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Chapter 2 Literature Review. WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW?. It is an account of what has been published on a research area It summarizes , synthesizes and evaluates (critiques) the studies reviewed It outlines a framework and a theoretical base of a research

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what is literature review
  • It is an account of what has been published on a research area
  • It summarizes, synthesizes and evaluates (critiques) the studies reviewed
  • It outlines a framework and a theoretical base of a research
  • It is defined by research objectives, issue/problem you are exploring
  • It is NOT just a description or summary of your readings.


























Taken from:


In academic culture, plagiarism is a serious offense.

Committing plagiarism can result in being expelled from a university.

Therefore, it is in your best interest to learn CITING skills.








Without adequate documentation






paraphrase summarise

Table of main idea














some rules to in text citation direct quotation
Some Rules to In-Text Citation - Direct Quotation -
  • According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). 
  • She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Jones\'s (1998) study found the following: 






















what is in text citation
What is in-text citation?
  • According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
  • APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998).
reference list
Reference List?
  • Strahan, D. (2009, September). A real waste of waste. Ecologist, (3), 2-4.
  • Kazmin, A. (2009, September 9). \'Politics of water\' leaves Punjab in deep trouble. Financial Times. Retrieved from
  • Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R.(1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
some rules to in text citation paraphrase summary
Some Rules to In-Text Citation - Paraphrase/Summary -
  • A Work with One Author – use surname but do not include suffix (such as Jr.) or professional titles (such as Dr.)
  • As Resnick (1997) described in her adventure, the people of South Africa are committed to the future.
  • The people of South Africa are committed to the future (Resnick, 1997).
  • A Work with Two Authors - use both names each time the reference is cited; use & instead of “and” in the parenthetical citation, but do not substitute in the sentence.
  • Smith and Jones (2005) found …
  • As the research shows (Smith & Jones, 2005) …

Some Rules to In-Text Citation - Paraphrase/Summary -

  • A Work with 3, 4, or 5 Authors – use all authors for the first mention and the first author and et al. for subsequent referrals
  • Carey, Elfstrand, and Hijleh (2005) found … [first citation to this work]
  • As this study shows (Carey et al., 2005) … [all subsequent references to above work]
  • A Work with More than 6 Authors – use the first author and et al. and the year.
  • Gordon et al. (2009) showed …
  • As shown previously (Gordon et al., 2009) …

Some Rules to In-Text Citation - Paraphrase/Summary -

  • A Work with a Group as Author – corporations, associations, government agencies – use the full name in each citation unless the abbreviation is well known and is easily recognizable for locating the entry in the Reference list.
  • Rose Society (1999) or (Rose Society, 1999) [all citations to this work –no common abbreviation or acronym]
  • United Nations Children‟s Fund (2007) or (United Nations Children‟s Fund, 2007) [first citation]
  • UNICEF (2007) or (UNICEF, 2007) [subsequent referrals to this work –common acronym – reader would know to look for entry under United Nations Children‟s Fund in the Reference list]

Some Rules to In-Text Citation - Paraphrase/Summary -

  • A Work with No Author – instead of the author use the title or the first few words of the title (if the title is long). If the title is to a chapter, an article or a web page, put the words in quotes; if the title is to a book, a periodical, a brochure or report, use italics.
  • A study on internet use (“Survey Shows”, 2008)… [This is a web page from a web site; use quotation marks since work is a part of a whole]
  • The brochure Facts about HIV/AIDS (2009)… [Use italics since this is a whole work]
  • Secondary Sources – use only when unable to review the original work
  • Freeman’s work (as cited in Franklin, 2001) purports… [Franklin is listed in the Reference list]

Some Rules to Reference List

  • Publication date appears in parentheses, followed by a period. Use (n.d.) when no publication date is available
  • Italicize titles of whole entities - books, periodicals, brochures, films, reports, etc. - not chapters or article titles
  • Italicize volume numbers of magazines and journals, but not the issue number.
  • Electronic Sources not based on a Print Version
    • Use this statement – Retrieved MONTH DATE, YEAR, from URL

Some Rules to Reference List

- Examples -

  • Magazine, newsletter, or journal article in print
  • Nayak, N. V. & Taylor, J. E. (2009, October). Offshore outsourcing in global design networks. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25, 177-184.
  • Strahan, D. (2009, September). A real waste of waste. Ecologist, (3), 2-4.
  • Twitter: a vampire that can legally suck the life out of you. (2009, September 21). Advertising Age, 80(31), 42.

