Teleost Fish: Bonytongues Through Anglerfish
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Teleost Fish: Bonytongues Through Anglerfish Ch. 14. Subdividision Euteleostei. Superorder Ostariophysi Superorder Protacanthopterygii Superorder Stenopterygii Superorder Cyclosquamata Superorder Scopelomorpha Superorder Lampridomorpha Superorder Polymixiiformes

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Teleost Fish: Bonytongues Through Anglerfish Ch. 14

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Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Teleost Fish: Bonytongues Through Anglerfish

Ch. 14


Subdividision euteleostei

Subdividision Euteleostei

  • Superorder Ostariophysi

  • Superorder Protacanthopterygii

  • Superorder Stenopterygii

  • Superorder Cyclosquamata

  • Superorder Scopelomorpha

  • Superorder Lampridomorpha

  • Superorder Polymixiiformes

  • Superorder Paracanthopterygii

  • Superorder Acanthopterygii


Primitive vs advanced traits

Primitive vs. Advanced Traits


Primitive vs advanced continued

Primitive vs. Advanced (continued)


Subdividision euteleostei1

Subdividision Euteleostei

  • Superorder Ostariophysi

  • Superorder Protacanthopterygii

  • Superorder Stenopterygii

  • Superorder Cyclosquamata

  • Superorder Scopelomorpha

  • Superorder Lampridomorpha

  • Superorder Polymixiiformes

  • Superorder Paracanthopterygii

  • Superorder Acanthopterygii


Subdividision euteleostei2

Subdividision Euteleostei

  • Superorder Ostariophysi -- SuckersMinnows, Characins, and Catfishes

  • Superorder Protacanthopterygii -- Pikes, Smelts and Salmonids

  • Superorder Paracanthopterygii -- Cods and Anglerfishes

  • Superorder Acanthopterygii -- Advanced Fishes


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Superorder Protocanthopterygii

  • Contains three orders

    • Esociformes

    • Osmeriformes

    • Salmoniformes


Order esociformes

Order Esociformes

  • Three families:

    • Esocidae

    • Umbridae

    • Daliidae


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Family Esocidae

  • Pikes, pickerels, and muskellunge:

    • Predatory; sagittiform bodies

    • Large mouth & sharp teeth

    • Found in N. America and

      Eurasia

    • Important recreational spp.

    • Largest: muskellunge (musky)

      • North-Central US

      • Central Canada


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Family Umbridae

  • mudminnows:

    • small

    • Slow-moving

    • Burrow in mud when disturbed


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Family Dalliidae

  • blackfishes:

    • Australia and Siberia

    • Able to survive frozen in the ice

    • Remain inactive until the thaw


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Order Osmeriformes

  • Two suborders:

    • Argentoidea (argentines deep-sea smelts)

    • Osmeroidei (smelts, galaxiids)


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Suborder Argentoidei

  • Argentines:

    • “deep-sea smelts”

    • very numerous

    • harvested commercially in mid-water trawls


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Suborder Osmeroidei

  • Smelts and galaxiids:

  • Smelts:

    • Small, silvery fish (< 30 cm)

    • Popular food fish

    • Freshwater, anadromous, marine

    • Australian salamanderfish (galaxiid)

      • Turn head sharply left or right while perched on its pectoral fin

      • Lacks lung; able to aestivate


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Smelts

Salamanderfish


Order salmoniformes

Order Salmoniformes

  • Family Salmonidae

    • Contains three subfamilies:

      • Salmoninae - trouts, salmon, chars

      • Coregoninae - whitefishes

      • Thymalinae – graylings

    • North America and Eurasia

    • High latitude species

      • Require high DO and cooler water for survival and reproduction


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Subfamily Salmoninae

  • Trouts, salmons and chars

    • Many species have landlocked and anadromous forms

      • Onchorhynchusmykiss – rainbow trout (landlocked); steelhead (anadromous)

      • O. nerka – sockeye (anadromous); kokanee (landlocked)


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Subfamily Salmoninae

  • Anadromous species

    • Eggs laid in freshwater

    • Fry hatch and develop into parrs (large spots on side of body)

