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Lesson Five. Love is a Fallacy ---- by Max Shulman. Objectives of Teaching. To comprehend the whole text To lean and master the vocabulary and expressions To learn to paraphrase the difficult sentences To understand the structure of the text

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Lesson five
Lesson Five

Love is a Fallacy

---- by Max Shulman


Objectives of teaching
Objectives of Teaching

  • To comprehend the whole text

  • To lean and master the vocabulary and expressions

  • To learn to paraphrase the difficult sentences

  • To understand the structure of the text

  • To appreciate the style and rhetoric of the passage.


Aims

  • To have a basic knowledge of the terms in logic.

  • To appreciate the humor in the story.

  • To analyze the structure of the story

  • To appreciate the language


Teaching contents
Teaching Contents

  • Special terms in logic

  • Detailed study of the text

  • Organizational pattern

  • The chief attraction of the story

  • Language features

  • Exercises


Time allocation
Time allocation

  • Terms in logic (15 min.)

  • Detailed study of the text (110 min.)

  • Structure analysis (15 min.)

  • Language appreciation (15 min.)

  • Exercise (25 min.)


Lesson five1
Lesson Five

  • I. Special terms in logic

    • argument--a statement which is offered as an evidence or a proof.

    • It consists of two major elements

      • 1. conclusion

      • 2. premises -- a previous statement serving as a basis for an argument.

    • Conclusion is to be drawn from premises.


Special terms in logic
Special terms in logic

  • fallacy -- false reasoning, as in an argument

    • a weakness and lack of logic or good sense in an argument or piece of reasoning


Fallacy
fallacy

  • Usually, an argument is correct (deductively valid) if the premises can provide enough conclusive evidence for the conclusion. Otherwise the argument is wrong. It is said to be fallacious.


Special terms in logic1
Special terms in logic

  • Three kinds of fallacy:

    • 1. material fallacy -- in its material content through a misstatement of the facts.

    • 2. verbal fallacy -- in its wording through an incorrect use of terms.

    • 3. formal fallacy-in its structure through the use of an improper process of inference.


False analogy
False Analogy

  • "High school should not require a freshman writing course . Harvard doesn't require a freshman writing course, and the students get along fine without it".

  • --- The analogy is false because the two items don't have strong enough similarities to predict that what happens in one will happen in the other.


Dicta simpliciter
Dicta Simpliciter

  • "Everyone wants to get married someday."

  • --- The example starts a logical train of thought with an assumption that is false. Not "everyone" wants to get married.


Evading the issue
Evading the issue

  • There are a number of handy fallacies that people press into service to side step a problem while appearing to pursue the point. (文不对题)


1 distraction
1)Distraction

  • "Suds ' n ' Puds is a great restaurant : you can see how shining clean the kitchens are ".

  • --- The example is called distraction because the reader's attention is drawn to the cleanliness of the kitchen instead of to the excellence of the food, which is usually the determiner of a great restaurant.


2 ad hominem
2)Ad hominem

  • "against the person". "poisoning the well"

    • " Ms Bauer is a terrible English teacher. She always wears blue jeans"

    • --- Instead of point out faults in teaching technique, it calls attention to things about a teacher as a person that are unrelated to her teaching performance.


3 ad misericordian an appeal to pity
3)Ad misericordian (an appeal to pity)

  • "Look at this fourteen-year-old child who's run away from home to hide her shame-- pregnant, unwashed, friendless. penniless, at the mercy of our social service agencies. Can you till claim that sex should be taught in the classroom?"


3 ad misericordian an appeal to pity1
3)Ad misericordian (an appeal to pity)

  • --- In this shifty approach to argumentation, the writer gives tear jerking descriptions of the cruel opponents' victims in order to arouse sympathy from the reader.


Hasty generalization
Hasty Generalization

  • "Mr Wang's handwriting is terrible. Mr. Hu's handwriting is also terrible and you know how terrible men's handwriting is ."

  • --- It applies a special case to general rule. That fact that certain person's handwriting is bad doesn't imply that all men‘s handwriting is bad.


Post hoc ergo propter hoc
Post hoc, ergo propter hoc –

  • “After this, therefore because of this"

    • "The last five times that I've worn my white pants, something depressing has happened. I'm not going to wear those pants again!"

    • -- This fallacy assumes that if event Y happened after event X, then X must be the cause of Y.


