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From Hot to Cold War. The Big Three-Allies Forever? Agree to:. Try the Nazi war criminals Form the United Nations Divide Germany Divide Berlin Hold free elections in Eastern Europe Defeat Japan. The Post WWII Era. What kept the Allies together in war was now gone!.

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From hot to cold war

From Hot to Cold War


The big three allies forever agree to

The Big Three-Allies Forever?Agree to:

  • Try the Nazi war criminals

  • Form the United Nations

  • Divide Germany

  • Divide Berlin

  • Hold free elections in Eastern Europe

  • Defeat Japan


From hot to cold war

The Post WWII Era

What kept the Allies together in war was now gone!


World war ii changes the world

World War II Changes the World!

  • Atomic Age Begins

  • Jets, Computers, and Rockets Invented

  • Radar and Sonar

  • Penicillin, Sulfa, and Antibiotics

  • Imperialism and Colonialism End

  • USA & USSR emerge as Superpowers

  • Cold War Begins


I post war decisions

I. Post War Decisions

  • A. Issues to be addressed.

  • 1. What to do with the defeated nations?

  • 2. How to rebuild?

  • 3. How to make sure this doesn’t happen again?


Judgment at nuremberg following wwii the nazis were tried for

Judgment at NurembergFollowing WWII the Nazis were tried for:

  • War crimes

  • Crimes against peace

  • Crimes against humanity

Bush vowed to try Saddom as a War Criminal.


From hot to cold war

A war criminal or sovereign leader of an independent country?


From hot to cold war

Iraqi Kurd schoolgirls make their way to school at the Benislawa internally displaced persons camp outside the city of Irbil, which is controlled by the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), 231 miles (370 kilometers) north of the capital Baghdad, Iraq, Saturday, Feb. 22, 2003. About120,000 internally displaced Kurds live at Benislawa


From hot to cold war

Mohammed Aziz, 38, a survivor of the Halabja gas attack now calls Nashville, Tenn., home as he sits outside the Kurdish Human Rights Office in Nashville, Friday, Feb. 7, 2003. Aziz lost his father, two uncles, a brother, nieces and nephews, in March 1988 when Iraqi war planes dropped sarin and mustard gas on his hometown. While Americans waver on war with Iraq, Kurdish refugees in the United States have no doubt about the threat posed by Saddam Hussein.


From hot to cold war

The trial of the Nazi war criminals is held at Nuremberg!

  • Hermann Göring


From hot to cold war

Germans attack in the Battle of the Bulge – US POWS


From hot to cold war

The Nazis had no time for American Prisoners!

Malmedy Massacre December 1944


The evils of the nazis uncovered

The Evils of the Nazis Uncovered

  • The Holocaust at Auschwitz

  • Arbeit Macht Frei “Work makes one Free!”

  • The only escape was through the chimney.


From hot to cold war

It began with simply registering, then wearing a star…how it ends up is history.


From hot to cold war

Some survived till 1945!


From hot to cold war

This photo was taken by an SS photographer. It is part of an album discovered after liberation by a female prisoner. Most people create family albums containing photos of their children, wives, husbands, mementos of places visited... Evidently this SS photographer was proud of the work he and his comrades were doing. The people in the photo had only just been brought from the trains where they had been crammed in cattle cars with no food, water or sanitation. Look closely at them, these were the people the Nazis considered dangerous. Not long after this photo was taken they were gassed, and their bodies burned.


From hot to cold war

Some survived till 1945!

The Nazis just ran out of time!


I post war decisions1

I. Post War Decisions

  • B. War Crimes – Nuremberg Trials

  • 1. Trials of the major leaders of Nazi Germany. November 1945-October 1946.

  • 2. International Military Tribunal

  • 3. No one was denied due process.