    • Transform into smolts (migrates to the sea)

    • Grow to large size in sea

    • Return to FW to spawn and typically die after spawning

    • Transfer of nutrients upstream from seas to FW streams important ecologically

      • Dead salmon decay, biomass is utilized by scavengers that may ultimately be preyed upon by young salmon


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Subfamily Salmoninae

  • Three important genera in North America:

    • Onchorhynchus – Pacific salmon

      • California through Canada to Alaska and throughout Siberia

      • Includes rainbow trout and cutthroat trout

    • Salmo – Atlantic salmon

      • Massachusetts to Canada; Iceland and Europe

      • Nearly extinct due to dams

      • Landlocked and anadromous forms

      • Includes brown trout – introduced to US; tolerates warm water and lower DO

    • Salvelinus – North American Chars

      • Lake trout and Brook trout


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Subfamily Coreginae

  • Whitefishes:

    • Formerly an important species

    • Numbers have greatly declined relative to introduced species


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Subfamily Thymalinae

  • Graylings:

    • Small trout-like fishes

    • Grey irridescent bodies

    • Long dorsal fins


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Marine Habitat

  • Classified into distinct areas:

    • Pelagic- area away from the shoreline

  • Pelagic divided into distinct regions

    • Surface to 200 meters = epipelagic

      • light penetration occurs

    • 200 meters to 1000 meters = mesopelagic

      • Faint amount of light

      • Animals migrate up at night; down during day

    • 1000 meters to 4000 meters = bathypelagic

      • Practically no light


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Stomiiformes

  • Marine hatchetfishes:

    • Extremely flattened laterally

    • Photophores on ventral side

      • Photophores = light producing organs

      • Provides countershading = less visible to predators


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Myctophiformes

  • Lantern fishes:

    • Small black fishes

    • Photophores along entire body

    • Present in great numbers

    • Important food for many species


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Lampridiformes

  • Bizarre species:

    • Opah

      • Found close to the surface; taken by the same pelagic longlines used to catch tunas and marlins and meat is sold

oarfish


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Superorder Paracanthopterygii

  • Contains a number of orders that are grouped together because of similar morphology:

    • Order Percopsiformes

    • Order Ophidiiformes

    • Order Gadiformes

    • Order Batrachoidiformes

    • Order Lophiiformes


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Order Percopsiformes

  • Trout perch, pirate perch, and cavefishes:

    • Possess a true spine

    • Possess an adipose fin

    • Pirate perch:

      • Pelvic fins located below pectorals

      • Anus located in the throat

    • Cavefishes:

      • Adapted to caves

      • Eyes reduced

      • Lost their pigment

      • Elongated bodies

      • Lateral line system very well-developed

Trout perch


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Anal opening

Pirate Perch (Aphredoderus sayanus)


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Order Ophidiiformes

  • Cusk eels :

    • Taeniform body shape

    • Found all over world

    • Mostly marine

    • Some brightly colored

  • Pearl fishes

    • Very thin fishes

    • Sharp pointed tails

    • Live inside invertebrates

      • In cloaca of sea cucumbers

      • Tickles it to get back in


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Order Gadiformes

  • Cods and cod-like fishes:

    • Large and economically important group

    • Possess isocercal tails

    • haddock, walleye, pollock and hake

    • Cod:

      • Collected in great numbers off the European coast

      • Contains little fat—can be dried

      • Used by ocean-going travelers as a food source


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Order Batrachoidiformes

  • Toadfishes:

    • Bottom dwellers

    • Lack pleural ribs

    • Large mouths

    • Able to produce sound

      • Muscular vibrations of swim bladder

    • midshipmen:

      • Photophores

        • Arranged on their belly like the buttons of a midshipmen’s uniform


Teleost fish bonytongues through anglerfish ch 14

Order Lophiiformes

  • Anglerfishes:

    • Possess modified dorsal fins “rod and lures”

  • Batfishes- odd shaped

  • monkfish

    • Bottom dweller

    • Taken in trawls

    • Once considered trash fish “poor mans lobster”


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