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Using Data for Decision-making. Rob Horner, Anne Todd, Steve Newton, Bob Algozzine, Kate Algozzine. Main Ideas. Decisions are more likely to be effective and efficient when they are based on data.

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Using data for decision making

Using Data for Decision-making

Rob Horner, Anne Todd, Steve Newton,

Bob Algozzine, Kate Algozzine


Main ideas
Main Ideas

  • Decisions are more likely to be effective and efficient when they are based on data.

  • The quality of decision-making depends most on the first step (defining the problem to be solved)

    • Define problems with precision and clarity


Main ideas1
Main Ideas

  • Data help us ask the right questions…they do not provide the answers: Use data to

    • Identify problems

    • Refine problems

    • Define the questions that lead to solutions

  • Data help place the “problem” in the context rather than in the students.


Main idea
Main Idea

  • The process a team uses to problem solve is important:

    • Roles:

      • Facilitator; Recorder; Data analyst; Active member

  • Organization

    • Agenda; Old business (did we do what we said we would do); New business; Action plan for decisions.

    • What happens BEFORE a meeting

    • What happens DURING a meeting

    • What happen AFTER a meeting


Main ideas2
Main Ideas

  • Build “decision systems” not “data systems”

  • Use data in “decision layers”

    • Is there a problem? (overall rate of ODR)

    • Localize the problem

      • (location, problem behavior, students, time of day)

  • Get specific

  • Don’t drown in the data

  • It’s “OK” to be doing well

  • Be efficient


  • Using data
    Using Data

    • Do we have a problem?

    • Refine the description of the problem?

      • What behavior, Who, Where, When, Why

  • Test hypotheses

    • “I think the problem on the playground is due to Eric”

    • “ We think the lunch period is too long”

    • “We believe the end of ‘block schedule” is used poorly”

  • Define how to monitor if solution is effective


  • Review

    Status and

    Identify

    Problems

    Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model

    Develop and

    Refine

    Hypotheses

    Evaluate and

    Revise

    Action Plan

    Collect

    and Use

    Data

    Discuss and

    Select

    Solutions

    Develop and

    Implement

    Action Plan

    Problem Solving Foundations


    Identifying problems issues
    Identifying problems/issues

    • What data to monitor

      • ODR per day per month

      • OSS, ISS, Attendance, Teacher report

      • Team Checklist/ SET (are we doing what we planned to do?)

    • What question to answer

      • Do we have a problem?

    • What questions to ask of Level, Trend, Peaks

      • How do our data compare with last year?

      • How do our data compare with national/regional norms?

      • How do our data compare with our preferred/expected status?

    • If a problem is identified, then ask

      • What are the data we need to make a good decision?


    Total Office Discipline Referrals as of January 10

    Total Office Discipline Referrals


    Using data to refine problem statement
    Using Data to Refine Problem Statement

    • The statement of a problem is important for team-based problem solving.

      • Everyone must be working on the same problem with the same assumptions.

  • Problems often are framed in a “Primary” form, that creates concern, but that is not useful for problem-solving.

    • Frame primary problems based on initial review of data

    • Use more detailed review of data to build “Solvable Problem Statements.”


  • Solvable problem statements what are the data we need for a decision
    Solvable Problem Statements(What are the data we need for a decision?)

    • Solvable problem statements include information about the five core “W” questions.

      • What is problem, and how often is it happening

      • Where is it happening

      • Who is engaged in the behavior

      • When the problem is most likely

      • Why the problem is sustaining


    Primary versus precision statements

    Primary Statements

    Too many referrals

    September has more suspensions than last year

    Gang behavior is increasing

    The cafeteria is out of control

    Student disrespect is out of control

    Precision Statements

    There are more ODRs for aggression on the playground than last year. These are most likely to occur during first recess, with a large number of students, and the aggression is related to getting access to the new playground equipment.

    Primary versus Precision Statements


    Primary versus precision statements1

    Primary Statements

    Too many referrals

    September has more suspensions than last year

    Gang behavior is increasing

    The cafeteria is out of control

    Student disrespect is out of control

    Precision Statements

    There are more ODRs for aggressionon the playground than last year. These are most likely to occur during first recess, with a large number of students, and the aggression is related to getting access to the new playground equipment.

    Primary versus Precision Statements


    Precise or primary statement
    Precise or Primary Statement?

    • Children are using inappropriate language with a high frequency in the presence of both adults and other children. This is creating a sense of disrespect and incivility in the school

    • James D. is hitting others in the cafeteria during lunch, and his hitting is maintained by peer attention.