Circular reasoning
Circular Reasoning

  • or Begging the question:

    • "Juan is an impressive speaker because he always touches his listeners deeply."


Circular reasoning1
Circular Reasoning

  • --- This problem occurs when the writer tries to support a claim by restating it in different words. You can tell this example is circular by considering this “Why is Juan an impressive speaker?” “Because he touches his listeners deeply.?” “Why are Juan's listeners touched so deeply?” “Because he is an impressive speaker.”

    • impressive = touching someone deeply


Appeal to the wrong authority
Appeal to the Wrong Authority

  • "My political science teacher says that the new math is impossible for children to learn“.


Appeal to the wrong authority1
Appeal to the Wrong Authority

  • --- If the student believes that political science teacher's low opinion of new math strongly supports an argument against new math, the student is wrong. The political science teacher is an authority, but in a different field.


Non sequitur it doesn t follow
Non Sequitur -- "it doesn't follow"

  • "Students who take earth science instead of physics are lazy. Susie took earth science instead of physics. Susie should be kicked out of school"

  • --- If the first statement is correct, then you could conclude that Susie is lazy. But there's nothing in that line of reasoning that says lazy students should be kicked out of school. The conclusion doesn't follow.


Ii detailed study of the text
II. Detailed study of the text:

  • title -- humorous/ well chosen

    • 1. When "fallacy" is taken in its ordinary sense, the title means:

      • There is a deceptive or delusive quality about love.

      • Love has delusive qualities


Detailed study of the text
Detailed study of the text:

  • 2. When "fallacy" is having logical sense, it means :

    • Love cannot be deduced from a set of given premises.

    • Love can not follow the given rules.

    • Love is an error, a deception and an emotion that does not follow the principles of logic.


Charles lamb 1775 1834
Charles Lamb (1775-1834)

  • English essayist and critic who is now best known for his "Essays of Elia" (1823,1833). He collaborated with his sister Mary in adapting Shakespeare's plays into stories for children.

  • "Tales from Shakespeare"

  • "Specimens of English Dramatic Poets"


Unfetter set free
unfetter-- set free

  • let sth go freely / be completely out of control

  • limp -- drooping, lacking firmness

  • flaccid -- soft, flabby

  • spongy -- soft, porous, full of holes, not firm

  • specific characteristics of his writing (essay). He is joking , not serious


Thomas carlyle 1795 188
Thomas Carlyle ( 1795-188)

  • English author, Scottish writer

  • He influenced social thinking about he new industrial working class through his essay "Chartism" and his book “The Present and the Past”. He is best known for his epic history of “The French Revolution” 1837 and his lectures “On Heroes and Hero-Workshop” 1841


Thomas carlyle 1795 1881
Thomas Carlyle ( 1795-188)

  • He produced Sartor Resartus 1833-34, the book in which he first developed his characteristic style and thought. This book is a veiled Sardonic (scornful 挖苦的) attack upon the shams and pretences of society, upon hollow rank, hollow officialism, hollow custom, out of which life and usefulness have departed.


Thomas carlyle 1795 1882
Thomas Carlyle ( 1795-188)

  • Carlyle developed a peculiar style of his own which was called --- "Carlyese" "Carlylism"

  • Style -- a compound of

    • biblical phrases

    • colloquialisms

    • Teutonic (条顿的,日尔曼的)twists

    • his own coinings arranged in unexpected sequences.


John ruskin 1819 1900
John Ruskin -- (1819-1900)

  • English critic and social theorist

  • a writer on art and architecture

  • In his later writings he attacked social and economic problems

    • Modern Painters

    • The Stones of Venice

    • The Seven Lamps of Architecture

    • Time and Tide


John ruskin 1819 19001
John Ruskin -- (1819-1900)

  • Positive program for social reforms:

    • Sesame and Lilies (芝麻和百合)

    • The Crown of Wild Olive

    • The King of the Golden River


Implication
Implication:

  • My writing is even more informal. I can do better than them. He says this only with his tongue in cheek.


What is his purpose of writing this essay
What is his purpose of writing this essay?

  • He compared logic to a living thing ( a human being). Logic is not at all a dry learned branch of learning. It is like a living human being, full of beauty, passion and painful emotional shocks.


Trauma
trauma –

  • a term in psychiatry meaning a painful emotional experience.


Author s note
Author’s note

  • 1) His own idea about his own essay.

