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Multistation Access Units (MAUs). Connect workstations in a logical ring through a physical star topology Move the token and packets around the ring Amplify data signals Connect in a daisy-chained manner to expand a token ring network Provide orderly movement of data.

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multistation access units maus
Multistation Access Units (MAUs)
  • Connect workstations in a logical ring through a physical star topology
  • Move the token and packets around the ring
  • Amplify data signals
  • Connect in a daisy-chained manner to expand a token ring network
  • Provide orderly movement of data
multistation access units maus1
Multistation Access Units (MAUs)
  • A passive hub connects nodes in a star topology, performing no signal enhance-ment as the packet moves from one node to the next through the hub.
  • An active hub connects nodes in a star topology, regenerating, retiming, and amplifying the data signal each time it passes through the hub.
to draw the network diagram
To Draw the Network Diagram
  • Drawing the token ring network in Microsoft Paint
multiplexers
Multiplexers
  • A multiplexer is a switch that divides a communication medium into multiple channels so several nodes can communicate at the same time.
  • A signal that is multiplexed must be demultiplexed at the other end.
multiplexers2
Multiplexers
  • Work at the OSI physical level, switching from channel to channel using one of three physical methods:
    • Time division multiple access (TDMA)
    • Frequency division multiple access (FDMA)
    • Statistical multiple access
multiplexers3
Multiplexers
  • TDMA enables multiple devices to communi-cate over the same communications medium by creating time slots in which each device transmits.
  • FDMA creates separate channels on one communication medium by establishing different frequencies for each channel.
  • Statistical multiple access multiplexing allocates the communication resources according to what is needed for the task.
repeaters
Repeaters
  • A repeater amplifies and retimes a packet-carrying signal so it can be sent along all cable segments.
  • As used in this context, a segment of cable is one cable run within the IEEE specifications.
how repeaters are used
How Repeaters Are Used
  • To extend a cable segment
  • To increase the number of nodes beyond the limit of one segment
  • To sense a problem and shut down a cable segment
  • To amplify and retime a signal (as a component in other network devices)
using a repeater to extend a network

Research lab

Research lab

Repeater

President’s office

Business office

Using a Repeaterto Extend a Network
repeaters1
Repeaters
  • An attached unit interface (AUI) connects coax or fiber-optic backbone cable to a network node, such as a repeater.
  • A partitioned segment is one that has been shut down because a portion of the segment is malfunctioning.
to diagram the interoffice network
To Diagram the Interoffice Network
  • Microsoft Paint diagram of two rooms connected by a repeater
bridges
Bridges
  • A bridge is a network device that connects different LAN segments using the same access method.
how bridges are used
How Bridges Are Used
  • To extend a LAN when the maximum connection limit has been reached
  • To extend a LAN beyond the length limit
  • To segment LANs to reduce data traffic bottlenecks
  • To prevent unauthorized access to LAN (for security)
bridges1
Bridges
  • A network device that operates in promiscuous mode reads frame destination address information before sending a packet onto other connected segments of the network.
types of bridges
Types of Bridges
  • A local bridge connects networks in close proximity and is used to segment a portion of a network to reduce problems caused by heavy traffic.
  • A remote bridge joins networks across the same city, between cities, and between states to create one network.
important functions of a bridge
Important Functions of a Bridge
  • Learning
  • Filtering
  • Forwarding
cascaded network segments

LAN 1

Bridge A

LAN 2

Bridge B

LAN 3

Cascaded Network Segments
token ring bridging
Token Ring Bridging
  • Token ring bridges use source routing to forward packets on the network.
  • Hops are the number of times a packet travels point-to-point from one network to the next.

Source route bridging

routers
Routers
  • A router connects networks having the same or different access methods.
  • It forwards packets to networks by using a decision-making process based on:
    • Routing table data
    • Discovery of the most efficient routes
    • Preprogrammed information from the network administrator
how routers are used
How Routers Are Used
  • To efficiently direct packets from one network to another, reducing excessive traffic
  • To join neighboring or distant networks
  • To connect dissimilar networks
  • To prevent network bottlenecks by isolating portions of a network
  • To secure portions of a network from intruders
static and dynamic routing
Static and Dynamic Routing
  • Static routing involves control of routing decisions by the network administrator through preset routing instructions.
  • In dynamic routing, the router constantly:
    • Checks the network configuration
    • Automatically updates routing tables
    • Makes its own decisions about how to route frames
routing tables and protocols
Routing Tables and Protocols
  • Routers maintain information about node addresses and network status in databases.
    • The routing table database contains the addresses of other routers and each end node.
  • Routers regularly exchange information about network traffic, the network topology, and the status of network lines.
  • Routers exchange information by using one or more routing protocols.
local and remote routers
Local and Remote Routers
  • A local router joins networks in the same building or between buildings in close proximity.
  • A firewall is software and/or hardware employed to restrict who has access to a network, to specific network segments, or to certain network resources (such as servers).
  • A remote router joins networks across large geographical areas, such as between cities, states, and countries.
a local router connecting networks in adjacent buildings
A Local Router Connecting Networks in Adjacent Buildings