    Precise or primary statement1
    Precise or Primary Statement?

    • ODRs during December are higher than in any other month.

    • Minor disrespect and disruption are increasing over time, and are most likely during the last 15 minutes of our block periods when students are engaged in independent seat work. This pattern is most common in 7th and 8th grades, involves many students, and appears to be maintained by escape from work (but may also be maintained by peer attention… we are not sure).


    Precise or primary statement2
    Precise or Primary Statement?

    • Three 5th grade boys are name calling and touching girls inappropriately during recess in an apparent attempt to obtain attention and possibly unsophisticated sexual expression.

    • Boys are engaging in sexual harassment


    Organizing data for decision making
    Organizing Data for Decision-making

    • Compare data across time

    • Moving from counts to count/month


    Swis summary 2008 2009 majors only 3 410 schools 1 737 432 students 1 500 770 odrs
    SWIS summary 2008-2009 (Majors Only)3,410 schools; 1,737,432 students; 1,500,770 ODRs

    Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon unpublished training manual.


    Start with the odr day month graph
    Start with the ODR/Day/Month Graph

    • Use the information in the data to build a narrative that draws the team into problem solving.

    • Be descriptive

    • Link local data to national patterns

    • Tie the data back to local conditions/events.


    Elementary School 465 students (465/ 100 = 4.6 X .34= 1.56)

    Our rate of problem behavior has been above the national average for schools our size for 9 of 10 months this year. There has been a decreasing trend since Dec.


    Elementary School 1000 Students (1000/100 =10 X .34= 3.4)

    The rate of problem behavior has been at or below the national average schools our size for 6 of 10 months. The past 4 months have been below the national average


    Middle School 765 students (765/100 = 7.6 X .85= 6.46) 3.4)

    The rate of problem behavior has been at or below the national average schools our size for 9 of 10 months. The past 8 months have been below the national average with a decreasing trend






    Using data to build precision
    Using Data to Build Precision 3.4)

    • Given that we know we have a problem

    • What problem behaviors

    • Where are they occurring

    • When are they occurring

    • Who is involved

    • Why do they keep happening


    What questions to ask about the patterns of problem behaviors
    What questions to ask about the patterns of problem behaviors?

    • Do we have one problem behavior situations or more than one?

    • Do we have many problem behaviors or just a few problem behaviors?

    • Do we have clusters of problem behaviors?

    • What school wide expectations do we need to re-teach?


    Data should allow asking the right question not supplying the answer
    Data should allow asking the right question… not supplying the answer.

    • If many referrals in class

      • Which classes?

      • Which students?

      • When?

  • If many referrals in cafeteria

    • Which students?

    • What times? (beginning or end of lunch period?)

    • What problem behaviors?


  • Disrespect is our most frequent problem behavior. the answer.

    We also have incidents of fighting and harassment

    What are next questions?

    Who, When, Why?


    Our most frequent problem behavior is disrespect, followed by inappropriate language, disruption and tardy

    What are next questions?

    Who, When, Why?


    We have many instances of disrespect, aggression/fighting. technology violations, tardy, harassment, lying, skipping, and inappropriate language


    What questions to ask about referrals by location
    What questions to ask about Referrals by Location technology violations, tardy, harassment, lying, skipping, and inappropriate language

    • Where are the problems occurring?

    • Are there problems in many locations, clusters of locations, or one location?


    Many problem behaviors in class technology violations, tardy, harassment, lying, skipping, and inappropriate language

    Many problem behaviors in unstructured settings (hall, playground, parking lot, bathroom)


    Many problems in the cafeteria, hallway, common area, class, bathroom. Where is the ‘unknown’ location?


    What questions to ask about referrals by time
    What questions to ask about Referrals by Time bathroom. Where is the ‘unknown’ location?

    • When are the problem behaviors occurring?

    • How do those times match with the daily activities?

    • How does this information match up to Referrals by Location?


    Most problems are occurring between 9:45-10:45. bathroom. Where is the ‘unknown’ location?

    Other problematic times are 8-8:45 and 11:30.


    Most problems are occurring at noon bathroom. Where is the ‘unknown’ location?


    Many problems at 12:15, 7:45-8:30, 10:00-10:45 bathroom. Where is the ‘unknown’ location?


    What questions to ask about referrals by student
    What questions to ask about Referrals by Student bathroom. Where is the ‘unknown’ location?

    • What proportion of students has 0-1 ODR?