    • From his point of view, his essay is sth limp, spongy. It is very informal.

  • 2) His own idea about the purpose of that essay.

    • It is not a dry branch of learning , but like a human being.


  • Para 4
    Para 4

    • Introduction of the narrator --- a law student

      • Notice the way he introduced himself

      • "boasting"


    keen –

    • (of the mind) active, sensitive, sharp

      (syn. nimble, quick, adroit prompt, sharp smart swift)敏捷的,敏锐的

      • ~ sight 敏锐的视力

      • ~ intelligence 敏捷的智力


    Calculating
    calculating --

    • coldly panning and thinking about future actions and esp. whether they will be good or bad for oneself.


    Perspicacious
    perspicacious ---

    • fml. quick to judge and understand 敏于判断与了解, 敏捷

    • having or showing keen judgment and understanding


    Acute astute
    acute, astute

    • acute-- (senses, sensation, intellect)

      • 五官,感受,智力

    • able to notice small differences

    • Dogs have an acute sense of smell.

  • astute -- shrewd , quick at seeing how to gain an advantage

    • clever and able to see quickly sth, that is to one's advantage.精明的,狡黠的


  • Comparison
    comparison

    • His brain –

      • 1. dynamo -- powerful

      • 2. a chemist's scales--- precise, accurate

      • 3. scalpel -- penetrating


    Para 5
    Para.5

    • introduction of the first antagonist –

      Petey Burch

      • He downgrades his roommate.

    • nothing upstairs -- (Am. slang) empty-headed


    Unstable
    unstable

    • unstable

      • -- easily moved, upset or changed

    • emotional

      • -- having feelings which are strong or easily moved


    Impressionable
    impressionable

    • -- easy to be influenced, often with the result that one's feeling and ideas change easily and esp. that one is ready to admire other people.


    fad

    • -- a style etc that interests many people for a short time, passing fashion.


    Negation
    negation

    • --- the lack or opposite of sth. positive,The opposite or absence of something regarded as actual, positive, or affirmative.

  • Reason

    • --- the ability to think, draw conclusions

    • Fads / passing fashions, in my opinion, show a complete lack of reason.


  • To be swept up in
    to be swept up in

    • -- to be carried away by follow enthusiastically


    Idiocy
    idiocy

    • -- great foolishness or stupidity


    Pound to hit hard
    pound -- to hit hard

    • to deliver heavy, repeated blows


    Charleston
    Charleston

    • *5image-2*

      • -- a quick spirited dance of the 1920's, in 4/4 time, characterized by a twisting step.


    Raccoon
    Raccoon

    • --浣熊 the fur of a small, tree climbing mammal of N. America, having yellowish gray fur and a black, bushy ringed tail.呈环状花纹的尾巴

    • *5image-3raccoon*


    Incredulously
    incredulously

    • -- showing disbelief, unbelieving

    • an incredulous look/ smile


    In the swim
    in the swim

    • -- knowing about and concerned in what is going on in modern life.

    • active in or conforming to current fashions


    Mixed metaphor
    mixed metaphor:

    • 1. brain -- a precision instrument

    • 2. brain -- a machine that has gears


    gear---

    • any of several arrangements, esp. of toothed wheels in a machine, which allows power to be passed from one part to another so as to control the power, speed or direction of movement.


    gear---

    • bottom gear

    • top gear

    • low ---- in a car which is used for starting

    • high --- for going fast


    gear---

    • If you say that a person, system, or process is in a particular gear, you are talking about the speed, energy, or efficiency with which they are working or functioning.

      • eg. It took time to shift back into normal gear for boring routine tasks.

      • She knew how to change gear in order to achieve the right result.

      • The Chinese economy will be in high gear.


    Stroke
    stroke –

    • pass the hand over gently, esp. for pleasure

      • The cat likes to be stroked. (over the surface of )


    Para 23
    Para. 23

    • the introduction of the second antagonist


    Cerebral
    cerebral –

    • (fml, humor) 理智的

      • 1. of the brain

      • 2. intellectual, excluding the emotions

      • tending to or showing (too much) serious thinking


    Gracious polite
    gracious --- polite

    • kind

    • pleasant

  • What are the specifications of his future wife?

    • 1. beautiful

    • 2. gracious

    • 3. intelligent


  • Carriage
    carriage

    • --- (sing) the manner of carrying oneself, bearing the manner of holding one's head, limbs, and body when standing or walking.

