Chapter 2 Literature Review. WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW?. It is an account of what has been published on a research area It summarizes , synthesizes and evaluates (critiques) the studies reviewed It outlines a framework and a theoretical base of a research
In academic culture, plagiarism is a serious offense.
Committing plagiarism can result in being expelled from a university.
Therefore, it is in your best interest to learn CITING skills.
Without adequate documentation
Table of main idea
Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)
Jones\'s (1998) study found the following:
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It has long been known that Cairo is the most populous city on earth, butno-one knew exactly how populous it was until last month. – (Chan Kian Hwa, 2010)
Although Cairo according to Chan Kian Hwa (2010) has been the world\'s most heavily populated city for many years, the precise population was not known until four weeks ago.
This may mean that you don’t understand the passage completely.
Then, you have to move to the next strategy:
While looking at the source, first change (a) the structure, then (b) the words.
There are calculated to be more than 4,000 plant species utilised by forest inhabitants just as foodstuffs and drugs.
Memory is the facility for keeping and recovering data.
Studies and books are gathering in all of the four areas of anthropology at a very fast speed.
It is useful to observe several features of how a mother acts when she is with her small child.
Many parents in the program failed to recognise their children’s achievements.
In American society, Introverts are outnumbered about three to one. As a result, they must develop extra coping skills early in life because there will be an inordinate amount of pressure on them to “shape up,” to act like the rest of the world. The Introvert is pressured daily, almost from the moment of awakening, to respond and conform to the outer world. Classroom teachers unwittingly pressure Introverted students by announcing that “One-third of your grade will be based on classroom participation.” From Otto Kroeger and Janet M. Thuesen, Type Talk: The 16 Personality Types that Determine How We Live, Love and Work. New York: Dell Publishing, 1989.
Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10 percent of the final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, students should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.
Although Simax is the latest cellular company here, it has managed to successfully build the largest market share in cellular communications. Simax has the largest number of subscribers which is about five millions.
The amphibia, which is the animal class to which our frogs and toads belong, were the first animals to crawl from the sea and inhabit the earth.
The first animals to leave the sea and live on dry land were the amphibia.
Distinguish between main and subsidiary information. Delete most details and examples, unimportant information, anecdotes, examples, illustrations, data etc. Simplify the text. Reduce complex sentences to simple sentences, simple sentences to phrases, phrases to single words.
Politicians often lie.
Lack of food causes death.
Weather in Malaysia is changeable.
Many learners find English pronunciation difficult.
The British drink a large amount of tea.