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1. Anatomy and PhysiologyChapter #2
2. 2.1 Introduction Chemistry is the branch of science that considers the composition of matter and how this composition changes.
Chemistry is essential for understanding anatomy and physiology because body structures and functions result from chemical changes within cells.
3. 2.2 Structure of Matter Matter is anything that has mass (weight) and takes up space. Matter is found in various forms, gases, liquids, and solids
Elements make up all matter.
Elements are composed of tiny particles called atoms.
The smallest complete units of elements are atoms.
4. Atomic Structure Nucleus is the central portion of the atom which contains neutrons (neutral) and protons (positive).
Electrons, which are extremely small, found outside the nucleus in energy shells or levels or rings have a negative charge.
What are the components of an atom that determine its electrical charge?
Protons and electrons
5. Drawing atoms Atomic number is the number of protons in an element.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom equal the number of electrons in its shells.
Energy levels or shells:
1st shell can hold a max of 2 electrons
2nd 6th shells can hold a max of 8 electrons
6. Drawing atoms continued Atomic weight is the number of protons plus neutrons.
SO. Atomic weight atomic number = the number of neutrons.
7. The defining characteristic of stable elements is the maximum number of electrons in its outer shell. Noble gases.
Unstable elements achieve stable structures by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons in their energy levels or shells.
8. Bond Types 3 Main Types Ionic bond between a metal and nonmetal they transfer electrons forming ions.
Ion atoms that gain or lose electrons (-) become electrically charged.
Covalent bond between two nonmetals they share electrons.
When atoms combine with other atoms, they can share an electron with another atom, lose an electron or gain an electron.
9. Molecules and Compounds A molecule is formed when two or more atoms combine.
If atoms of different elements combine, the resulting structure can also be called a compound. Examples: Baking soda, sugar
Molecular formula represents the numbers and types of atoms in a molecule. Examples H2O & C6H12O6
Structural formulas show what molecules look like.
10. Structural Formation
11. Chemical Reactions 4 Types Synthesis when two or more atoms or reactants bond to form a new, more complex structure. Synthesis requires energy and is important to the growth of body parts.
Decomposition the opposite of synthesis
12. Catalysts affect the speed of a reaction but is not consumed by the reaction.
Electrolytes contains electrically charged particles (ions), it will conduct an electric current. When electrically charged ions disassociate in water, the solution will conduct electricity. Example: Salt water
13. Acids and Bases pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. It indicates how acidic something is.
Acids have pH less than 7
Neutral pH equal to 7
Bases have pH greater than 7
14. 2.3 Chemical Constituents of Cells 2 types of chemicals
Organic must contain carbon and hydrogen but may contain other elements as well. (C6H12O6) Living things or once living things.
Inorganic all the other compounds (H20) do NOT contain C.
15. Inorganic Compounds Water
16. Water In the human body, water plays an important role in dissolving solid substances, moving chemicals around the body, and absorbing and moving heat
Is the most abundant compound in cells and is a solvent in which chemical reactions occur.
Transports chemicals and heat.
17. Oxygen Releases energy from glucose and other nutrients.
This energy drives metabolism.
18. Carbon Dioxide Is an inorganic substances that is a metabolic waste product, exhaled from the lungs.
19. Salts Provide a variety of ions that metabolic processes require.
20. Organic Compounds Carbohydrates
21. Carbohydrates Supply most of the energy needed by cells
Composed of what 3 elements? C,H,O
Monosaccharides (simple sugars)
Disaccharides are two sugars joined together
Polysaccharides, such as starch, are built of many sugars.
Humans synthesize the complex carbohydrate called glycogen.
22. Lipids Lipids made of C,H,O but in different amounts
Lipids include fats (most common), steroids, and phospholipids.
A fat that has all of its carbon atoms joined by single carbon to carbon bonds is said to be saturated. (solid at room temp, bad for you)
Unsaturated fats (liquid at room temp, good for you, double bonds)
Cholesterol, estrogens, and testosterone are all steroids.
A phospholipid typically has two fatty acid chains and a phosphate group.
23. Proteins Proteins have a great variety of functions in the body---as structural materials, as energy sources, as certain hormones, as receptors on cell membranes, as antibodies, and as enzymes to catalyze metabolic reactions.
Proteins contain what 4 elements? C,H,O,N Sometimes S
Building blocks of proteins are the amino acids (20)
Proteins have complex shapes held together by hydrogen bonds. (their many shapes changes their functions)
Protein shapes, which determine how proteins function, can be altered by pH, temperature, radiation, or chemicals. H bonds break this is called denatured.
24. Amino Acids Alanine
Methionine 12. Tryptophan
13. Aspartic acid
(NOTE: the 8 essential amino acids are in red. These cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained from food. Arginine and histidine are essential only for children.)
25. Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids form genes and take part in protein synthesis.
They contain the elements C,H,O,N,P
The building blocks are called nucleotides.
Nucleic acids are of two major types: DNA (with deoxyribose) and RNA (with ribose).
26. DNA & RNA Deoxyribonucleic acid: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) stores the molecular code in genes.
How many strands does it have? 2
Deoxy means without Oxygen
Ribonucleic acid: RNA (ribonucleic acid) functions in protein synthesis.
How many strands does it have? 1
27. Clinical Connection Prion protein can assume up to 12 different shapes before prion was discovered it was believed protein shape was always 3-D
Some prions are infectious mad cow disease
Some prions are not infectious Alzheimer disease which cause gummy plaques in the brain and disrupt functioning.
Some forms of Alzheimer disease may be caused by protein misfolding
28. Work cited Chemistry Image. www.aperfectworld.org/healthcare_medicine.html
DNA image. www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/origins/knoll.html
Structural formula image.