From hot to cold war

Herman Goering's elaborate custom suitcase bearing his coat of arms, which he took with him when he surrendered as a prisoner of war.  The interior is indicative of the opulent lifestyle of the head of the Luftwaffe. It is complete with his writing folder, brushes, mirror, various bottles and boxes, and a group of cigars.


From hot to cold war

Eichmann's organizational chart of the SS, revised and corrected by Eichmann during his trial


I post war decisions2

I. Post War Decisions

  • 4. Major Charges

  • - Participating in a major plan to conquer others and in the process commit war crimes and crimes against humanity.

  • - Violation of customs and laws of warfare: killing civilians, taking hostages, and maltreatment of prisoners of war.


From hot to cold war

The Japanese war criminals appear in a series of signed photographs


From hot to cold war

List of the Judges and

Defendants at the

Far East War Crimes

Tribunals.

Spectators pass to the trials.


I post war decisions3

I. Post War Decisions

  • C. Results of Nuremberg

  • 1. 22 primary defendants: 11 given death, 3 acquitted, 3 given life, 4 given sentences from 10-20 years.

  • 2. Trials reject the argument that orders from superiors relieved people from the responsibility of war crimes.


Punishments at nuremberg

Punishments at Nuremberg

  • 1. Herman Goering – Next in line to Hitler.

  • –Death. However, he committed suicide in his cell.

  • 2. Rudolph Hess – Deputy minister

  • – Life in prison.

  • 3. Hans Frank – Governor of Poland during its occupation.

  • - Death

  • 4. Julius Streicher – Editor in Chief of Der Stuermer – antisemitic newspaper.

  • - Death

  • 5. Alfred Jodl – Chief of regular German Army

  • - Death

  • 6. Franz von Papen – Vice Chancellor

  • - Acquitted


Closing remarks by robert jackson u s a

Closing Remarks by Robert Jackson – U.S.A.

  • The reality is that in the long perspective of history the present century will not hold an admirable position, unless its second half is to redeem its first. These two-score years in the twentieth century will be recorded in the book of years as one of the most bloody in all annals. Two World Wars have left a legacy of dead which number more than all the armies engaged in any way that made ancient or medieval history. No half century ever witnessed slaughter on such a scale, such cruelties and inhumanities, such wholesale deportations of peoples into slavery, such annihilations of minorities. Theses deeds are the overshadowing historical facts by which generations to come will remember this decade. If we cannot eliminate the causes and prevent the repetition of these barbaric events, it is not an irresponsible prophecy to say that this twentieth century may yet succeed in bringing the doom of civilization.


Mahatma gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi

  • When I despair, I remember that all through history the ways of truth and love have always won!

  • There have been tyrants, and murderers, and for a time they can seem invincible, but in the end they always fall.

  • Think of it------Always!


Yalta conference

Yalta Conference


Churchill roosevelt and stalin meet for the last time

Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin meet for the last time.


Creating the united nations

Creating the United Nations

  • FDR’s dream of a United Nations located in the USA is realized.

  • Located in New York city, the UN today plays a major role in worldwide peace keeping.


From hot to cold war

General Assembly - Congress for the U.N.

- One country one vote

- Can only make recommendations to committees


The united nations

The United Nations

  • The General Assembly & Security Council

  • Security Council - Decides on issues related to war.

  • - 5 permanent members (U.S., USSR, China, France and Great Britain)

  • - One veto = no use of troops

http://www.un.org/


From hot to cold war

The UN Does Wage War

1950: After North Korean launched an attack across the de facto border at the 38th parallel, the Security Council passed a resolution calling on all members to assist in halting the strike. The motion gave the United States the authority to help South Korea wage war against the North, which was supported by China.

1991: The United States led a coalition of nations to dislodge Iraq from Kuwait after President Saddam Hussein ignored a U.N. threat of force if he didn’t withdraw from the tiny gulf nation, which he invaded the previous summer.


