Organic chemistry. Organic Compounds. Organic Compounds - any covalently bonded compound containing carbon except carbonates CO 3 - , carbon monoxide CO, carbon dioxide CO 2 and acetates C 2 H 3 O 2 -. A. Organic Nomenclature. General Characteristics of Organic Molecules.
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C10H22 - decane
1. where n stands for the number of carbons
D. Branched chain saturated hydrocarbons
1. must name the longest straight chain
2. number the straight chain so the branches
have the lowest number
e.g. 3-ethyl 2 methyl hexane
Draw back bone for compound = in this case it is hexane
Number the carbons
Attach branch group
Make sure all C have 4 bonds
Designate the location (number of the carbon on
the parent chain) for each attached group
1 2 3 4 5
2 - methyl pentane
by only methylene group (CH2)
Structural formulas - shows the
structure of a molecule
B. Condensed structural formulas
Cycloalkanes are represented by polygons. A triangle represents cyclopropane, a square represents cyclobutane, a pentagon represents cyclopentane, and so on.
to be unsaturated
a. the double bond is located between two C
b. change the ane ending to ene
where the double bond begins
e.g. 2- butene
d. If there are more than one double bond the ene
is preceded by number of double bonds
V. Alkynes - triple bonded hydrocarbons - also unsaturated
A. the triple bond is located between the two C
C. must also indicate where the triple bond starts
When the carbon chain has 4 or more C atoms, number the chain to give the lowest number to the double or triple bond.
1 2 3 4
CH3CH=CHCH3 2-butene CH3CCCH3 2-butyne
The attachment of a Halogen to a carbon group
(F, Cl, Br, I)
dicloro, difluoro methane
2 – bromo butane
B. change the e to ol
C. methane to methanol
VIIIKetones - contains double bonded oxygen
located anywhere but the end
A. change to e to one
B. propane to propanone
at the end
A. change e to al
B. ethane to ethanal
X carboxylic Acid - contain a double bonded oxygen
and a hydroxylgroup
A. change to e to oic acid
B. ethane to ethanoic acid
X I ethers
A. two alkyl groups attached to an oxygen
B. dimethyl ether
Aromatic compounds contain benzene.
Benzene, C6H6 , is represented as a six carbon ring with 3 double bonds.
Two possible resonance structures can be drawn to show benzene in this form.
When Benzene rings are attached to groups that have higher priorities – it is
known as a phenyl group (C6H5-)
R-,C6H5-,Cl-, Br-, NO2
Branched chain alkanes: An alkane that has a
branching connection of carbons.
1. same molecular formula put differ in
2. 4 carbon alkane has two possible isomers
3. C5H12 has 3 isomers
4. C6H14 has 5 isomers
5. C10H22has 75
Carbons in butane (C4H10) can be arranged in two ways; four carbons in a row (linear alkane) or a branching (branched alkane). These two structures are two isomers for butane.
2,2 – dimethyl propane