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Surface scattering plasmon resonance fibre sensors: demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection. Alexandre François Jonathan Boehm Sawyin Oh Tuckweng Kok Tanya M. Monro. Outline. Surface scattering of plasmonic wave: a novel SPR fiber sensor architecture

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Surface scattering plasmon resonance fibre sensors: demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

Alexandre François

Jonathan Boehm

Sawyin Oh

Tuckweng Kok

Tanya M. Monro


Outline
Outline demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

Surface scattering of plasmonic wave: a novel SPR fiber sensor architecture

Application for Influenza virus sensing


Traditional spr systems kretschmann configuration
Traditional SPR systems – Kretschmann configuration demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

Kretschmann prism configuration (angular interrogation)

Reflectivity measured as function of incidence angle

Sequence measurements require precise temperature control

High quality sensor chip (gold coated quartz slides, high precision required for the gold coating)

  • Label free Sensing

  • Refractive index sensor - High sensitivity (10-5 RIU)

  • Fast detection (within the order of seconds)

  • Real time kinetics measurements (constant of dissociation, affinity…)

http://ultrabio.ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp/A9912/katudo/smelldog-e/SPR3-e.jpg


Alternative optical fibers spr systems
Alternative Optical fibers SPR systems demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

Coupling between the incoming light and the plasmonic wave following the same mechanism as described by Krestchmann.

Spectral interrogation rather than angular (broadband source for excitation)

SPR characterisation performed by transmission/optical losses measurements

Same restriction concerning the metallic coating

Jorgenson, R. C., and Yee, S. S., “A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance”, Sensors and Actuators B, 12, 213-220 (1993)


Novel optical fiber spr systems
Novel optical fiber SPR systems demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

Similar coupling mechanism between incoming light and surface plasmon wave as standard SPR optical fibers (massive multimode fiber – 140mm core)

Point detection of the re-emitted light from the plasmonic wave by surface scattering at the sensing region

Enables multiple sensing regions for both dynamic self referencing and multiplexed sensing

Low cost light source (light bulb), coating process and detection system


Novel optical fiber spr systems from concept to fabrication
Novel optical fiber SPR systems from concept to fabrication demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection


Spr sensor fabrication
SPR sensor fabrication demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

Surface roughness = Key element for SPR scattering

Silver deposited using modified Tollens reaction

Silver nitrate solution

(Transparent solution)

Silver oxide

(Brown precipitate)

Reduction of silver ammonia to silver metal

(1)

2 AgNO3 + 2 KOH → Ag2O (s) + 2 KNO3 + H2O

Ag2O (s) + 4 NH3 + 2 KNO3 +H2O (l) → 2 Ag(NH3)2NO3 + 2 KOH

CH2OH(CHOH)4CHO + 2Ag(NH3)2+ + 3OH–→

2Ag(s) + CH2OH(CHOH)4CO2- + 4NH3 + H2O

Silver ammonia complex

(Transparent solution)

(2)

(3)

(1)

(2)

(3)

Kretschmann, E., “The angular dependence and the polarisation of light emitted by surface plasmons resonance on metals due to roughness”, Optics Communications, 5, 331-336 (1972)

Raether, H., “Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings”, Berlin, New York, Springer-Verlag (1988)Boehm, J., François, A., Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H., and Monro, T. M., “Chemical Deposition of Silver for the Fabrication of Surface Plasmon Microstructured Optical Fibre Sensor”, Plasmonics, 6, 133-136 (2011)


Spr sensor fabrication1
SPR sensor fabrication demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

Tollens reaction

Sputtering reaction

Similar SPR response obtained from sputtered glass slide and Tollens coated glass slides

Surface roughness ~ 5nm for a 60nm thick Ag film with Tollens reaction, ~ 2nm with sputtering

Boehm, J., François, A., Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H., and Monro, T. M., “Chemical Deposition of Silver for the Fabrication of Surface Plasmon Microstructured Optical Fibre Sensor”, Plasmonics, 6, 133-136 (2011)


Evanescent field capture mode vs transmission
Evanescent field capture mode vs transmission demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

  • Same information obtained from transmission & evanescent field measurements.

