Coaching for Differentiation
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Coaching for Differentiation By Lori Comallie-Caplan. The success of education depends on adapting teaching to individual differences among learners. Yuezheng, in fourth century B.C. Chinese treatise, Xue Ji. (Snow, 1982). Differentiation. Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs.

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Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

Coaching for Differentiation

By Lori Comallie-Caplan


The success of education depends on adapting teaching to individual differences among learners

The success of education depends on adapting teaching to individual differences among learners.

Yuezheng, in fourth century B.C. Chinese treatise, Xue Ji

(Snow, 1982)


Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

Differentiation

Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs

Guided by general principles of differentiation

Respectful tasks

Flexible grouping

Continual assessment

Teachers can differentiate through

Building Community

Quality Curriculum

Content

Product

Affect/Environment

Process

According to students’

Readiness

Interest

Learning Profile

Through a variety of instructional strategies such as: Choice Menus, Anchor Activities, Cubing, RAFTS, 6 Thinking Hats, Structured Academic Controversy, The profiler, Tri-minder, etc


Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

Ways

to Differentiate Content

  • Reading Partners / Reading Buddies

    • Read/Summarize

    • Read/Question/Answer

    • Visual Organizer/Summarizer

    • Parallel Reading with Teacher Prompt

  • Choral Reading/Antiphonal Reading

  • Flip Books

  • Split Journals (Double Entry – Triple Entry)

  • Books on Tape

  • Highlights on Tape

  • Digests/ “Cliff Notes”

  • Notetaking Organizers

  • Varied Texts

  • Varied Supplementary Materials

  • Highlighted Texts

  • Think-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-Postview

    Tomlinson – ‘00


  • To differentiate process

    WAYS

    TO DIFFERENTIATE PROCESS

    • Fun & Games

    • RAFTs

    • Cubing, Think Dots

    • Choices (Intelligences)

    • Centers

    • Tiered lessons

    • Contracts


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Ways

    to Differentiate Product

    • Choices based on readiness, interest, and learning profile

    • Clear expectations

    • Timelines

    • Agreements

    • Product Guides

    • Rubrics

    • Evaluation


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    A Differentiated Classroom in Balance

    Teacher-Student

    Partnerships

    F

    L

    E

    X

    I

    B

    L

    E

    Solid Curriculum

    Shared

    Vision

    Shared

    goals

    Inviting

    Shared

    responsibility

    Focused

    A Growth

    Orientation

    Concept-

    based

    Product

    Oriented

    Sense

    Of

    Community

    Resource

    On-going

    assessment

    to determine

    need

    Feedback

    and

    grading

    Time

    Groups

    Respect

    For

    Group

    ZPD

    Target

    Approaches

    to teaching

    and learning

    Safe

    Respect for

    individual

    Shared

    Challenge

    Affirming

    Tomlinson-oo


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Differentiation is responsive teaching rather than one-size-fits-all teaching.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    “It means teachers proactively plan varied approaches to what students need to learn, how they will learn it, and/or how they will show what they have learned in order to increase the likelihood that each student will learn as much as he or she can, as efficiently as possible.”


    What is differentiation

    What is differentiation?

    Differentiation is

    classroom practice

    that looks

    eyeball to eyeball

    with the reality

    that kids differ, and the most effective

    teachers do whatever it takes to hook

    the whole range of kids on learning.

    -Tomlinson (2001)


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    “Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the right learning tasks at the right time. Once you have a sense of what each student holds as ‘given’ or ‘known’ and what he or she needs in order to learn, differentiation is no longer an option; it is an obvious response.”

    Assessment as Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student Learning

    Lorna M. Earl

    Corwin Press, Inc. – 2003 – pp. 86-87


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    “It’s a way of thinking about the classroom with the goals of honoring each student’s learning needs and maximizing each student’s learning capacity while developing a solid community of learners.”