From hot to cold war

Flanked by International Atomic Energy Agency head Mohamed ElBaaradei, left, the U.N.'s chief weapons inspector Hans Blix gestures outside the United Nations Security Council following a briefing on the U.N. weapons inspectors' report on Iraqi weapons of mass destruction, Thursday, Jan. 9, 2003, at the United Nations in New York. Blix said weapons inspectors have found "no smoking guns" in their search for Iraqi weapons of mass destruction.


From hot to cold war

UN Security Council Meeting on Iraq – March of 2003


From hot to cold war

  • Under the Charter, the functions and powers of the Security Council are:

    • to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations;

    • to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction;

    • to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement;

    • to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments;

    • to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken;

    • to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression;

    • to take military action against an aggressor;

    • to recommend the admission of new Members;

    • to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in "strategic areas";

    • to recommend to the GeneralAssembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.


From hot to cold war

Colin Powell, Secretary of State of the United States, speaking to the UN Security Council March 10, 2003.


From hot to cold war

Secretary-General Kofi Annan listens intently to members discussing the situation in Iraq in March 11, 2003’s Security Council meeting on Iraq.


From hot to cold war

Mohammad Al-Douri, Permanent Representative of Iraq to the United Nations, speaking to the UN Security Council

March 10, 2003.


From hot to cold war

The UN Does Make Peace(current operations with start date)

Europe: Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1995; Kosovo, 1999

The Mideast: Lebanon,

1988; Iraq-Kuwait border,

1991


From hot to cold war

The UN Also Has Notable Failures:

Somalia: The U.S. dispatched 28,000 troops to support U.N. humanitarian efforts in the war-torn nation in 1992. But shortly after the disastrous “Blackhawk Down” episode in the capital, Mogadishu, in October 1993, in which 18 American troops were killed, the American force was withdrawn.

Rwanda: The United Nations accepted responsibility for failing to stop the 1994 massacre of 800,000, mostly minority Tutsis. The United Nations had 2,500 troops in the country, but governments pulled out most of the soldiers after the 10 Belgian peacekeepers were killed and despite warnings of a likely genocide.

The Balkans: A U.N. “safe haven” in Srebrenica was overrun in 1995 by Serb forces, who massacred an estimated 7,000 Bosnian Muslims. A lightly armed U.N. force from the Netherlands failed to stop the killing.


1 st peace seeking act of un

1ST Peace seeking act of UN

  • Peace in the former Palestine.

  • In 1948 the Jewish state of Israel was created.

  • A UN partition plan had been proposed but rejected by the Arabs.

  • War breaks out between the Jews and Arabs.

  • The country of Israel is born out of war.


Israel by 1948

Israel by 1948

  • The resultant territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip are what we hear the most about in the news today.


Finish outlines

Finish Outlines

  • The Cold War Heats Up!

  • In class textbook assignment!

  • Page 760

  • Work on Vocabulary

  • Work on Map of Europe

  • Iron Curtain Page 764

  • NATO and Warsaw Pact Page 769


Grading policy changes for quarter 4

Grading Policy Changes for Quarter 4

  • Grades on all summative assessments will be given to individual students by averaging the class scores.

  • Each student will receive the average score for the class for a final grade on all summative assessments.

  • Everyone will have the same grade.


The cold war

The Cold War

World War II Ends

&

The Cold War Begins


The cold war a struggle for world domination

The Cold War-A Struggle forWorld Domination

Capitalism v Communism

USA v USSR

1st World v 2nd World-In an attempt

To control the 3rd World/Whole World

Fought 1947 - 1989


Cold war s major events

Cold War’s Major Events

  • Troubles in Germany, Greece, and Turkey

  • Soviet Expansion v US Containment

  • Troubles in Asia

    • China

    • Korea

    • Vietnam

  • Troubles in Cuba

  • Arms Races & Space Race


The cold war begins

The Cold War Begins

  • Stalin keeps much of Eastern Europe following World War II

  • Stalin attempts to take Greece and Turkey

  • Stalin supports Communist political parties in Western Europe aimed at taking over Italy, France, Britain, Germany, and Spain.