    • physical aspects of persons bearing 体态, 仪态

    • Dancing can improve the carriage. 舞蹈能增进体态美。


    Deportment fml
    deportment -- fml.

    • 1. Br.E the way a person, esp. a young lady, stands and walks

    • 2. Am.E the way a person, esp, a young lady, behaves in the company of others


    Bearing
    bearing

    • -- manner of holding one's body or way of behaving

    • (physical /mental posture)举止,仪态

    • She has a very modest bearing. 她举止淑静。


    Breeding
    breeding ---

    • polite social behavior


    Pot roast
    pot roast

    • --- a piece of beef cooked only with a little water after having been made brown by cooking in hot fat.


    Makings
    makings

    • -- qualities, the possibility of developing into 素质

    • He has the makings of a good doctor.

    • He has in him the makings of a great man.


    Dipper
    dipper–

    • a long-handled cup esp for dipping

    • a dipper of sauerkraut

      • -- a small cupful of pickled chopped cabbage

    • veer -- change in direction, shift, turn


    Go steady
    go steady

    • -- (Am. coll.) to date sb of the opposite sex regularly and exclusively;

    • be sweetheart


    Wink v n
    wink -- v. n.

    • v. to close and open (one eye) rapidly, usu, as signal between people, esp of amusement

      • He winked at her and she knew he was only pretending to be angry.

    • n. a winking movement

      • He left the room with a wink of the eye.

      • She gave me a wink.


    Mince
    mince –

    • to lessen the force of , weaken, as by euphemism

      • If you do not mince your words, you tell sb sth, unpleasant without making any effort to be polite or to avoid upsetting them.

      • I never mince words, you know that. 直言不讳


    torn---

    • tear---destroy the peace of

      • to divide with doubt, uncertainty, agitate, torment

      • He was agitated and torn, not knowing what was the right thing to do.

      • a heart torn by grief


    Swivel v move round
    swivel --- v. move round

    • The chair swiveled to the right when he tried it.

    • 1) If you swivel or swivel round, you turn round quickly, especially when you are in a sitting position.

    • 2) If you swivel your head or eyes in a particular direction, you turn your head or eyes in that direction, so that you can look at sth.


    wax –

    • increase in strength, size/ grow, extend, enlarge


    wane –

    • decrease , fail, diminish, sink

      • If sth waxes and wanes, it first increases and then decreases over a period of time.

      • eg. My feelings for John wax and wane.

        • The popularity of the film stars waxed and waned.


    Comply
    comply –

    • act on a accordance with a request, order etc.


    Bunch
    bunch –

    • collect, gather in bunches

      • (here) stand up


    Deal

    • -- an arrangement to the advantage of both sides, often in business

      • bargain, transaction


    Loom appear
    loom --- appear 朦胧出现

    • to come into sight without a clear form, esp. in a way that appears very large and unfriendly, causing fear.

    • If sth. looms, it appears as a problem or event that is approaching, or that will soon happen, a rather literary use.

    • eg. This looms as a big question for many new parents.


    No small
    no small

    • Understatement---Restraint or lack of emphasis in expression, as for rhetorical effect. .保守的陈述, 掩饰

    • litotes --- A figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite, as in: This is no small problem. 曲言法, 间接表达法, 反语法 (以反面的否定代替肯定的词格, 如:no easy 代替 very difficult, not bad 代替 very good 等)


    Dimension
    dimension

    • -- a measurement in any one direction, extent


    Wow dow
    wow-dow

    • -- (interjection) an exclamation of surprise, wonder, pleasure etc


    Wince
    wince

    • -- to move suddenly as if drawing the body away from sth unpleasant

    • She winced as she touched the cold body.

    • She winced (mentally) at his angry words.


    Chirp
    chirp

    • -- make the short sharp sounds of small birds or some insects, say or speak in a way that sounds like this.

    • She chirped (out) her thanks.


    doom

    • -- cause to experience or suffer sth unavoidable and unpleasant such as death or destruction

    • From the start, the plan was doomed to failure (to fail).

    • We are doomed to unhappiness.

    • He was doomed to be killed in a car crash.