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Differentiation doesn’t suggest that a teacher can be all things to all individuals all the time. It does, however, mandate that a teacher create a reasonable range of approaches to learning much of the time, so that most students find learning a fit much of the time.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    At its most basic level,

    differentiating instruction

    means “shaking up” what

    goes on in the classroom

    so that students have

    multiple options for

    taking in information,

    making sense of ideas,

    and expressing

    what they learn.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    It’s teaching so that “typical” students; students with disabilities; students who are gifted; and students from a range of cultural, ethnic, and language groups can learn together, well.

    Not just inclusion, but inclusive teaching.

    Based on Peterson, J., & Hitte, M. (2003). Inclusive teaching: Creating effective schools for all learners.

    Boston: Allyn & Bacon, p. xix.


    Differentiating instruction rules of thumb

    Differentiating Instruction:Rules of Thumb

    • Be clear on the key concepts and generalizations or principles that give meaning and structure to the topic, chapter, unit, or lesson you are planning.

    • Lessons for all students should emphasize critical thinking.

    • Lessons for all students should be engaging.

    • In a diffentiated classroom, there should be a balance between student-selected and teacher-assigned tasks and working arrangements.


    It begins with good instruction

    It Begins with Good Instruction

    Lynn Erickson: We know from brain research that students need to see patterns and connections, and any learner is looking at information and trying to pattern and sort it into what they already have in their brains as far as past experience, past learnings. And if they have no way to make sense of this massive amount of information that's coming at them, then they tend to get confused. We also know that they tend to forget a lot of what they have learned. It just becomes "traipsing over trivia" because it doesn't make much sense to them. So, moving to a conceptual level for the structure of that information is going to be beneficial to students.


    Planning a focused curriculum means clarity about what students should

    Planning a Focused Curriculum Means Clarity About What Students Should …

    KNOW

    • Facts

    • Vocabulary

    • Definitions

    • UNDERSTAND

      • Principles/ generalizations

      • Big ideas of the discipline

    • BE ABLE TO DO

      • Processes

      • Skills


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    KNOW

    Facts, names, dates, places, information

    • There are 50 states in the US

    • Thomas Jefferson

    • 1492

    • The Continental Divide

    • The multiplication tables


    Understand

    UNDERSTAND

    Essential truths that give meaning to the topic

    Stated as a full sentence

    Begin with, “I want students to understand THAT…” (not HOW… or WHY… or WHAT)

    • Multiplication is another way to do addition.

    • People migrate to meet basic needs.

    • All cultures contain the same elements.

    • Entropy and enthalpy are competing

      forces in the natural world.

    • Voice reflects the author.


    Understanding

    Understanding

    Understanding is more a matter of what people can DO than something they HAVE. Understanding involves action more than possession.

    D.N. Perkins, Educational Leadership, 10/91


    Be able to do

    BE ABLE TO DO

    Skills (basic skills, skills of the discipline, skills of independence, social skills, skills of production)

    Verbs or phrases (not the whole activity)

    • Analyze

    • Solve a problem to find perimeter

    • Write a well supported argument

    • Evaluate work according to specific criteria

    • Contribute to the success of a group or team

    • Use graphics to represent data appropriately


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    “There is no such thing as genuine knowledge and fruitful understanding except as the offspring of doing… This is the lesson which all education has to learn.”

    --John Dewey


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    KNOW (facts, vocabulary, dates, rules, people, etc.)

    ecosystem, elements of culture (housing/shelter,

    customs, values, geography)

    UNDERSTAND (complete sentence, statement of truth

    or insight - want students to understand that . . .)

    DO(basic skills, thinking skills, social skills, skills of the

    discipline, planning skills---verbs)

    Compare and contrastDraw conclusions

    Work collaborativelyDevelop a timeline

    Use maps as dataCompare and contrast

    Write a unified paragraph

    Examine varied perspectives

    Tomlinson • 02


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Ongoing Assessment:

    The Key to A

    Differentiated Classroom


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    “Assessment is today’s means of

    understanding how to modify

    tomorrow’s instruction.”

    Carol Tomlinson


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED?

