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What is Educational/School Management ?. Administration. Administration is a process concerned with planning, organizing, coordinating and controlling resources within an integrated system designed to accomplish predetermined objectives (Henri Fayole, 1949)

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What is Educational/School Management ?

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What is educational school management

What is Educational/SchoolManagement ?



  • Administration is a process concerned with planning, organizing, coordinating and controlling resources within an integrated system designed to accomplish predetermined objectives (Henri Fayole, 1949)

  • Educational administration is a discipline within the study of education that examines the administrative theory and practice of education in general and educational institutions and educators in particular. The field ideally distinguishes itself from administration and management through its adherence to guiding principles of educational philosophy. (Wikipedia)

National key result areas nkra bidang keberhasilan utama

National Key Result Areas NKRA(Bidang Keberhasilan Utama)

  • Reducing crime

  • Fighting corruption

  • Improving student outcome

  • Raising living standard of low-income households

  • Improving rural infrastructure

  • Improving urban public transport

Education nkra

Education NKRA

  • The four (4) thrusts:

  • 72% enrolment across 4+ and 5+ cohorts by 2010

  • 90% literacy and numeracy by 2010 (LINUS screening Literacy and Numeracy Screening)

  • Target of 20 HPS (High Performing Schools) by 2010

  • 2% of principals rewarded by 2010

Current scenario

Current Scenario

  • Currently there are 325,000 children aged 5 and 6 yrs either not attending pre-school at all or attending non-registered pre-schools

  • No of students who have not reached targeted literacy standard by end of year One (2008) :54,272/13%

  • Numeracy standard by year four (2008): 117,024 (24%)

  • Ratio of remedial teachers to schools from 1:1 to 1:15

High performing schools

High Performing Schools

  • Excellent academic achievement

  • Towering personalities

  • National and International awards

  • Linkages with institutions of higher learning

  • Strong network with other local and international schools, community, public and private organizations

  • Nationally and internationally benchmarked

Effective school leaders

Effective School Leaders

  • Instructional leadership

  • Primary change agents

  • Create a orderly and safe environment

    (An improvement of 1 Standard Deviation in leadership quality improves student achievement 10 percentile points)

Among the stakeholders

Among The Stakeholders


Preschools 163,746

Elementary 7,6952,899.228230,449



What is educational school management

  • According to Cunningham and Cordeiro (2000) administration is divided into two major areas of responsibility, namely:



What is educational school management

  • Leadership is:

    The process of influencing group activities toward the achievement of goals

    Influencing, guiding in direction, course, action and opinion

    Effective influence

    Building cohesive and goal-oriented teams

    Persuading others to sublimate their own self interests and adopt the goals of a group as their own

    Persuading other people to set aside … their individual concerns and to pursue a common goal that is important for the … welfare of a group

    (Bass & Stogdill, 1990)



  • Leading is guiding improvement and infusing an organization with meaning and purpose

  • Management is involved with steward-ship and accountability for all types of resources (Cunningham and Cordeiro, 2000)

  • Management also focuses on implementing routines in an organization and ensuring its smooth operation.

  • Doing the right things vs. Doing things right (Peter Drucker, 1954)

  • You manage within a paradigm you lead between paradigms (Joel Barker, 1992)

What is educational school management

  • Management is efficiency in climbing the ladder of success; Leadership is about determining whether the ladder is leaning against the right wall (Your thoughts!)

  • This indicates that management is about accomplishing tasks, whereas leadership is about perception, judgment, skill and philosophy

Loose coupling

Loose Coupling

  • Loose coupling

  • “Educational Organisations as Loosely Coupled Systems” (Weick 1976)

    The school organization as a combination of loosely coupled system

    The elements of an educational organization are frequently only loosely coupled together.

    Karl Weick (1976) suggests that the subsystem (elements) are responsive to each other but that each still preserves its own identity and its own physical and logical separateness.

Five functions and two dimensions of principalship

Five Functions and Two Dimensionsof Principalship

  • The five functions:

    Curriculum development (Internal)

    Instructional improvement (Internal)

    Student services (Internal)

    Financial and facility management (Internal)

    Community relations (External)

  • Two dimensions

    Managerial behaviors

    Leadership behaviors

    (Larry Hughes and Gerald Ubben, 1989)


The organizational iceberg

The Organizational Iceberg

  • Formal

    Stated goals

    Written objectives

    Policies and procedures

    Job descriptions

What is educational school management

  • Informal

    Individual needs, desires, feelings

    Differences in ideas about roles and missions

    Power and influence patterns

    Competitions and alliances

    Views of relevance and importance of work

    Feelings of trust and confidence

    Individual values

    Skills and abilities

    (Hughes and Ubben, 1989)



  • Pengurusan mencakupi bagaimana sumber-sumber seperti kewangan, manusia dan alat digembeleng dan digunakan untuk mencapai matlamat organisasi. Ia juga tertumpu kepada isu-isu berhubung dengan tingkah laku ahli organisasi iaitu bagaimana motivasi, sikap, kepakaran dan daya ahli-ahli itu dipertingkat supaya organisasi tersebut mencapai tahap prestasi yang dikehendaki

    (Shukur, 1988)

Functions of administration

Functions of Administration

  • Plan

  • Organize

  • Direct

  • Coordinate

  • Control/evaluate

Demands constraints choices

Demands, Constraints, Choices

  • Demands: Things that principals must do.

    Determined by: school outcome specifications, legal requirements, rules and regulations, and etc.

  • Constraints: Determined by norms and values that exist in school/community, availability of human and material resources, and etc.

  • Choices: Opportunities to do the same things differently and to do other things that are not required or prohibited.

