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What is Educational/School Management ?. Administration. Administration is a process concerned with planning, organizing, coordinating and controlling resources within an integrated system designed to accomplish predetermined objectives (Henri Fayole, 1949)

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  • Administration is a process concerned with planning, organizing, coordinating and controlling resources within an integrated system designed to accomplish predetermined objectives (Henri Fayole, 1949)
  • Educational administration is a discipline within the study of education that examines the administrative theory and practice of education in general and educational institutions and educators in particular. The field ideally distinguishes itself from administration and management through its adherence to guiding principles of educational philosophy. (Wikipedia)
national key result areas nkra bidang keberhasilan utama
National Key Result Areas NKRA(Bidang Keberhasilan Utama)
  • Reducing crime
  • Fighting corruption
  • Improving student outcome
  • Raising living standard of low-income households
  • Improving rural infrastructure
  • Improving urban public transport
education nkra
Education NKRA
  • The four (4) thrusts:
  • 72% enrolment across 4+ and 5+ cohorts by 2010
  • 90% literacy and numeracy by 2010 (LINUS screening Literacy and Numeracy Screening)
  • Target of 20 HPS (High Performing Schools) by 2010
  • 2% of principals rewarded by 2010
current scenario
Current Scenario
  • Currently there are 325,000 children aged 5 and 6 yrs either not attending pre-school at all or attending non-registered pre-schools
  • No of students who have not reached targeted literacy standard by end of year One (2008) :54,272/13%
  • Numeracy standard by year four (2008): 117,024 (24%)
  • Ratio of remedial teachers to schools from 1:1 to 1:15
high performing schools
High Performing Schools
  • Excellent academic achievement
  • Towering personalities
  • National and International awards
  • Linkages with institutions of higher learning
  • Strong network with other local and international schools, community, public and private organizations
  • Nationally and internationally benchmarked
effective school leaders
Effective School Leaders
  • Instructional leadership
  • Primary change agents
  • Create a orderly and safe environment

(An improvement of 1 Standard Deviation in leadership quality improves student achievement 10 percentile points)

among the stakeholders
Among The Stakeholders

Schools Students Teachers

Preschools 163,746

Elementary 7,695 2,899.228 230,449

Secondary 2,248 2,344,891 175,267

Jumlah 9,843 5,407.865 405,716

According to Cunningham and Cordeiro (2000) administration is divided into two major areas of responsibility, namely:



Leadership is:

The process of influencing group activities toward the achievement of goals

Influencing, guiding in direction, course, action and opinion

Effective influence

Building cohesive and goal-oriented teams

Persuading others to sublimate their own self interests and adopt the goals of a group as their own

Persuading other people to set aside … their individual concerns and to pursue a common goal that is important for the … welfare of a group

(Bass & Stogdill, 1990)

  • Leading is guiding improvement and infusing an organization with meaning and purpose
  • Management is involved with steward-ship and accountability for all types of resources (Cunningham and Cordeiro, 2000)
  • Management also focuses on implementing routines in an organization and ensuring its smooth operation.
  • Doing the right things vs. Doing things right (Peter Drucker, 1954)
  • You manage within a paradigm you lead between paradigms (Joel Barker, 1992)
Management is efficiency in climbing the ladder of success; Leadership is about determining whether the ladder is leaning against the right wall (Your thoughts!)
  • This indicates that management is about accomplishing tasks, whereas leadership is about perception, judgment, skill and philosophy
loose coupling
Loose Coupling
  • Loose coupling
  • “Educational Organisations as Loosely Coupled Systems” (Weick 1976)

The school organization as a combination of loosely coupled system

The elements of an educational organization are frequently only loosely coupled together.

Karl Weick (1976) suggests that the subsystem (elements) are responsive to each other but that each still preserves its own identity and its own physical and logical separateness.

five functions and two dimensions of principalship
Five Functions and Two Dimensionsof Principalship
  • The five functions:

Curriculum development (Internal)

Instructional improvement (Internal)

Student services (Internal)

Financial and facility management (Internal)

Community relations (External)

  • Two dimensions

Managerial behaviors

Leadership behaviors

(Larry Hughes and Gerald Ubben, 1989)


the organizational iceberg
The Organizational Iceberg
  • Formal

Stated goals

Written objectives

Policies and procedures

Job descriptions


Individual needs, desires, feelings

Differences in ideas about roles and missions

Power and influence patterns

Competitions and alliances

Views of relevance and importance of work

Feelings of trust and confidence

Individual values

Skills and abilities

(Hughes and Ubben, 1989)

  • Pengurusan mencakupi bagaimana sumber-sumber seperti kewangan, manusia dan alat digembeleng dan digunakan untuk mencapai matlamat organisasi. Ia juga tertumpu kepada isu-isu berhubung dengan tingkah laku ahli organisasi iaitu bagaimana motivasi, sikap, kepakaran dan daya ahli-ahli itu dipertingkat supaya organisasi tersebut mencapai tahap prestasi yang dikehendaki

(Shukur, 1988)

functions of administration
Functions of Administration
  • Plan
  • Organize
  • Direct
  • Coordinate
  • Control/evaluate
demands constraints choices
Demands, Constraints, Choices
  • Demands: Things that principals must do.

Determined by: school outcome specifications, legal requirements, rules and regulations, and etc.

  • Constraints: Determined by norms and values that exist in school/community, availability of human and material resources, and etc.
  • Choices: Opportunities to do the same things differently and to do other things that are not required or prohibited.