    Proof
    -- proof –

    • resistant to, make to give protection against

      • fire-proof

      • waterproof watch

      • a bullet-proof car

      • a sound-proof room


    Metaphor
    metaphor:

    • Polly's mind -- the extinct crater of a volcano

      • extinct -- no longer burning

    • Her Intelligence -- embers ( ashes of a dying fire) 余烬


    Crater
    crater

    • --- the round bowl-shaped mouth of a volcano


    Ember usu pl
    ember -- (usu. pl.)

    • a red-hot piece of wood or coal esp, in a fire that is no longer burning with flames.


    Admittedly
    admittedly

    • -- by admission or general agreement

      • confessedly


    Prospect
    prospect

    • -- future probabilities based on present indications or analyses


    hope

    • -- based on desire, with or without any likelihood that the hoped for will happen or materialize

    • Parents have high hopes for their children.

    • A man saves money in the hope that inflation will not wipe it out.


    Appeal
    appeal

    • -- to make a strong request for help, support, mercy, beg

    • He appealed to his attacker for mercy.


    Blue prints
    blue-prints --

    • a photographic copy of a plan for making a machine or building a house.

    • The plans for improving the educational system have only reached the blueprint stage so far.


    Pitchblende
    pitchblende --

    • n. 沥青油矿 a dark shiny substance dug from the earth, from which uranium and radium are obtained.

  • fracture -- break, crack, split


  • Hypothesis
    hypothesis

    • -- an idea which is thought suitable to explain the facts about sth.

    • an idea which is suggested as a possible explanation for a particular situation or condition, but which has not yet been proved to be correct.

    • eg. People have proposed all kinds of hypothesis about what these things are.


    cute–

    • 1. clever, shrewd

    • 2. pretty, attractive, esp in a dainty way


    Argue general word
    argue -- general word

    • a reasoned presentation of views or a heated exchange of opinion amounting to a quarrel

    • They argued vociferously over who should pay the bill.


    Argue
    argue

    • The MP argued his position with such cogency and wit that even his opponents were impressed.

      • 这个议员对自己的主张进行如此有说服力和机智的辩论,使他的对手也对此留下深刻地印象。


    Debate
    debate

    • -- argue formally, usually under the control of a referee and according to a set of regulations.

    • The House of Commons debated the proposal for three weeks.


    Hamstring
    hamstring –

    • to cut the hamstring

      • destroying the ability to walk

      • a cord-like tendon at the back of the leg, joining a muscle to a bone

    • claw-- scratch, clutch, as with claws (nails)

    • scrape -- scratch, cut the surface of slightly


    Over and over
    Over and over…

    • Over and over again I gave examples and pointed out the mistakes in her thinking . I kept emphasizing all this without stopping.

    • to hammer away – to keep emphasizing or talking about

    • let-up– stopping, relaxing


    She was a fit
    She was a fit…

    • Here the narrator described the role which he thinks, a wife should play.

    • well-heeled : (American slang) rich, prosperous


    Fashion v
    fashion -- v.

    • to shape or make (sth) into or out of sth. usually with one's hands or with only a few tools

      • ~ a hat out a leaves

      • ~ some leave into a hat


    The time had come
    The time had come…

    • The time had come to change our relationship from that of teacher and student to that of lovers.

      • academic: scholastic; educational; of students,teachers.

      • romantic: of lovemaking or courting


    Constellation
    constellation

    • -- a group of fixed stars often having a name

  • Languish

    • -- become or be lacking in strength or will

  • shambling

    • -- walking awkwardly, dragging the feet


  • hulk –

    • a heavy, awkward person


    Surge
    surge --

    • 1) move esp. forward, in or like powerful waves.

      • The crowd surged past him.

    • 2) (of feeling) to arise powerfully

      • Anger surged (up) within him.


    Darn damn euph adv
    darn -- damn (euph) adv.

    • used for giving force to an expression, good or bad

    • a ~ fool

    • He ran damn fast.


    Croak
    croak --

    • speak with a rough voice as if one has a sore throat, utter in a deep, hoarse tone.


    Playful
    playful---

    • A playful action or remark is light-hearted and friendly rather than serious or hostile.


    That did it
    That did it. --

    • That was the final straw. That made me lose my patience.

    • That make me lose my self-control

    • This idiomatic phrase is used very often in English and the meaning depends largely on the context in which it is used.