    READINESS

    LEARNING

    PROFILE

    INTEREST

    • Areas of Strength

    • and Weakness

    • Work Preferences

    • Self Awareness

    • Interest Surveys

    • Interest Centers

    • Self-Selection

    Content

    Knowledge

    Skills

    Concepts


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    “Assessment should always have

    more to do with helping students

    grow than with cataloging their

    mistakes.”

    Carol Tomlinson


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    When Do You Assess?

    Most teachers assess students at the

    end of an instructional unit or sequence.

    When assessment and instruction are

    interwoven, both the students and the

    teacher benefit. The next slide suggests

    a diagnostic continuum for

    ongoing assessment.


    On going assessment a diagnostic continuum

    On-going Assessment:A Diagnostic Continuum

    Preassessment

    (Finding Out)

    Formative Assessment

    (Keeping Track & Checking -up)

    Summative Assessment

    (Making sure)


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Formative Assessment

    (Keeping Track & Checking -up)

    Summative Assessment

    (Making sure)

    Preassessment

    (Finding Out)

    On-going Assessment:A Diagnostic Continuum

    Feedback and Goal Setting

    Pre-test

    Graphing for Greatness

    Inventory

    KWL

    Checklist

    Observation

    Self-evaluation

    Questioning

    ConferenceExit Card

    Peer evaluationPortfolio Check

    3-minute pauseQuiz

    ObservationJournal Entry

    TalkaroundSelf-evaluation

    Questioning

    Unit Test

    Performance Task

    Product/Exhibit

    Demonstration

    Portfolio Review


    Preassessment is

    Preassessment Is...

    • Any method, strategy or process used to determine a

    • student’s current level of readiness or interest in order to

    • plan for appropriate instruction.

    • Preassessment:

    • provides data that can determine options for students to

    • to take in information, construct meaning, and to

    • demonstrate understanding of new information

    • helps teachers anticipate differences before planning

    • challenging and respectful learning experiences

    • allows teachers to meet students where they are


    Formative assessment is

    Formative Assessment Is...

    • A process of accumulating information about a student’s

    • progress to help make instructional decisions that will

    • improve his/her understandings and achievement levels.

    • Formative Assessment:

    • depicts student’s life as a learner

    • used to make instructional adjustments

    • alerts the teacher about student misconceptions

    • “early warning signal”

    • allows students to build on previous experiences

    • provides regular feedback

    • provides evidence of progress

    • aligns with instructional/curricular outcomes


    Summative assessment is

    Summative Assessment Is...

    • A means to determine a student’s mastery and

    • understanding of information, skills, concepts, or

    • processes.

    • Summative Assessment:

    • should reflect formative assessments that precede it

    • should match material taught

    • may determine student’s exit achievement

    • may be tied to a final decision, grade or report

    • should align with instructional/curricular outcomes

    • may be a form of alternative assessment


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    GET TO KNOW YOUR KIDS


    Student traits

    Student Traits

    There are four student traits that teachers must often address to ensure effective and efficient learning. Those are readiness, interest, learning profile, and affect.


    Student traits1

    Student Traits

    Readiness refers to a student’s knowledge, understanding, and skill related to a particular sequence of learning. Only when a student works at a level of difficulty that is both challenging and attainable for that student does learning take place.

    Tomlinson, 2003


    Student traits2

    Student Traits

    Interest refers to those topics or pursuits that evoke curiosity and passion in a learner. Thus, highly effective teachers attend both to developing interests and as yet undiscovered interests in their students.

    Tomlinson, 2003


    Student traits3

    Student Traits

    Learning profile refers to how students learn best. Those include learning style, intelligence preference, culture and gender. If classrooms can offer and support different modes of learning, it is likely that more students will learn effectively and efficiently.

    Tomlinson, 2003


    Student traits4

    Student Traits

    Affect has to do with how students feel about themselves, their work, and the classroom as a whole. Student affect is the gateway to helping each student become more fully engaged and successful in learning.