Rosemary Stewart 1982

minzberg 10 managerial roles
Minzberg 10 Managerial Roles
  • Interpersonal:

Figurehead role

Leader role

Liaison role

  • Informational:

Nerve center role

Disseminator role

Spokesman role

  • Decisional role:

Entrepreneur role

Disturbance handling role

Resource allocator role

Negotiator role

process of administration
Process of Administration

P Planning

O Organizing

S Staffing

D Directing

Co Coordinating

R Reporting

B Budgeting

Luther Gulick (1937)

conceptual framework and school organization
Conceptual Framework andSchool Organization
  • Classical Theory

Division of labour

Span of control


Goal definition

Extrinsic rewards

Formal rules

Social System

Human relations

Informal groups

Peer pressures

Intrinsic rewards

Psychological needs

  • Open System Theory


Cycle of events

Environmental exchanges

Information theory

bureaucratic administration
Bureaucratic Administration
  • Hierarchical structure
  • Division of labor
  • Control by rules
  • Impersonal relationships
  • Career orientation
  • According to Weber, these principles should lead an organization toward higher levels of maximum efficiency
scientific management frederick taylor 14 point
Scientific ManagementFrederick Taylor (14 Point)
  • Efficiency is measured solely in terms of productivity.
  • Human beings are assumed to act rationally: Important considerations in management are only those which involve individuals and groups of individuals heading logically toward their goals.
  • Members need detailed guidance from their superiors therefore they do not value the freedom of determining their own approaches to problems.
  • Clear limits to jobs need to be defined and enforced
  • It is possible to predict and establish clear-cut patterns of future activities and the relationships among activities.
6. Human beings prefer the security of a definite task

7. Management involves primarily the formal and official activities of individuals

8. The activities of a group should be viewed on an objective and impersonal basis without regard to personal problems and characteristics

9. Workers are motivated by economic needs

10. People do not like to work, therefore should be supervised closely

11. Coordination should be planned and directed from the top

12. Authority has its source at the top of a hierarchy and is delegated downward

13. Simple tasks are easier to master therefore a narrow scope of activity is more preferable.

14. Managerial functions have universal characteristics

formal and informal organization
Formal and InformalOrganization
  • Formal organization (Organizational Iceberg):


Formal structure

Rules, roles, span of control

Standard Operating Procedures

Division of labor

Channels of communication


Informal organization:

Coalitions, psychological needs, power, informal leadership, conflict, grapevine, morale, informal norms, sentiment, social codes, loyalty, multiple perspectives, friendship bonds, personal goals, emotional feelings, risk-taking behavior

School administrators/managers who do not understand how the informal organization operates in their schools are in real trouble!

the limits of traditional management theory
The Limits of TraditionalManagement Theory
  • The usefulness of this theory ends
  • where nonlinear conditions begin
  • Loosely structured conditions begin
  • The goal is to bring about extraordinary commitment and performance
Nonlinear conditions:

Dynamic environments

Loose management connections

Tight cultural connections

Multiple and competing goals

Unstructured tasks

Competing solutions

Difficult-to-measure outcomes

Unsure operating procedures

Indeterminate consequences of actions

Unclear and competing lines of authority

Loosely structured conditions

One noticeable example is the connection of teachers to rules

Schools are managerially loose but culturally tight

  • Ordinary and extraordinary commitment and performance

A fair day’s work for a fair day’s pay?

Reasons for such phenomena:

The theory is based on authority

The theory is based on standardization and routinization

nassp research on successful school administration
NASSP Research onSuccessful School Administration
  • The ability to:

1. Plan and organize work

2. Work and lead others

3. Analyze and solve problems

4. Communicate orally and in writing

5. Perceive the needs and concerns of others

6. Perform under pressure

Condensed from the 12 discrete skills

tugas utama pengetua guru besar
Tugas Utama Pengetua/Guru Besar
  • Pengurus kurikulum (ikhtisas)
  • Pembangunan diri pelajar
  • Pengurusan dan pembangunan


Pengurusan personel


Kemudahan fizikal

  • Pembangunan organisasi dan diri
  • Pembangunan kendiri
skills needed
Skills needed
  • Leadership
  • Problem analysis
  • Decision making
  • Implementing
  • Delegation
  • Supervising and motivating
  • Interpersonal sensitivity
  • Oral and written communication
  • Research measurement evaluation
  • Legal, policy and political applications
  • Public relations
  • Technology
operational areas
Operational Areas
  • Curriculum and instruction
  • Human resource development
  • Finance
  • Research and development
  • Business and logistics
  • Physical plant
  • Pupil personnel
ethical standards
Ethical standards
  • Honesty
  • Integrity
  • Promise keeping
  • Fidelity
  • Fairness
  • Concern for others
  • Respect for others
  • Law abiding/civic duty
  • Pursuit of excellence
  • Personal accountability
interstate school leaders licensure consortium isllc standards for school leaders
Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium(ISLLC) Standards for School Leaders
  • A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by:

Standard 1: Facilitating the development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of a vision of learning that is shared and supported by the school community

Standard 2: Advocating, nurturing, and sustaining a school culture and an instructional program conducive to student learning and staff professional growth

Standard 3: Ensuring management of the organization, operations, and resources for safe, efficient, and effective learning environment
  • Standard 4: Collaborating with families and community members, responding to diverse community interests and needs, and mobilizing resources
  • Standard 5: Acting with integrity, and in an ethical manner.
  • Standard 6: Understanding, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context.