Rapid soviet expansion

Rapid Soviet Expansion

  • Stalin takes: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Albania, and East Germany/East Berlin

  • Attempts to take: West Berlin, Greece, and Turkey

  • Aides Mao in his fight against Chiang for control of China


From hot to cold war

Post WWII

Soviet

Expansion


From hot to cold war

Churchill and Truman arrive in Fulton Missouri


From hot to cold war

Churchill delivering the famous “Iron Curtain Speech” 1946.


From hot to cold war

From Stettin in the Baltic

to Trieste in the Adriatic

an iron curtain has descended across the

Continent.

Behind that line lie all the capitals of the

ancient states of

Central and Eastern

Europe.

- Winston Churchill 1946


From hot to cold war

Stalin wants Greece!

Truman saves Greece!


Us goal for the cold war stop the spread of communism

US Goal for the Cold War Stop the Spread of Communism

The American Policy Designed to do this is called:

Containment


The marshall plan

The Marshall Plan


From hot to cold war

Marshall Plan Expenditures

Economic Assistance, April 3, 1948 to June 30, 1952 (in millions of dollars) COUNTRYTotalGrantsLoans

Total for all countries $13,325.8$11,820.7$1,505.1 Austria677.8677.8--

BelgiumLuxembourg559.3491.368.0

Denmark273.0239.733.3

France2,713.62,488.0225.6

West Germany 1,390.61,173.7216.9

Greece 706.7706.7

Iceland29.324.05.3

Ireland147.519.3128.2

Italy1,508.81,413.295.6

Netherlands1,083.5916.8166.7

Norway255.3216.139.2

Portugal51.215.136.1

Sweden107.386.920.4

Turkey225.1140.185.0

United Kingdom3,189.82,805.0384.8


With food clothing shelter jobs and freedom

With Food, Clothing, Shelter,Jobs and Freedom

  • Marshall Plan’s Chief Goal?

  • Restore the Economies of Western Europe!

  • Hopeless people will turn to Communism in the hope of change

  • People who have something will fight to keep it!


From hot to cold war

Troubles in

Germany


Troubles in berlin

Troubles in Berlin

Air Lift

11 Months

June 1948-May 1949


From hot to cold war

“We’re Staying in Berlin!”


From hot to cold war

OPERATION VITTLES


From hot to cold war

OPERATION VITTLES


From hot to cold war

OPERATION VITTLES


From hot to cold war

OPERATION VITTLES


From hot to cold war

OPERATION VITTLES

Gail Halverson

Will Drop Over

150,000

Mini parachutes

With Candy

During His Tour

In The Berlin

Airlift!


From hot to cold war

German Democratic

Republic –

East Germany

1949-1989

Federal Republic of

Germany

1949-1989


After the berlin airlift

After the Berlin Airlift

Western Europe, Canada, and the US created the NATO Alliance

Stalin counters this with the

Warsaw Pact


From hot to cold war

Charter Meeting of NATO


From hot to cold war

A divided Europe

Soon to be a divided World!


Containment of communism ussr

Containment of Communism - USSR

  • Truman Doctrine: Aid to Greece and Turkey

  • The Marshall Plan

  • NATO

  • SEATO

  • The Berlin Airlift

  • The Korea War

  • The Vietnam War


R a f t role audience format topic

R.A.F.T.Role, Audience, Format, Topic

  • Format

  • - a brief letter.

  • Topic

  • - Explain to your relative what changes you and your country have been experiencing in the post WWII Europe.

  • Roles

  • - A person living in Hungary

  • - A person living in Berlin (east or west)

  • - A person living in Greece

  • Audience

  • - a relative living in the U.S.

Journal entries should be around 5-7 sentences.


