Imagery how to enhance teaching and coaching
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IMAGERY: HOW TO ENHANCE TEACHING AND COACHING. Damon Burton University of Idaho. WHAT IS IMAGERY?. Have you ever used imagery? Imagery is a form of simulation training where experiences are created or recreated in the mind.

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IMAGERY: HOW TO ENHANCE TEACHING AND COACHING

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Imagery how to enhance teaching and coaching

IMAGERY: HOW TO ENHANCE TEACHING AND COACHING

Damon Burton

University of Idaho


What is imagery

WHAT IS IMAGERY?

  • Have you ever used imagery?

  • Imagery is a form of simulation training where experiences are created or recreated in the mind.

  • Imagery is an experience similar to a sensory experience but arising in the absence of the usual external stimuli (Martens, 1982).


How does imagery differ from visualization

HOW DOES IMAGERY DIFFER FROM VISUALIZATION?

  • Visualization is limited to 2 senses—what you see and what you hear.

  • Imagery involves all 5 senses

    • Sight

    • Sound

    • Taste

    • Smell

    • Touch/feel

  • Imagery is enhanced when we use all the senses.


Does imagery work

DOES IMAGERY WORK?

  • Anecdotal reports

  • Case studies

  • Intervention

    packages


Hockey great wayne gretzky on imagery

HOCKEY GREAT WAYNE GRETZKY ON IMAGERY

  • “We taped a lot of famous pictures on the locker-room door: Bobby Orr, Potvin, Beliveau, all holding the Stanley Cup. We’d stand back and look at them and envision ourselves doing it. I really believe if you visualize yourself doing something, you can make that image come true . . . I must have rehearsed it 10,000 times. And when it came true, it was like an electric jolt went up my spine.”


Golf great jack nicklaus on imagery

GOLF GREAT JACK NICKLAUS ON IMAGERY

  • “I never hit a shot, not even in practice, without having a very sharp, in-focus picture of it in my head. It’s like a color movie. First, I “see” the ball where I want it to finish, nice and white and sitting up high on bright green grass. Then the scene quickly changes and I “see” the ball going there; its path, trajectory and shape, even its behavior on landing. Then there is sort of a fade-out, and the next scene shows me making the kind of swing that will turn the images into reality.”


Diving great greg louganis on imagery

DIVING GREAT GREG LOUGANISON IMAGERY

  • “I did my dives in my head all the time. At night, before going to sleep, I always did my dives. Ten dives, starting with the first one I’d do in the Olympics, and I did everything as if I was actually there. I saw myself on the board with the same suit—everything was the same. If the dive was wrong, I went back and started over again. It takes a good hour to do perfect imagery of all my dives, but for me it was better than a workout. Sometimes I would take the weekend off and do imagery 5 times a day.”


Why does imagery work

WHY DOES IMAGERY WORK?

  • Imagined events have a similar effect on the nervous system and mental processes as actual events.

    • The brain can’t tell the difference between vividly imagined events and the real thing.


Why does imagery work1

WHY DOES IMAGERY WORK?

  • Psychoneuromuscular Theory

    • Later learning – well-learned skills.

    • Primarily motor responses.

  • Symbolic Learning Theory

    • Early learning – new skills.

    • Mental blueprint.

    • Cognitive + motor responses.

  • Mental Skills Hypothesis

    • Indirect effects on performance.


Factors affecting imagery effectiveness

FACTORS AFFECTING IMAGERY EFFECTIVENESS

  • Type of task

    • Cognitive skills improve more compared to motor skills.

  • Playing experience

    • More experienced performers benefit the most from imagery.

  • Imaging ability

    • Imagery fundamentals can be improved through systematic practice.


Uses of imagery

USES OF IMAGERY

  • Improves concentration:

    • Distracts the distractions.

  • Builds confidence:

    • confidence boosters.

  • Controls emotions:

    • Coping imagery.

    • Raise or lower arousal.


Uses of imagery1

USES OF IMAGERY

  • Increases motivation.

  • Acquire and practice sport skills.

  • Develop and practice sport strategies.

  • Coping with pain and injury:

    • Promote healing.

    • Maintain skills while recovering.

  • Problem-solving skills.


Imagery basics

IMAGERY BASICS

  • Multi-sensory process:

    • Re-experience event realistically

    • Create a new “reality”.

  • Vividness:

    • Videotape.

  • Controllability:

    • Imagine consistent excellence.

  • Relaxation training:

    • Brain waves in “alpha” state.


Imagery basics1

IMAGERY BASICS

  • Positive focus:

    • Exceptions.

  • Image process

    and outcome:

    • Focus on preparation.

  • Real-time imagery:

    • Slow motion.


Imagery basics2

IMAGERY BASICS

  • Internal versus external imagery:

    • Internal imagery is the perspective of seeing things out of your own eyes.

    • External imagery takes the perspective similar to watching yourself on video.

  • Use internal imagery to practice skills and strategies.

  • Use external imagery to study opponent’s strategies and look for flaws in technique.


Preparing to practice

PREPARING TO PRACTICE

  • The right setting.

  • Relaxed attention.

  • Motivation to train.

  • The right attitude or expectancy.

  • Systematic practice.

DQ 1: What experiences do you already have using imagery?


Imagery program how to s

IMAGERY PROGRAM HOW-TO’S

  • Imagery skill evaluation

    • Evaluate sensory skills, vividness, and controllability.

    • Target weak areas to improve.

  • Setting

    • No distractions  distractions present.

    • Away from site  on-site.

    • Off-the-field  on-the-field.

  • Content

    • Non-sport imagery  sport imagery opponent- and situation-specific imagery.


Imagery how to s ideal times for imagery

IMAGERY HOW-TO’S IDEAL TIMES FOR IMAGERY

  • Before and after practice.

  • Before and after competition.

  • During competition.

    • Pre-shot, pre-snap, pre-race,

      and between play routines.

    • Breaks in action.

  • Down-time.

  • Injury rehabilitation.


Learning new skills

LEARNING NEW SKILLS

  • Provide a good demonstration of the skill or play from multiple angles.

  • Have students/athletes take several deep breaths to relax.

  • Describe the skill as they run through it in their minds.

  • Rehearse skill using internal imagery as you wait to practice .


Supplementing video

SUPPLEMENTING VIDEO

  • Watch video of specific techniques and strategies you want to work on several times.

  • Guide students and athletes through imagery, highlighting key points.

  • Have them repeat perfect performance 5-10 times on own.


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