Some Rules to Reference List

- Examples -

  • Journal article retrieved online (web or database) – provide homepage URL of the journal, newsletter or magazine rather than electronic database information.
  • Clemmitt, M. (2009, October 9). Medication abuse. CQ Researcher, 19, 837-860. Retrieved July 6, 2009, from

Some Rules to Reference List

- Examples -

  • Newspaper article in print and retrieved online– use p. or pp. for page numbers in a newspaper
  • Kazmin, A. (2009, September 9). \'Politics of water\' leaves Punjab in deep trouble. Financial Times, p. 6.
  • Kazmin, A. (2009, September 9). \'Politics of water\' leaves Punjab in deep trouble. Financial Times. Retrieved July 6, 2009, from

Some Rules to Reference List

- Examples -

  • Entire book, print version
  • Belasco, W. J. (2007). Appetite for change: How the counterculture took on the food industry. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Entire book, electronic version of a print book – electronic retrieval information replaces publication information. If DOI available, that is all that is needed.
  • Bohman, J. (2007). Democracy across borders: From Dêmos to Dêmoi. Retrieved July, 6 2009, from docID=10190463

Book chapter, article in edited book

  • Carll, E. K. (2008). Violent video games and aggressive behavior in children are linked. In Gerdes, L. (Ed.). Opposing Viewpoints: Violence. (pp. 6-21). Chicago, IL: American Library Association.
  • Unpublished Work
  • Lipkens, R. (1992). A behaviour analysis of complex human functioning: Analogical reasoning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Nevada-Reno, Nevada, USA.
  • Conference/Proceedings?
    • Evers, G. & Isernberg, M. (2009, January). Reliability and validity of self-care agency scale. Paper presented at the International Nursing Research Conference, Washington, DC.
    • Evers, G. & Isernberg, M. (2009, January). Reliability and validity of self-care agency scale. In Bauer, B. (Ed.), Conceptual issues in family caregiving research: Proceedings of the International Nursing Research Conference (pp. 20-30). Washington, DC: University of Washington.

Online article with no page number:

    • Use abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number you are citing. When possible, specify a section of the article.
      • (Myers, 2000, para. 5)
      • (Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1)
  • Presentation
    • Worral, P. S. & Levin, R. (2004, June). Developing a statewide research agenda. Presentation given at the biannual meeting of the American Nurses Association, Minneapolis, MN.
how do you cite a google book
How Do You Cite a Google Book?
  • Students are starting to turn to the resource for their research.
  • The answer wasn’t immediately clear!
    • Ballard, J. N. (1998). The History of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Washington: DIANE Publishing. p. 143. ISBN 0-7881-7666-8. Google Book Search. Retrieved on December 23, 2007
1 paraphrasing
  • Involve restating the ideas from a passage in your own words
  • Paraphrased text is usually the same length as the original
  • Source

It has long been known that Cairo is the most populous city on earth, butno-one knew exactly how populous it was until last month. – (Chan Kian Hwa, 2010)

  • Paraphrase

Although Cairo according to Chan Kian Hwa (2010) has been the world\'s most heavily populated city for many years, the precise population was not known until four weeks ago.

the following stages may be useful
The following stages may be useful:
  • Read and understand the text.
  • Make a list of the main ideas.
    • Find the important ideas - the important words/phrases. In some way mark them - write them down, underline or highlight them.
    • Find alternative words/synonyms for these words/phrases - do not change specialised vocabulary and common words.

Change the structure of the text.

    • Identify the meaning relationships between the words/ideas - e.g. cause/effect, generalisation, contrast.
    • Express these relationships in a different way.
    • Change the grammar of the text: change nouns to verbs, adjectives to adverbs, etc., break up long sentences, combine short sentences.
  • Rewrite the main ideas in complete sentences. Combine your notes into a piece of continuous writing.

Check your work.

    • Make sure the meaning is the same.
    • Make sure the length is the same.
    • Make sure the style is your own.
    • Remember to acknowledge other people\'s work.
methods of paraphrasing
  • Look away from the source; then write.
    • Read the text you want to paraphrase several times—until you feel that you understand it and can use your own words to restate it. Then, look away from the original and rewrite the text in your own words.


  • Take notes.
    • Take notes; set the notes aside; then paraphrase from the notes.
if it still doesn t work
If it still doesn’t work?

This may mean that you don’t understand the passage completely.

