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NTUT Writing: Week 5. “Results”. 6.1 Contents and Structure: An Example. What Are the Functions of Those Sentences?. 1st. Sentence: presents the date of the main discussion; 2nd. And 3rd Sentences: elaborate on an important outcome;

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what are the functions of those sentences
What Are the Functions of Those Sentences?

1st. Sentence: presents the date of the main discussion;

2nd. And 3rd Sentences: elaborate on an important outcome;

4th. Sentence: comments on the results-- hypothesis in this instance.

In the above example, the author lists only TWO important factors instead of ALL of the data from the table.

**Avoid repeating EVERY detail from the table in your article; detailed results should be presented by the table(s). Your description should only point out important characteristics or trends of the data.

e.g. It is not appropriate to introduce data from the following Figure 1: In 1986, enrollment was 20, in 1987, it was 30, in 1988, it was 40….

What should be introduced goes as follows:

Enrollment increased dramatically between 1986 and 1991, reaching a peak of 60 students in 1990.

(In other words, you should Interpret the data instead of merely listing them out!)

6 2 introducing research results
6.2: Introducing Research Results
  • Sentences in the “Results” chapter often look like this:
  • The variation in the temperature of the samples over time is shown in Figure 2.
  • Figure 2 shows the variation in the temperature of the samples over time.
  • The verb “show” may be substituted by other verbs, but with certain conditions:
  • **“summarize” (only when tables/figures indicate summarization); **“depict” and “illustrate” (indicate only figures).
**Two things worth noticing before you adopt active or passive voice:

1. Focal points (your research results) and the length of subject (noun phrase).

2. You may also begin describing the results and add phrases or parentheses indicating the origin of figures.

e.g. The temperature increased rapidly, as shown in Figure 2/as Figure 2


As shown in Figure 2/As Figure 2 shows, the temperature increased


The temperature increased rapidly (see Figure 2).

6 3 describing the completed results
6.3: Describing the Completed Results

Three typical results:

1.Variables or parameters within certain time periods:

Parameters/variables + verb (pt) + phrases indicating time. e.g.

2. Comparison between samples, methods, or subjects: use comparative or superlative.

e.g. The new method was faster/slower than the old one.

Old workers scored higher/lower than younger workers.

The fastest algorithm was the genetic algorithm.

Group 1 had the highest average score.

The third algorithm was the most accurate.

3. Mutual influences/relations between variables. (Typical sentence structure in this category includes such verbs as “correlated” or “related” and clauses containing parameters.)

e.g. Grades (1st parameter)

were correlated with/dependent on/independent of/determined

by/closely related to (relation in past tense)

study time (2nd parameter).

Test scores (1st parameter)

Increased/decreased/rose/fell (past tense)

as/when (subordinating conjunction)

study time (2nd parameter)

increased/decreased/rose/fell. (past tense)

** Other commonly used sentences:

Test scores increased with an increase in study time.

Test scores increased with study time.

An increase in study time led to an increase in test scores.

6 4 analysis of the research results
6.4: Analysis of the Research Results

1. “Turn-Taking Analysis”: commenting on one specific result and then move on to another. (Feasible when there are results that are distinct from one another and require special attention.) e.g.


1. Use Present Tense when assumptions are based upon research results:

e.g. It appears that because of their greater accumulated flying time, civilian pilots are subject to a higher incidence of back pain.

The level of indentation may have an effect on students’ test scores.

These findings suggest that women strongly prefer slower music.

2. Also use Present Tense when showing possible research results:

e.g. The highest incidence of back pain in civilian pilots may be due to their greater accumulated flying time.

The results can be explained by the differences between the learning styles of the two groups of subjects.

One reason for this group’s higher scores may be that the group was already accustomed to working with Pascal.

(The addition of such expressions as “seem,” “appear,” “is likely,” “indicate,” or “imply” suggests that the author is not 100% sure of it’s being a universal fact.)

3. Use Present Tense when comparing results with other researchers.

e.g. These results agree well with the findings of Smith, et al.

These data are consistent with earlier findings showing that mice avoid bitter


4. Use Present Tense when comparing between the established models with experimental data (from your own experiment) .

e.g. The theoretical model fits the experimental data well.

The theoretical modal agrees well with the experimental data.

There is a high level of agreement between the theoretical predictions and the

experimental data.

The data conform closely to the predictions of the model.

The data indicate that the model is reliable and accurate.

The experimental measurements are very close to the predicted values.

(There are authors who see these comparisons as past deeds and thus use past tense.)

can you tell the differences and implications between these sentences
**Can You Tell the Differences And Implications Between These Sentences?

(Group I)

It seems that the drug reduces the frequency and intensity of allergic reaction.

It seems that the drug may reduce the frequency and intensity of allergic reaction.

It seems that the drug reduced the frequency and intensity of allergic reaction.

(Group II)

The values predicted by our model have a smaller degree of error than the values generated by Rickert’s model do.

These data show that the proposed method is faster and more accurate than the conventional method.

Our algorithm required consistently less processing time than Chen’s algorithm.

one simple tip to achieve concision
**One Simple Tip to Achieve Concision

**Sometimes you can write a sentence without having to use the sentence structure “It is….”

e.g. It seems that the drug reduces the frequency and intensity of allergic reaction.

(More concise style):

The drug seems to reduce the frequency and intensity of allergic reaction.

It appears that the drug reduces the frequency and intensity of allergic reactions.

The drug appears to reduce the frequency and intensity of allergic reactions.