Remote sensing for earth observation
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Remote sensing for Earth observation. Dr Nigel Trodd Coventry University. What is remote sensing?. remote sensing has been described as the means of sensing or measuring things (characteristics) without coming into direct contact with the object or phenomenon. What is Earth observation?.

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Remote sensing for Earth observation

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Remote sensing for Earth observation

Dr Nigel Trodd

Coventry University


What is remote sensing?

remote sensing has been described as the means of sensing or measuring things (characteristics) without coming into direct contact with the object or phenomenon


What is Earth observation?

observing our planet is a pre-requisite to a better understanding of its changes and the natural and anthropogenic processes that cause those changes


Aim & objectives

  • To understand remote sensing as a source of geodata for mapping & monitoring the Earth

  • Examine the role of remote sensing for Earth observation

  • Exemplify aspects of the geodata stream


What are the principles of remote sensing?

  • Source of electromagnetic radiation

  • Interaction with target

  • Measurement by sensor mounted on platform


Multispectral reflectance


EMR sources

  • Active remote sensing

    • Artificial source of EMR

    • Radar

    • Lidar

  • Passive remote sensing

    • Natural source of EMR

    • Sun (primary source for optical RS)

    • EMR emitted from Earth surface


What properties can be measured?


albedo


Climate change due to reduced snow albedo caused by soot


EOS Aqua AMSR-ESSTAdvanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer


Global DEMShuttle Radar Topography Mission 2000


What GI can be generated?

  • Extracting features e.g. buildings, roads

  • Land cover / land use classification

  • Estimation of biophysical properties e.g. biomass, ice-thaw


Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia


QuikSCAT Seawinds scatterometerAlaska 2000


What preparation is necessary?

  • Cosmetic infilling of saturated pixels & drop-outs

  • Radiometric balancing (destriping) & sensor calibration

  • Atmospheric correction


How do you integrate images into a spatial database?

  • Georeferencing

    • Plane projection

    • Local datum & coordinate system

  • Co-registration

    • Rubber-sheet transformation

    • Nearest neighbour resampling


Orthorectification

  • Topography

    • DN

    • pixel geometry

    • foreshortening


Summary & conclusions

Remote sensing generates

  • 2D & 2.5D GI products

    … at local to global scales

    using optical & microwave EMR

  • Images for Earth observation require

  • error detection & elimination

  • calibration & georegistration


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