    Rosemary Stewart 1982

Minzberg 10 managerial roles

Minzberg 10 Managerial Roles

  • Interpersonal:

    Figurehead role

    Leader role

    Liaison role

  • Informational:

    Nerve center role

    Disseminator role

    Spokesman role

  • Decisional role:

    Entrepreneur role

    Disturbance handling role

    Resource allocator role

    Negotiator role

Process of administration

Process of Administration








Luther Gulick (1937)

Conceptual framework and school organization

Conceptual Framework andSchool Organization

  • Classical Theory

    Division of labour

    Span of control


    Goal definition

    Extrinsic rewards

    Formal rules

What is educational school management

  • Social System

    Human relations

    Informal groups

    Peer pressures

    Intrinsic rewards

    Psychological needs

  • Open System Theory


    Cycle of events

    Environmental exchanges

    Information theory

Bureaucratic administration

Bureaucratic Administration

  • Hierarchical structure

  • Division of labor

  • Control by rules

  • Impersonal relationships

  • Career orientation

  • According to Weber, these principles should lead an organization toward higher levels of maximum efficiency

Scientific management frederick taylor 14 point

Scientific ManagementFrederick Taylor (14 Point)

  • Efficiency is measured solely in terms of productivity.

  • Human beings are assumed to act rationally: Important considerations in management are only those which involve individuals and groups of individuals heading logically toward their goals.

  • Members need detailed guidance from their superiors therefore they do not value the freedom of determining their own approaches to problems.

  • Clear limits to jobs need to be defined and enforced

  • It is possible to predict and establish clear-cut patterns of future activities and the relationships among activities.

What is educational school management

6.Human beings prefer the security of a definite task

7.Management involves primarily the formal and official activities of individuals

8.The activities of a group should be viewed on an objective and impersonal basis without regard to personal problems and characteristics

9.Workers are motivated by economic needs

10.People do not like to work, therefore should be supervised closely

What is educational school management

11.Coordination should be planned and directed from the top

12.Authority has its source at the top of a hierarchy and is delegated downward

13.Simple tasks are easier to master therefore a narrow scope of activity is more preferable.

14.Managerial functions have universal characteristics

Formal and informal organization

Formal and InformalOrganization

  • Formal organization (Organizational Iceberg):


    Formal structure

    Rules, roles, span of control

    Standard Operating Procedures

    Division of labor

    Channels of communication


What is educational school management

  • Informal organization:

    Coalitions, psychological needs, power, informal leadership, conflict, grapevine, morale, informal norms, sentiment, social codes, loyalty, multiple perspectives, friendship bonds, personal goals, emotional feelings, risk-taking behavior

    School administrators/managers who do not understand how the informal organization operates in their schools are in real trouble!

The limits of traditional management theory

The Limits of TraditionalManagement Theory

  • The usefulness of this theory ends

  • where nonlinear conditions begin

  • Loosely structured conditions begin

  • The goal is to bring about extraordinary commitment and performance

What is educational school management

  • Nonlinear conditions:

    Dynamic environments

    Loose management connections

    Tight cultural connections

    Multiple and competing goals

    Unstructured tasks

    Competing solutions

    Difficult-to-measure outcomes

    Unsure operating procedures

    Indeterminate consequences of actions

    Unclear and competing lines of authority

What is educational school management

  • Loosely structured conditions

    One noticeable example is the connection of teachers to rules

    Schools are managerially loose but culturally tight

  • Ordinary and extraordinary commitment and performance

    A fair day’s work for a fair day’s pay?

    Reasons for such phenomena:

    The theory is based on authority

    The theory is based on standardization and routinization

Nassp research on successful school administration

NASSP Research onSuccessful School Administration

  • The ability to:

    1.Plan and organize work

    2.Work and lead others

    3.Analyze and solve problems

    4.Communicate orally and in writing

    5.Perceive the needs and concerns of others

    6.Perform under pressure

    Condensed from the 12 discrete skills

Tugas utama pengetua guru besar

Tugas Utama Pengetua/Guru Besar

  • Pengurus kurikulum (ikhtisas)

  • Pembangunan diri pelajar

  • Pengurusan dan pembangunan


    Pengurusan personel


    Kemudahan fizikal

  • Pembangunan organisasi dan diri

  • Pembangunan kendiri

Skills needed

Skills needed

  • Leadership

  • Problem analysis

  • Decision making

  • Implementing

  • Delegation

  • Supervising and motivating

  • Interpersonal sensitivity

  • Oral and written communication

  • Research measurement evaluation

  • Legal, policy and political applications

  • Public relations

  • Technology

Operational areas

Operational Areas

  • Curriculum and instruction

  • Human resource development

  • Finance

  • Research and development

  • Business and logistics

  • Physical plant

  • Pupil personnel

Ethical standards

Ethical standards

  • Honesty

  • Integrity

  • Promise keeping

  • Fidelity

  • Fairness

  • Concern for others

  • Respect for others

  • Law abiding/civic duty

  • Pursuit of excellence

  • Personal accountability

Interstate school leaders licensure consortium isllc standards for school leaders

Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium(ISLLC) Standards for School Leaders

  • A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by:

    Standard 1: Facilitating the development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of a vision of learning that is shared and supported by the school community

    Standard 2: Advocating, nurturing, and sustaining a school culture and an instructional program conducive to student learning and staff professional growth

What is educational school management

  • Standard 3: Ensuring management of the organization, operations, and resources for safe, efficient, and effective learning environment

  • Standard 4: Collaborating with families and community members, responding to diverse community interests and needs, and mobilizing resources

  • Standard 5: Acting with integrity, and in an ethical manner.

  • Standard 6: Understanding, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context.

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