results

  • Correct Answer is “A”, 76 cells in series at 1.5 volts per cell yields 76 x 1.5 = 114 V

  • No spare cells for voltage redundancy

    • Batteries designed to last 6.5 years and provide needed voltage

  • Nuclear power not an option in low earth orbit


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Provide tools to quickly and easily locate targeted science content information and teaching resources from NSTA-reviewed science web sites.

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