Business building

Manufacturing building

Router

brouters
Brouters
  • A brouter, also called a multiprotocol router, is a network device that acts like a bridge or a router, depending on how it is set up to forward a given protocol.
  • It is used on networks that operate with several different protocols.
how brouters are used
How Brouters Are Used
  • For efficient packet handling on a multiprotocol network with some protocols that can be routed and some that cannot
  • To isolate and direct network traffic to reduce congestion
  • To join networks
  • To secure a certain portion of a network by controlling who can access it
slide32
Hubs
  • A hub is a central network device that connects network devices in a star topology.
  • It is also referred to as a concentrator (or switch), which is a device that can have multiple inputs and outputs all active at one time.
services offered by hubs
Services Offered by Hubs
  • Provide a central unit from which to connect multiple nodes into one network
  • Permit large numbers of computers to be connected on single or multiple LANs
  • Reduce network congestion through centralizing network design
  • Provide multiprotocol services
types of hubs
Types of Hubs
  • MAUs
  • 10BASE-T hubs
  • 100BASE-X hubs
  • Intelligent and modular hubs
10base t hubs
10BASE-T Hubs
  • One of the simplest hubs
  • Popular way to connect workgroups on small and large LANs
  • Uses physical star topology to connect PCs to the central hub
  • Additional hubs are added by connecting one hub to the next.
switching hubs
Switching Hubs
  • Permit significant increase in the throughput capability of an existing 4 Mbps, 10 Mbps, or 16 Mbps network by taking full advantage of exiting bandwidth capabilities
  • Allow an existing network to be separated into multiple smaller segments, each independent of the others
  • Can be installed on LANs in a WAN where specific LANs are experiencing increased network traffic
100base x hubs
100BASE-X Hubs
  • Multimedia, video, and GUI client/server applications have fostered the need for high-bandwidth, high-speed technologies.
intelligent and modular hubs
Intelligent and Modular Hubs
  • An intelligent hub has network management and performance monitoring capabilities.
  • A modular hub, also called a chassis hub, contains a backplane into which different modules can be inserted.
  • A backplane is the main circuit board in modular equipment, containing slots as plug-ins for modular cards. It provides connections between the modular boards, a power source, and grounding.
to diagram 10base t star topology on two floors
To Diagram 10BASE-T Star Topology on Two Floors
  • Network diagram of 10BASE-T network segments connected to an intelligent hub
gateways
Gateways
  • A gateway enables communications between two different types of networked systems, such as between complex protocols or between different e-mail systems.
how gateways are used
How Gateways Are Used
  • To convert commonly used protocols to a specialized protocol
  • To convert message formats from one format to another
  • To translate different addressing schemes
  • To link a host computer to a LAN

continued

how gateways are used1
How Gateways Are Used
  • To provide terminal emulation for connections to a host computer
  • To direct e-mail to the right network destination
  • To connect networks with different architectures
systems network architecture sna
Systems Network Architecture (SNA)
  • SNA is a layered communications protocol used by IBM for communications between IBM mainframe computers and terminals.
  • It employs seven-layered communications that are similar to the OSI model, but there are differences in the way the services are grouped within the layers.
atm switches
ATM Switches
  • An ATM switch determines the network channel used to transmit an ATM cell received from a node, taking into account the type of information in the cell (voice, video, data) and the transmission speed needed.
capabilities of atm switches
Capabilities of ATM Switches
  • Provide high-speed communications on a network backbone
  • Provide cell transmissions directly to the desktop
  • Enable high-speed communication between network hubs
  • Centralize network design for better management

continued

capabilities of atm switches1
Capabilities of ATM Switches
  • Connect to very high speed networks, such as SONET
  • Enable network design around workgroup members at dissimilar locations (virtual LANs)
  • Reduce network bottlenecks through high-speed communications and efficient traffic management through workgroups
virtual lans vlans
Virtual LANs (VLANs)
  • A virtual LAN (VLAN) uses switches, routers, and internetworking software to configure a network into subnetworks of logical workgroups, independent of the physical network topology.
advantages of vlans
Advantages of VLANs
  • VLANs enable a network to operate at the most efficient level; it is not limited by physical topology.
  • Network resources can be managed based on the actual work groupings of users.
  • VLANs can be reconfigured to move a user from an old workgroup to new one.
vlan workgroups through atm switching
VLAN Workgroups through ATM Switching

ATM switch

ATM switch

Central ATM switch

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