    • What proportion of students has 2-5 ODRs?

    • What proportion of students has 6+ ODRs?

    • Do we have systems of support that increase student success?


    Student # 121 needs individualized support. bathroom. Where is the ‘unknown’ location?

    8 students are likely candidates for some type of Tier II support.

    87% of our students have received 0-1 ODR


    14 students are likely candidates for some type of Tier II support. Student #119 needs individualized support


    We have 11 students who are likely candidates for some type of Tier II support

    93% of our students have received no more than one ODR


    What questions to ask about referrals by perceived motivation
    What questions to ask about Referrals by Perceived Motivation

    • What is perceived as maintaining the problem behavior?

    • Are there one or more perceptions?


    The problem behaviors are most likely maintained by task avoidance and peer avoidance.

    We have many incidents with unknown motivation




    Using the tips minutes to guide problem solving
    Using the TIPS Minutes to guide attentionProblem Solving

    • Write the precision problem statement in the left hand column below

    • Define a goal and write it in the right hand column


    Using data to build solutions
    Using Data to Build Solutions attention

    • Prevention: How can we avoid the problem context?

      • Who, When, Where

      • Schedule change, curriculum change, etc

    • Teaching: How can we define, teach, and monitor what we want?

      • Teach appropriate behavior

      • Use problem behavior as negative example

    • Recognition: How can we build in systematic reward for desired behavior?

    • Extinction: How can we prevent problem behavior from being rewarded?

    • Consequences: What are efficient, consistent consequences for problem behavior?

    • How will we collect and use data to evaluate (a) implementation fidelity, and (b) impact on student outcomes?



    Trevor test middle school

    Trevor Test Middle School attention

    565 students

    Grades 6,7,8


    Trevor test middle school is there a problem if so what is it
    Trevor Test Middle School attentionIs there a problem? If so, what is it?



    Precise problem statement hypothesis development
    Precise Problem Statement & (last 3 mos.)Hypothesis Development

    • Many students from all grade levels are engaging in disruption, inappropriate language and harassment in cafeteria and hallway during lunch, and the behavior is maintained by peer attention

    • A smaller number of students engage in skipping and noncompliance/defiance in classes, (mostly in rooms 13, 14 and 18), and these behaviors appear to be maintained by escape.


    Solution development1
    Solution Development (last 3 mos.)


    Solution development for disruption in hall and cafeteria
    Solution Development: (last 3 mos.)For disruption in hall and cafeteria


    Phoenix elementary

    Phoenix Elementary (last 3 mos.)

    Using Data For Decision-Making


    You are the behavior support team for phoenix elementary 265 students k 5
    You are the Behavior Support team for Phoenix Elementary. 265 students k-5

    • Do you have a problem?

    • Where?

    • With Whom?

    • What other information might you want?

    • Given what you know, what considerations would you have for possible action?


    Examples
    Examples 265 students k-5

    • Phoenix Elementary

      • What is national comparison?

        • 265/100 = 2.65 2.65 X .34 = .90

      • Absolute level compared with last year, compared with teacher/staff impressions, compared with family impressions, compared with student impressions.

      • Where, what, when, who , why

      • Hypotheses?

      • Solutions


    Year 2 265 students k-5

    Year 1


    Year 1 265 students k-5

    Year 2


    Major ODRs Year 2 Only 265 students k-5


    Problem statement
    Problem Statement 265 students k-5

    • Do we have a problem?

    • Build a precise problem statement


    Solution development2
    Solution Development 265 students k-5


    Langley elementary school

    Langley Elementary School 265 students k-5

    478 Students

    K-5


    Precision statement hypothesis
    Precision Statement/Hypothesis 265 students k-5

    • What

    • Where

    • When

    • Who

    • Why

    • What other info needed?

    • Possible Solutions?


    Solution development3
    Solution Development 265 students k-5


    Sandhill high school 354 students
    Sandhill High school 265 students k-5354 students


    Sandhill high school is there a problem if so what is it
    Sandhill High School 265 students k-5Is there a problem? If so, what is it?



    Precision statement hypothesis1
    Precision Statement/Hypothesis 3 mos.)

    • What

    • Where

    • When

    • Who

    • Why

    • What other info needed?

    • Possible Solutions?



    Summary
    Summary 3 mos.)

    • Establish information systems for decision-making… not data systems for reporting.

    • Use data to identify problems

    • Use data to clarify/refine problems

    • Use knowledge of context and content to build solutions.

    • Use data to monitor impact of solutions.


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