    Tomlinson, 2003


    Learner profile card

    Learner Profile Card

    Gender Stripe

    Auditory, Visual, Kinesthetic

    Analytical, Creative, Practical

    Student’s Interests

    Multiple Intelligence Preference

    Favorite Subject

    NOTE: Put the student’s name on the back of the card so decisions can initially be made without knowing the particular student.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Intelligence Preference

    Human brains are “wired” differently in different individuals. Although all normally functioning people use all parts of their brains, each of us is “wired” to be better in some areas than in others (Gardner, Sternberg).

    Differentiation based on a student’s intelligence preference generally suggests allowing the student to work in a preferred mode to develop that capacity further.

    Sometimes teachers also ask students to extend their preferred modes of working, or they opt to use a student’s preferred areas to support growth in less comfortable areas.


    Sternberg s three intelligences

    Sternberg’s Three Intelligences

    Creative

    Analytical

    Practical

    • We all have some of each of these intelligences, but are usually stronger in one or two areas than in others.

    • We should strive to develop as fully each of these intelligences in students…

    • …but also recognize where students’ strengths lie and teach through those intelligences as often as possible, particularly when introducing new ideas.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Using Anchor(ing) Activities


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Anchor Activities

    A task to which a student automatically moves

    when an assigned task is finished,

    TRAITS OF EFFECTIVE ANCHOR ACTIVITIES:

    Important—related to key knowledge, understanding,

    and skill,

    Interesting—appeals to student curiosity, interest,

    learning preference,

    Allow Choice—students can select from a range of

    options

    Clear Routines and Expectations—students know

    what they are to do, how to do it, how to

    keep records, etc.

    Seldom Graded—teachers should examine the work

    as they move around the room. Students may

    turn in work for feedback. Students may get

    a grade for working effectively, but seldom for

    the work itself. The motivation is interest

    and/or improved achievement.


    Rapid robin

    RAPID ROBIN

    The “Dreaded Early Finisher”


    I m not finished freddie

    “I’m Not Finished” Freddie

    “It takes him

    an hour-and-a-half

    to watch 60 Minutes.”


    One premise in a differentiated classroom

    One premise in a differentiated classroom:

    “ In this class we are never finished---

    Learning is a

    process that

    never ends.”


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Anchor Activities

    • Anchor activitiesare ongoing assignments that students can work on independently throughout a unit of study or longer.


    The purpose of an anchor activity is to

    The Purpose of an Anchor Activity is to:

    Provide meaningful work for students when they finish an assignment or project, when they first enter the class or when they are “stumped”.

    Provide ongoing tasks that tie to the content and instruction.

    Free up the classroom teacher to work with other groups of students or individuals.


    Using anchor activities to create groups

    Using Anchor Activities to Create Groups

    1

    Teach the whole class to work independently and

    quietly on the anchor activity.

    2

    Flip-Flop

    Half the class works

    on anchor activity.

    Other half works on

    a different activity.

    3

    1/3 works with

    teacher---direct

    instruction.

    1/3 works on

    anchor activity.

    1/3 works on a

    different activity.


    Anchor activities

    ANCHOR ACTIVITIES

    Can be:

    used in any subject

    whole class assignments

    small group or individual assignments

    tiered to meet the needs of different readiness levels

    Interdisciplinary for use across content areas or teams


    Anchor activities1

    ANCHOR ACTIVITIES

    Work best:

    • when expectations are clear and the tasks are taught and practiced prior to use.

    • when students are held accountable for on task behavior and/or task completion.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Planning for Anchor Activities

    Subject/Content Area:

    Name and description of anchor activity:

    How will activity be introduced to students?

    How will the activity be managed and monitored?

