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Welcome Session 3 -H uman Resources. Agenda Online Article Discussion Review text readings - Motivation and Performance Break Job Analysis and Design Project Team Breakout. Note: Be sure to turn in your Team Project Review. Motivation. What energizes human behavior?

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Welcome session 3 h uman resources

Welcome Session 3 -Human Resources


  • Online Article Discussion

  • Review text readings - Motivation and Performance

  • Break

  • Job Analysis and Design

  • Project Team Breakout

  • Note: Be sure to turn in your Team Project Review



  • What energizes human behavior?

  • What channels or directs that behavior?

  • How can certain behaviors be sustained or maintained over time?

Managerial assumptions about human nature

Managerial Assumptions About Human Nature

Complete Managerial Belief Matrix

Conduct scenario discussion

Form Groups of 4 (count 1-10), Choose Roles

1 each --observer who notes assumptions, project leader, systems designer, and financial manager

Managerial assumption activity

Managerial Assumption Activity

Activity process – approximately 45 minutes

  • Choose roles

  • Enact situation – observer takes notes – be sure to include text readings (e.g. motivation theory, assumptions about work ethics, etc…)

  • Observer shares observations with team

  • Switch roles

  • Do same steps as above



  • Managing conflict is based on active listening skills. The process includes gathering relevant data and beliefs about the situation, and resolving differences.

Resolving differences process steps

State the purpose and create interest

Clearly state purpose of the meeting

Identify the situation, cite specific examples

Discuss impact and consequences of behavior

Gather information

Use questions and active listening to all views and reasons for behavior

Ask others for their ideas and how to change the situation

3. Give Feedback

Identify/discuss areas of agreement and offer praise

Point out areas of disagreement, share experiences and expertise

Ask associate what worked and what didn’t, and what could be done differently

Suggest alternatives when necessary

4. Resolve Differences

Discuss pros and cons of different approaches

Address interfering emotions and beliefs

Agree on goals and future performance

Resolving DifferencesProcess Steps

Static content theories of motivation

Static-Content Theories Of Motivation

  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • Alderfer’s Existence Relatedness Growth (ERG) Theory

  • McClelland’s Theory of Socially Acquired Needs

  • Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

  • Managerial Application: Work Design and Job Enrichment

Which theories of motivation were used in the exercise

Which theories of motivation were used in the exercise?

  • Did project manager appeal to social needs or ego – self-esteem needs of individual?

  • Or McClelland’s need for achievement, power or affiliation?

  • Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory?

Process theories of motivation

Process Theories Of Motivation

  • Basic process model -Expectancy Theory

  • Path-Goal Theory of Motivation

  • Goal-Setting Theory

  • Managerial Application: Management by Objectives

Environmentally based theories of motivation

Environmentally Based Theories Of Motivation

  • Operant Conditioning and Reinforcement Theory

  • Managerial Application: Organizational Behavior Modification

  • Social Comparison Theory

    • Equity Theory

    • Exchange Theory

    • Social Learning Theory

Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and motivation

Intrinsic And Extrinsic Rewards And Motivation

  • Managerial Application: Gainsharing

Motivation and the psychological contract

Motivation And The Psychological Contract

  • Organizational Commitment and the Psychological Contract

Choosing an appropriate motivational model

Choosing An Appropriate Motivational Model

Expectancy theory, equity theory and goal setting models useful for assessing choices

Amount of effort best explained by need, reinforcement, or equity theories

Satisfaction best illustrated through need and equity theory which are based on feelings

Early approaches to job design

Early Approaches to Job Design

  • Job Simplification

  • Job Enlargement and Rotation

  • Job Enrichment

Job enrichment and empowerment

Job Enrichment and Empowerment?

The job characteristics approach

The Job Characteristics Approach

  • Core Dimensions

  • Psychological States

  • Personal and Work Outcomes

Core dimensions

Core Dimensions

  • Skill variety

  • Task identity

  • Task significance

  • Autonomy

  • Feedback

M otivating p otential s core mps sv ti ts x f x a 3

Motivating Potential ScoreMPS = (SV + TI + TS) x F x A3

Psychological states

Psychological States

  • Meaningfulness of the work

  • Responsibility for outcomes of the work

  • Knowledge of the actual results of the work

  • Growth need strength

Personal and work outcomes

Personal and Work Outcomes

  • High internal work motivation

  • High quality work performance

  • High satisfaction with the work

  • Low absenteeism and turnover

Work group approaches to job design

Work-Group Approaches to Job Design

  • Social Information Processing

  • Semi-autonomous Work Groups

  • Quality Circles

  • Team

Outcomes approaches to job design

Outcomes Approaches to Job Design

  • Motivational

  • Mechanistic

  • Biological

  • Perceptual/Motor

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