From hot to cold war

Cold War Leaders

Dwight Eisenhower

John F. Kennedy

Harry Truman

Joseph Stalin

Nikita Khrushchev

Mao Zedong


From hot to cold war

Mao Zedong was the leader of the People's Republic of China from 1949 to 1976. Under his rule, the Chinese educational, societal, and economic systems disintegrated and many citizens were repressed and tortured.


From hot to cold war

Mao vs Chiang


Iii the cold war comes to asia

III. The Cold War Comes to Asia

  • A. China

  • 1. After WWII U.S. supported nationalist forces under Chiang-Kai–Shek would fight a civil war against Mao Zedong and the communist rebels.

  • 2. The nationalists will be defeated and retreat to the Island of Formosa (Taiwan).


From hot to cold war

Defeated by Mao, Chiang kai-shek created a country called

Nationalist China opposed to Mao’s Communist China

Toady it is called Taiwan!!!


From hot to cold war

This slide was

Made in Taiwan!

  • The People’s Republic

  • of China is declared in

  • October of 1949. Led by

  • Mao Zedong.

So long Chiang

Hello Mao

U

S

A

L

L

Y


From hot to cold war

Who is this

man

and why is he

always

wearing an

ugly

brown pantsuit?


Korean war

Korean War?

Police Action

Limited War

60,000 American Dead


Iii the cold war comes to asia1

III. The Cold War Comes to Asia

  • B. Korea

  • 1. Peninsula was divided along the 38th parallel: Communist backed (USSR) – North, Pro-western (US backed) – South.

  • 2. North Korea backed by the USSR invades south to occupy and reunite Korea under a communist backed government June 25, 1950.


June 25 1950

June 25, 1950

North Korea Invades South Korea

Driving Toward the Pusan Perimeter!


Truman s dilemma

Truman’s Dilemma

  • Allow S. Korea to fall and Containment fails

  • Fight and start World War III

  • Thermonuclear War

  • No response shows weakness


Ii cold war comes to asia

II. Cold War Comes to Asia

  • 3. Truman responds by ordering U.S. air and naval forces to Korea as a police action w/o congressional approval.

  • 4. Truman seeks UN support.

  • 5. China and USSR are boycotting the UN so the security council votes to support the US led military action.


From hot to cold war

The Korean War

A US & UN Police Action: June 1950 – July 1953


Ii the cold war comes to asia

II. The Cold War Comes to Asia

  • C. Korean War

  • 1. North Koreans push the South back to the Pusan Perimeter.

  • 2. US Army General Douglas MacArthur launches a counter attack at Inchon and pushes the NK’s back to the Yalu River.


From hot to cold war

Lt. Gen. Walton H. Walker, U.S. Eighth Army commander, crosses the Naktong River. Walker's troops established the Pusan perimeter (also known as the Naktong perimeter) by August 1, 1950.


From hot to cold war

US Counter Attack Begins at Inchon

U.S. Marines of the First Division climb a sea wall during the Inchon invasion on September 15, 1950. The Inchon landing was a brilliant strategic coup that turned the tide of the war against North Korea.


From hot to cold war

US Counter Attack Begins at Inchon

General of the U.S. Army Douglas MacArthur (seated, center), commander in chief of the Far East Command (FEC), observes the Inchon landing from aboard the USS Mount McKinley on September 15, 1950. The Inchon landing was MacArthur's Korean War masterstroke. Quickly planned despite opposition from Washington, D.C., it was a brilliant strategic coup that turned the tide of the war.


From hot to cold war

US Counter Attack Begins at Inchon

Supplies are unloaded at Red Beach following the Inchon landing on September 15, 1950.


From hot to cold war

  • 3. MacArthur wants to push into China and free it from the communists.

  • Macarthur wishes to use Nuclear weapons – total war if needed.

  • Truman knows it must stay limited and fires MacArthur.


From hot to cold war

US Counter Attack Continues North!

The North Korean army is near collapse as US/UN forces push north 100’s surrender!