    - Points- Percentage of Final Grade

    - Rubric- Portfolio Check

    - Checklist- Teacher/Student Conference

    - Random Check- Peer Review

    - On Task Behaviors- Other _______________


    Some anchor activities

    Some Anchor Activities

    • “Brain Busters”

    • Learning Packets

    • Activity Box

    • Learning/Interest Centers

    • Vocabulary Work

    • Accelerated Reader

    • Investigations

    • MSPAP or CRT Practice Activities

    • Magazine Articles with Generic Questions or Activities

    • Listening Stations

    • Research Questions or Projects

    • Commercial Kits and Materials

    • Journals or Learning Logs

    • Silent Reading (Content Related?)


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Examples of Possible Anchor Activities

    Skills practice at the computer

    Reading from supplementary material

    Completing math applications

    Working on final products

    Free reading

    Journal writing

    Analyzing cases (or writing them)

    Vocabulary extension

    Learning about the people behind ideas

    Learning about key ideas at work in the world

    Independent Studies

    Orbitals

    Current events reading

    Designing or completing “virtual” science experiments

    Developing or completing relevant organizers

    An idea for an improvement, invention, innovation

    ETC.

    Generally, homework is not an acceptable anchor activity—and anchor

    activities are typically completed individually.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Beginning Anchor Activities…

    • Teach one key anchor activity to the whole class very carefully.

    • Later, it can serve as a point of departure for other anchors.

    • Explain the rationale.

    • Let students know you intend the activities to be helpful

    • and/or interesting to them.

    • Help them understand why it’s important for them to work

    • productively.

    • Make sure directions are clear and accessible, materials readily

    • available, and working conditions support success.

    • Think about starting with one or two anchor options and expanding the

    • options as students become proficient with the first ones.

    • Monitor student effectiveness with anchors and analyze the way they

    • are working with your students.

    • Encourage your students to propose anchor options.

    • Remember that anchor activities need to stem from and be part of

      • building a positive community of learners.


    Directions complete the chart to show what you know about write as much as you can

    Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can.

    Description

    Description of the Strategy

    Steps in Developing It

    Useful For

    Place to Use It in the Curriculum

    Tomlinson - 02


    Choice menu s

    Choice Menu’s


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    • CHOICE Menus

      • Learning menus outline a variety of

      • instructional options targeted toward

      • important learning goals.

      • Students are able to select the choices

      • which most appeal to them.

      • The teacher directs the menu process,

      • but the student is given control over

      • his/her choice of options, order of

      • completion, etc.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    • Kinds of Menus

    • 􀁺 MENU: Main Dishes, Side Dishes, and

    • Desserts (for younger learners).

    • 􀁺 THINK TAC TOE: Complete a row,

    • column or diagonal line of activities.

    • All three options can be differentiated

    • according to interest, learning profile, or

    • readiness (see enclosed examples).


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    • Appetizers

    • Something I can always be working on.

    • These are assignments that will reinforce concepts.

    • Vocabulary Words/Definitions

    • Word Searches

    • Idea Maps

    • Matching Worksheets

    • Label the Microorganism/Cell

    • Main Course

    • Required

    • These labs must be completed and turned in for credit.

    • Enormous E

    • Focus on Scopes

    • Pond Water Culture

    • Your Choice

    • Chapter 8 Test

    MicroorganismMenu

    Name:Class:

    Appetizers:Can always work on

    Soups/Salads:Homework

    Main Course:Required

    Desserts:Challenges

    • Soups/Salads

    • Homework Assignments

    • All homework must be completed and turned in for a grade.

    • Transparency #13

    • Transparency #16

    • Study Guide 8.1

    • Study Guide 8.2

    • Study Guide 8.3

    • Desserts

    • Things I can do to challenge myself.

    • These are not required unless you have been given specific instructions.

    • Movie Notes

    • Make a Slide

    • Guess the Disease

    • Write a Letter

    • Microbe Mysteries

    • http://www.microbeworld.org

    Created by Meri-Lyn StarkElementary Science Coordinator Park City School District


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Diner Menu – Photosynthesis

    • Appetizer (Everyone Shares)

    • Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis.

    • Entrée (Select One)

    • Draw a picture that shows what happens during photosynthesis.

    • Write two paragraphs about what happens during photosynthesis.