    That did it1
    That did it. --

    • "that" -- what has gone before "Polly's last answer"

    • "it" -- the result or consequence brought about by "that"


    Bellow
    bellow

    • -- roar with a reverberating sound as a bull cry out loudly, as in anger


    Reel back
    reel back

    • -- step away suddenly and unsteadily, as after a blow or shock

    • When she hit him, he reeled back and almost fell.


    Overcome be overwhelmed
    overcome -- be overwhelmed

    • If you are overcome by a feeling, you feel it very strongly

    • I was overcome by a sense of failure.

    • He was overcome with astonishment.


    Infamy
    infamy –

    • wicked behavior, public dishonor, being shameful/ disgraceful

  • infamous –

    • well known for wicked, evil behavior.

    • infamous action, wicked, shameful, disgraceful


  • Rat metaphor am sl
    rat -- metaphor (Am. sl.)

    • used for describing a sneaky, contemptible person.


    Modulate
    modulate –

    • adjust, vary the pitch, intensity of the voice

    • Some people are able to modulate their voices according to the size of the room in which they speak.


    Jitterbug
    jitterbug --

    • 1. a quick active popular dance of the 1940's

    • 2. a person who did this sort of dance

    • Am. sl.

      • a person who is very nervous

    • jitters -- n.

    • jittery -- adj. nervous, unstable


    Frankenstein
    Frankenstein

    • The young student in Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797--1851) romance of that name (1818), a classic horror story. Frankenstein made a soulless monster out of corpses from church-yards and dissecting-rooms and endued (赋予)it with life by galvanism.(流电疗法) The tale shows the creature longed for sympathy, but was shunned (躲避) by everyone and became the instrument of dreadful retribution (惩罚)on the student who usurped the prerogative (特权)of the creator

    • http://frankenstein.monstrous.com/


    The main idea of this lesson
    The main idea of this lesson:

    • It is about a law student who tries to marry the girl after suitable re-education, but he's been too clever for his own good.

    • The narrator, Dobie Gillis, a freshman in a law school, is the protagonist


    Protagonist
    Protagonist:

    • a law school student

    • very young

    • clever

    • over-conceited -- cool, logical, keen, calculating, perspicacious, acute, astute,

      • powerful, precise, penetrating


    Antagonists
    Antagonists

    • 1. Petey Burch -- pitiful, dump, roommate, faddist

    • 2. Polly Espy --- beautiful, gracious, stupid


    Iii organizational pattern
    III. Organizational Pattern

    • 4 sections

    • Sect. I para 1-3

      • It is the author's note.

      • 1. The author's idea about this story.

      • 2. The author's idea about the purpose of this story.


    Iii organizational pattern1
    III. Organizational Pattern

    • Sect II para. 4 --59

    • the bargain between the law student and his roommate over the exchange of the girl,


    Iii organizational pattern2
    III. Organizational Pattern

    • sub-divisions:

      • 1) p4 introduction of the narrator -- protagonist

      • 2) p5-21 introduction of the first antagonist -- Petey Burch

        • He downgrades his roommate, who has nothing upstairs.

      • 3) p22 -- 27 introduction of he second antagonist -- Polly Espy


    Iii organizational pattern3
    III. Organizational Pattern

    • 4) p 28--40 sounding out / finding out the relationship between Petey and Polly.

    • 5) p.40 --59 unethical transaction over Polly

      • The student gives the raccoon coat the roommate wants, and his roommate gives his girl friend in return. They have a kind of deal.


    Iii organizational pattern4
    III. Organizational Pattern

    • Sect III. para 60 -- 124

      • the teaching of 8 logical fallacies

    • 10 sub-divisions:

    • 1. p60 --61

      • a survey, first date with the girl, first impression of the girl. He tries to find out how stupid she is.


    Iii organizational pattern5
    III. Organizational Pattern

    • 2. p62 -- 74 the teaching of Dicto Simpliciter

    • 3. P75 -- 79 the teaching of Hasty Generalization

    • 4. p80--85 Post Hoc

    • 5. p86 --96 Contradictory Premises

    • 6. p97--98 interposition, He wants to give the girl back.


    Iii organizational pattern6
    III. Organizational Pattern

    • 7. p99 --104 Ad Misericordiam

    • 8. p105--108 False Analogy

    • 9. p109-- 114 Hypothesis Contrary to Fact

    • 10.p 115--124 Poisoning the Well


    Iii organizational pattern7
    III. Organizational Pattern

    • Sect.IV. para125– the ending of the story

      • backfiring of all the arguments

      • The girl learns her lessons too well. She uses all the logical fallacies to fight back her teacher.