From hot to cold war

Approaching the Yalu at Thanksgiving many US soldiers and Macarthur believe they’ll all be home for Christmas!

250,000 Chinese Volunteers Cross the Yalu River to save North Korea!!! We bug out, and a marine general wins acclaim for saying, “Retreat hell we’re just advancing backwards!”


From hot to cold war

Macarthur demands permission to bomb China and personally negotiate peace with the Chinese in direct violation of Truman’s orders!

Truman fires Macarthur!


From hot to cold war

Driven back by the Chinese advance US/UN troops re-cross the 38th Parallel and fall back losing Seoul.


From hot to cold war

Operation Killer!

Ridgeway orders US/UN troops to spend bullets not lives and the Chinese are stopped by massive US/UN firepower!


From hot to cold war

  • 3. MacArthur wants to push into China and free it from the communists.

  • Macarthur wishes to use Nuclear weapons – total war if needed.

  • Truman knows it must stay limited and fires MacArthur.

  • The Chinese join the NK’s and push the UN troops back to the 38th

  • parallel.

  • 7. Armistice in 1953 –

  • Never a treaty ending the

  • war!


From hot to cold war

  • In July 1953 North Korea and China, allies in the Korean War, signed a truce agreement at Panmunjom with the United Nations command that had supported South Korea. The agreement ended fighting on the Korea Peninsula, but a permanent peace settlement between South Korea and North Korea has not been reached.

US. Troops are still stationed along the 38th parallel today!!!


From hot to cold war

Lt. Gen. William K. Harrison Jr. signs the Armistice Agreement, which effectively ended the Korean War, at Panmunjom on July 27, 1953.


From hot to cold war

Private first class Thomas S. Farrell of Trinidad, Colo., leaves a Communist truck at the Panmunjom, Korea prisoner exchange point August 18, 1953 during the 15th day of Operation Big Switch.


Ii the cold war comes to asia1

II. The Cold War Comes to Asia

  • D. Results of Korea

  • 1. Same division line 38th parallel.

  • 2. 54,000 U.S. deaths

  • 3.Sets the precedent of:

  • - Fighting with out gaining territory or accomplishing an objective.

  • - Big Budgets for military Spending (military industrial complex)

  • - Increased power of the President in use of military.


From hot to cold war

This is the closest you can get to the bridge that will someday join North and South Korea????


From hot to cold war

The DMZ at the 38th Parallel in 2008 – US troops are still in Korea!


From hot to cold war

This is the entrance to the 3rd Infiltration Tunnel that was discovered. The North had secretly dug tunnels under the DMZ border in order to launch sneak attacks on the South.


From hot to cold war

Seoul South Korea prosperous Democratic and Capitalistic!


From hot to cold war

Two Koreas in 2011

One with nuclear weapons?


From hot to cold war

Is North Korea Next???


From hot to cold war

Kim Jong-il

North Korea’s

Leader Today!


Results of the korean war

Results of the Korean War

  • An armistice ends the war

  • US troops still patrol the DMZ at the 38th parallel

  • US believes that it can fight “Limited Wars”

  • Led us into Vietnam!


Results of the korean war1

Results of the Korean War

  • 2,700,000 Deaths

  • 50,000+ US Deaths

  • $15,000,000,000 US Cost in 1953

  • We still patrol the DMZ – 38,000 troops


Bless em all sung on the retreat from the yalu

“Bless ‘Em All”Sung on the Retreat from the Yalu

****’em all, ****’em all

The Commies, the UN, and all.

And now know the meaning of USMC

But we’re saying goodbye to them all,

We’re Harry’s police force on call.

So put your pack back on,

The next stop is Saigon,

Cheer up, me lads ****’em all.

This song got the

US marines in a little

trouble but the corp

is not a Family School

Business!

Of significance is the

word in Red!

Where are we going

to go next?


From hot to cold war

Time to play...

Candy for Questions

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,

19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29


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