Then, you have to move to the next strategy:

While looking at the source, first change (a) the structure, then (b) the words.

a change the structure
(a) Change the structure
  • Begin by starting at a different place in the passage, basing your choice on the focus of your paper. This will lead naturally to some changes in wording.
  • Focusing on specific people rather than abstractions will make your paraphrase more readable.
  • You might also break up long sentences, combine short ones, expand phrases for clarity, or shorten them for conciseness.
b change the words
(b) Change the words
  • Use synonyms or a phrase that expresses the same meaning.
  • Leave shared language unchanged.
    • Some Examples of Shared Language You Don’t Need to Change:
      • Conventional designations: e.g., physician’s assistant, chronic low-back pain
      • Preferred bias-free language: e.g., persons with disabilities
      • Technical terms and phrases of a discipline or genre: e.g., reduplication, cognitive domain, material culture, sexual harassment
  • There are reckoned to be over 4,000 plant species used by forest dwellers as food and medicine alone. 

There are calculated to be more than 4,000 plant species utilised by forest inhabitants just as foodstuffs and drugs.

  • Memory is the capacity for storing and retrieving information.

Memory is the facility for keeping and recovering data.

  • Research and publications are accumulating in each of the four fields of anthropology at an exponential rate. 

Studies and books are gathering in all of the four areas of anthropology at a very fast speed.

  • It is worth looking at one or two aspects of the way a mother behaves towards her baby.

It is useful to observe several features of how a mother acts when she is with her small child.


The Japanese government offered new homes to homeless people in Tokyo.

  • Homeless people in Tokyo were offered new homes by the Japanese government.
  • Unfortunate people without housing in Tokyo were given roofs to live under by the Japanese government.

Many parents in the program failed to recognise their children’s achievements.

  • Their children’s achievements failed to be recognised by parents in the program
  • Their children’s accomplishments failed to be acknowledged by parents in the course.

In American society, Introverts are outnumbered about three to one. As a result, they must develop extra coping skills early in life because there will be an inordinate amount of pressure on them to “shape up,” to act like the rest of the world. The Introvert is pressured daily, almost from the moment of awakening, to respond and conform to the outer world. Classroom teachers unwittingly pressure Introverted students by announcing that “One-third of your grade will be based on classroom participation.” From Otto Kroeger and Janet M. Thuesen, Type Talk: The 16 Personality Types that Determine How We Live, Love and Work. New York: Dell Publishing, 1989.


Possible Paraphrase

  • There are many more extroverts than introverts in America. This puts a lot of pressure on introverts to fit in and be like everybody else. Even in school, teachers add to this pressure by making class participation part of the student\'s grade. Consequently, introverts have to acquire additional skills to deal with these pressures.

Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10 percent of the final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, students should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.

  • In research papers students often quote excessively, failling to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note-taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim in order to adhere to maximum of ten percent of directly quoted materials.

Although Simax is the latest cellular company here, it has managed to successfully build the largest market share in cellular communications. Simax has the largest number of subscribers which is about five millions.  

  • Simax is now the top cellular service communication provider even though it is the most recent cellular company.
2 summarizing
  • It is a shortened piece of writing by restating main points in your own words
  • General ideas are highlighted
  • Details & examples are excluded
  • Source

The amphibia, which is the animal class to which our frogs and toads belong, were the first animals to crawl from the sea and inhabit the earth.

  • Summary

The first animals to leave the sea and live on dry land were the amphibia.


Distinguish between main and subsidiary information. Delete most details and examples, unimportant information, anecdotes, examples, illustrations, data etc. Simplify the text. Reduce complex sentences to simple sentences, simple sentences to phrases, phrases to single words.

  • People whose professional activity lies in the field of politics are not, on the whole, conspicuous for their respect for factual accuracy.
  • Failure to assimilate an adequate quantity of solid food over an extended period of time is absolutely certain to lead, in due course, to a fatal conclusion.

Politicians often lie.

Lack of food causes death.

  • The climatic conditions prevailing in Malaysia show a pattern of alternating and unpredictable periods of dry and wet weather, accompanied by a similarly irregular cycle of temperature changes.

Weather in Malaysia is changeable.

  • It is undeniable that the large majority of non-native learners of English experience a number of problems in attempting to master the phonetic patterns of the language.

Many learners find English pronunciation difficult.

  • Tea, whether of the China or Indian variety, is well known to be high on the list of those beverages which are most frequently drunk by the inhabitants of the British Isles.

The British drink a large amount of tea.

3 direct quotation
  • Authors’ exact words are copied directly from original sources
  • It is preferred when citing powerful phrases or interpreting literary works like poems or plays
  • Sources must be properly cited
what not to cite
  • Common knowledge consists of:
  • Information that is easily observed – the sky is blue.
  • Commonly reported facts – Dr Mahathir was the fourth prime minister of Malaysia.
  • Common sayings such as proverbs – “Two heads are better than one” “Honesty is the best policy”