    Pay attention to the change of his emotions
    Pay attention to the change of his emotions:

    • 1. favoring her with a smile

    • 2. chuckled with amusement

    • 3. chuckled with somewhat less amusement

    • 4. forcing a smile/ ground my teeth

    • 5. croaked, dashed perspiration from my brow

    • 6. bellowing like a bull


    Iv the chief attraction of this lesson
    IV. The chief attraction of this lesson

    • It's humor

      • The whole story is a piece of light, humorous satire, satirizing a smug, self-conceited freshman in a law school.


    Iv the chief attraction of this lesson1
    IV. the chief attraction of this lesson

    • Why :

      • 1) the title

        • The title is humorous. The writer wants the readers to conclude that "love" is an error, a deception and an emotion that does not follow the principles of logic.


    Iv the chief attraction of this lesson2
    IV. the chief attraction of this lesson

    • 2) the author's note

      • "spongy", "limp", "flaccid" are specific characteristics of his essay. He is joking, which indicates that the whole story is humorous.

    • 3) the contrast --

      • the law student & the girl & Petey

      • boasting himself ----- downgrading the others

      • the student ---- the girl


    Iv the chief attraction of this lesson3
    IV. the chief attraction of this lesson

    • 4) the ending of the story

      • the raccoon coat which the law student despises and give it to his roommate for the exchange of his girl friend has finally become the rootcause of his losing his girl friend.

    • 5) the clever choice of the names

      • Pettey ---- pity

      • Espy ---- I spy


    V language features
    V. Language features:

    • 1. American colloquialism

    • 2. Informal style

      • short sentences

      • elliptical sentences --- to increase the tempo of the story

      • dashes

    • 3. rhetorical devices


    V language features1
    V. Language features:

    • 4. sharp contrast in the language

      • 1) the law student uses ultra learned terms

        • standard English

        • 100% correct

      • 2) clipped vulgar forms, slang words

        • gee, magnif, terrif, pshaw,

    • 5. inverted sentences


    V language features2
    V. Language features:

    • What effect does the language have on the readers:

      • 1. vivid

      • 2. colorful

      • 3. informal


    Exercise
    Exercise

    • 1. Fads enjoy very brief popularity, which fashions are likely to be longer-lasting. Also, "fad" has a pejorative connotation. A fad is a cheap sort of fashion, somewhat debased. To be described as fashionable is a compliment. However, to be swayed by fads is to show a weakness for sudden and brief trends.


    Exercise1
    Exercise

    • 2. "Incredible" means unbelievable. It comes from the Latin "in" (not), and "credibitis"(credible). "Incredulous" means disbelieving or skeptical. It is not as strong as "incredible"


    Exercise2
    Exercise

    • 3. "Eager” suggests strong interest or desire. "Passionate" is nearly the same but generally is used in a more intense way, to express a degree of emotion slightly greater than "eager".

    • 4. "Feeling" and “Emotions" are often considered interchangeable, though "emotions" is often considered the stronger word.


    Exercise3
    Exercise

    • 5. "Revealed" is the better word here, with its connotation of making known what has been kept secret. "Showed" is a more general word and, while acceptable, is not as precise.


    Exercise4
    Exercise

    • 6. To be "inclined" is to be disposed to do something, to have a tendency. To be tempted is to be attracted to something in a strong way, though again these two words are very close in meaning, I would rate "tempted" as the stronger verb.


    Exercise5
    Exercise

    • 7. "Exasperation" is extreme annoyance or irritation. "Disappointed" indicates a degree of frustration less extensive than "exasperation". Again the author has chosen the stronger of the alternatives.


    Exercise6
    Exercise

    • 8. “Tolerant” here implies endurance of Polly‘s faults, an ability to endure her stupidity. “Indulgent” means lenient( 宽大的) , forgiving, and the inner pain and difficulty implied by "tolerant"


    Exercise7
    Exercise

    • 9. “Merriment” is gay conviviality(欢乐), and hilarity(欢闹). It is a much stronger word than "amusement", which refers to being pleased or entertained. Amusement is not so strong an emotion as merriment.

    • 10. “Languish” means to become weak or feeble, to become listless. “To suffer a lot” is a vague, broad term. “Languish” is a better word in this case.