  • Higher Signal to Noise ratio in the evanescent field measurements

François, A., Boehm, J., Oh, S. Y., Kok T. and Monro T. M., “Collection mode surface plasmon fibre sensors: A new biosensing platform”, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 26, 3154-3159 (2011)

White, I., M. and Fan, X., “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors”, Optics Express, 16, 1020-1028 (2008)


Dynamic self referencing
Dynamic self referencing demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

  • Two sensing regions fiber with spectral response from the first sensing region not depending on what’s happening onto the second sensing region

  • Dynamic self referencing = no need for temperature control


Spr signal as function of the silver coating thickness
SPR signal as function of the silver coating thickness demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

22nm

  • No dependency of the SPR signal measured using the evanescent field mode as function of the thickness of the metallic coating

  • Ease the sensor fabrication

40nm

Increasing silver coating thickness

55nm

65nm

132nm

François, A., Boehm, J., Oh, S. Y., Kok T. and Monro T. M., “Collection mode surface plasmon fibre sensors: A new biosensing platform”, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 26, 3154-3159 (2011)


Refractive index sensitivity
Refractive index sensitivity demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

  • Dl/Dn = 7.9×10-4 RIU

  • Comparable to previous published SPR fiber sensors (2.5×10-4 - 7.5×10-5 RIU)

Jorgenson, R. C., and Yee, S. S., “A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance”, Sensors and Actuators B, 12, 213-220 (1993)


Sensor performance
Sensor performance demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

  • Sensitivity: 7.9×10-4 RIU

  • Detection limit (D) = Resolution (R)/ Sensitivity (S)

  • Resolution =

  • Amplitude noise contribution =

  • Thermal noise contribution = 0.002 RIU/◦C (reduced to 0 with self referencing)

  • Spectral noise = Resolution of the peak position, limited by the detection system and the FWHM (about 50nm)

  • Reduction of the amplitude noise by 10dB

  • Reduction of the thermal noise by dynamic self referencing

  • Spectral noise remains constant

  • Higher resolution = lower detection limit

  • currently about 1.8×10-3 RIU for 1nm resolution of the SPR peak position

François, A., Boehm, J., Oh, S. Y., Kok T. and Monro T. M., “Collection mode surface plasmon fibre sensors: A new biosensing platform”, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 26, 3154-3159 (2011)

White, I., M. and Fan, X., “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors”, Optics Express, 16, 1020-1028 (2008)

Rheims, J., Köser J. and Wriedt, T., “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer”, Meas. Sci. Technol., 8, 601–605 (1997)


Virus diagnostic
Virus diagnostic demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

  • Lower sensitivity than Biacore systems but large scope for improvement possible

  • Mw Virus H1N1 ~ 180 - 200 MDa


Influenza diagnostic
Influenza diagnostic demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

  • Virus cultivated using Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells growth medium with 5% foetal bovine serum in DMEM supplemented with 2 mM L-glutamine and 10 mM Hepes

  • Virus detection performed in the virus growth medium to “mimic” clinical samples

  • Non specific binding sites blocked with casein + tween 20

  • Non specific binding assessed with another sensor chip

François, A., Boehm, J., Oh, S. Y., Kok T. and Monro T. M., “Collection mode surface plasmon fibre sensors: A new biosensing platform”, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 26, 3154-3159 (2011)


Influenza diagnostic1
Influenza diagnostic demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

  • Saturation of the sensor surface with 2 HAU sample within 30 min

  • Saturation of the sensor surface with 2×10-3 HAU sample within 60 min

  • Injection performed at 200mL/30min

  • For the lower concentration sample: only 4 ×10-3 virus particles seen by the sensor for the first 30 min

1 Hemagglutination Units (HAU ~ 2×107 particles/mL)


Fluorescence sensing sandwich assay
Fluorescence sensing / sandwich assay demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

  • Sandwich assay with Qdot labeled antibodies

  • Combining SPR and fluorescence sensing within the same system as a secondary confirmation


Conclusion
Conclusion demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

  • New SPR fiber sensing architecture based on surface scattering of plasmonic waves with higher amplitude SNR and dynamic self referencing resulting in lower detection limit

  • Low cost, easy to manufacture sensor

  • Combination of SPR and fluorescence sensing as a secondary confirmation

  • Demonstration of Influenza detection in complex medium with better detection limit compared to commercial test (lateral flow sensor) and even ELISA as a potential POC diagnostic tool

Future work & perspective

  • Possibility of multiplexed sensing using multiple sensing regions

  • Possibility of combining other transducing mechanism such as second harmonic generation taking further advantage of the high surface roughness of the metallic coating

  • Improved sensitivity through better fiber design (few mode fiber, microstructured fiber…)


Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments demonstration of rapid Influenza A virus detection

  • This work was supported by the Australian Research Council (ARC), Defense Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), the South Australian State Government and The University of Adelaide

  • Tanya Monro acknowledges the support of an ARC Federation Fellowship


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