    Ex iii
    Ex. III.

    • 1. It's humorous, thanks to the word "fallacy", one commonly used in logic. The tale not only gives us a clue of the nature of our narrator's passion, but reflects on the fallacy of his own love for Polly and fallacy in his seemingly well-wrought plan.


    Ex iii1
    Ex. III.

    • 2. Para 4 is a good example of the author's attitude toward himself. The audacious (brave) pride is so great that we can quickly see it is a parody. The author realizes that at 18 he felt smarter than he really was -- he was blind to his own ignorance. He makes fun of himself throughout.


    Ex iii2
    Ex. III.

    • 3. Its purpose is to entertain in a light-hearted way. There is no pretence to teaching us anything, but simply to give us a few chuckles. This is hinted at in the author's note.

    • 4. Polly‘s language is trendy( 时髦的), inane(空洞的), vulgar(粗俗的), and meaningless. It illustrates, until the end of the story. It shows the limits of her weak mind.


    Ex iii3
    Ex. III.

    • 5. The narrator has learned logic as a subject in school, when he tries to apply his knowledge to real life, he fails miserably. He sees what goes on in the classroom is divorced from real life. He tries to make Polly forget the fallacies he had taught her.

    • 6. The topic sentence is "He was a torn man". This idea is developed by a series of details that describe Petey's confused state.


    Ex iii4
    Ex. III.

    • 7. Because he begged Polly's love, which was refused. He was going to get the same result as Frankenstein, who created a monster that destroyed him, not as Pygmalion, who was loved by the beautiful statue he had fashioned. The narrator's allusions come naturally, from his experience. He has probably read Pygmalion and Frankenstein for a college course, so the allusions do seem apt.


    Ex iii5
    Ex. III.

    • 8. When the narrator finally succeeds in teaching Polly, she learns logic too well and turns it against him after his declaration of love. In her decision to choose Petey she had used the logic the narrator taught her. Had he not given away his raccoon coat and taught her logic lessons he might have had Polly as his own. The irony is that he succeeded to well.


    Ex iii6
    Ex. III.

    • keen --

      • It suggests unusual ability or perceptiveness adding to them a vigorous forceful ability to grass complex problem

      • 1. The keen ears of the dog heard the sound long before we did.

      • 2. He exercised keen judgment to rescue the drowning.

        • 他当机立断,救出了那个溺水儿童。


    Calculating1
    calculating --

    • It means coldly planning and thinking about future actions and esp. whether they will be good or bad for oneself 有心计,精明的

    • He was regarded as a calculating man.

    • To Kate, calculating and cold, the most important thing was power.


    Perspicacious fml
    perspicacious -- fml.

    • It suggests one has or shows an unusual power or ability of keen judgment and understanding 敏锐,颖悟

    • Tom's understanding to the matter is ~.

      • 汤姆对这件事的理解很透彻、敏锐。


    Perspicacious fml1
    perspicacious -- fml

    • These were the fundamental difficulties, but few men were perspicacious enough to appreciate them.

      • 这些是基本的困难,但是没有几个人能敏锐地意识到它们。


    Acute
    acute --

    • It suggests a sensitivity and receptivity to the small differences that was not notices by others, also implies a high-keyed state of nervous attention that will not be lasting.

    • He is an acute observer and thinker.


    Astute
    astute --

    • It means clever and having a thorough or deep understanding, stemming from a scholarly or experienced mind that is full command of a given field.

      • 狡猾的;诡计多端

    • He is astute and capable. 他精明强干。

    • They are astute financiers.

      • 他们是一些诡计多端的金融家。


    Intelligent
    intelligent

    • 聪明,明智 理解力,认识,学习

  • He was intelligent enough to turn off the gas when he was out.

  • He was intelligent enough to understand my meaning form my gestures


  • Bright
    bright ---

    • (学习,理解力)聪明,心思灵敏,反应快

  • He is a bright child, as you can tell when you talk with him.


  • Brilliant
    brilliant ---

    • 才华出众,卓越的,能力与理解力

  • stronger than bright

  • he was considered as a brilliant speaker.

    • 他是公认的卓越的演说家。


  • Alert
    alert --- 动作灵敏

    • A sparrow is very alert in its movement.

  • clever, bright , smart --- more colloquial

  • clever --- bright , skillful, having a quick mind

  • smart -- (AmE)


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