    • Create a rap that explains what happens during photosynthesis.

    • Side Dishes (Select at Least Two)

    • Define respiration, in writing.

    • Compare photosynthesis to respiration using a Venn Diagram.

    • Write a journal entry from the point of view of a green plant.

    • With a partner, create and perform a skit that shows the differences between photosynthesis and respiration.

    • Dessert (Optional)

    • Create a test to assess the teacher’s knowledge of photosynthesis.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    THINK-TAC-TOE

    Book Report


    Directions complete the chart to show what you know about write as much as you can1

    Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can.

    Description

    Description of the Strategy

    Steps in Developing It

    Useful For

    Place to Use It in the Curriculum

    Tomlinson - 02


    Cubing activities

    Cubing Activities


    What is cubing

    What is Cubing

    • Cubing is an instructional strategy that asks students to consider a concept from a variety of different perspectives.

    • The cubes are six-sided figures that have a different activity on each side of the cube.

    • A student rolls the cube and does the activity that comes up.


    Cubing

    Cubing

    Connect It

    Illustrate It

    • Describe ItLook at the subject closely (perhaps with your senses in mind).

    • Compare ItWhat is it similar to? What is it different from?

    • Associate ItWhat does it make you think of? What comes to your mind when you think of it? Perhaps people? Places? Things? Feelings? Let your mind go and see what feelings you have for the subject.

    • Analyze ItTell how it is made. If you can’t really know, use your imagination.

    • Apply ItTell what you can do with it. How can it be used?

    • Argue for It or Against ItTake a stand. Use any kind of reasoning you want—logical, silly, anywhere in between.

    Change It

    Evaluate It

    Solve It

    Rearrange It

    Question It

    Satirize It

    Cartoon It


    Example

    Example

    diagram

    sketch

    question

    storyboard

    timeline

    explain


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Start by deciding which part of your unit lends itself to optional activities. Decide which concepts in this unit can you create a cube for. Is it possible for you to make 3 cubes for 3 different interests, levels, or topics?

    First Step: (use one of the cubes)

    Write 6 questions that ask for information on the selected unit.

    Use your 6 levels of Bloom, intelligence levels, or any of the cubing statements to design questions.

    Make questions that use these levels that probe the specifics of your unit.

    Keep one question opinion based-no right or wrong.

    Second Step: (use other cubes)

    Use the first cube as your “average” cube, create 2 more using one as a lower level and one as a higher level.

    Remember all cubes need to cover the same type of questions, just geared to the level, don’t water down or make too busy!

    Label your cubes so you know which level of readiness you are addressing.

    Hand your partner the cubes and ask if they can tell high, medium, or low. If they can’t tell, adjust slightly.

    Third Step:

    Always remember to have an easy problem on each cube and a hard one regardless the levels.

    Color code the cubes for easy identification and also if students change cubes for questions.

    Decide on the rules: Will the students be asked to do all 6 sides? Roll and do any 4 sides? Do any two questions on each of the 3 cubes?

    Places to get questions:

    Old quizzes, worksheets, textbook-study problems, students generated.

    Creating a Cubing Exercise

    Compare one of the

    story characters to

    yourself. How are

    you alike and how

    are you different?


    Ideas for kinesthetic cube

    Ideas for Kinesthetic Cube

    • Arrange _________into a 3-D collage to show_________

    • Make a body sculpture to show__________________

    • Create a dance to show_______________________

    • Do a mime to help us understand_________________

    • Present an interior monologue with dramatic movement that________________________

    • Build/construct a representation of________________

    • Make a living mobile that shows and balances the elements of __________________

    • Create authentic sound effects to accompany a reading of ________________

    • Show the principle of _____________with a rhythm pattern you create. Explain to us how that works.


    Ideas for cubing in math

    Ideas for Cubing in Math…

    • Describehow you would solve_____________

    • Analyzehow this problem helps us use

      mathematical thinking and problem solving.

    • Comparethis problem to one on p._____

    • Contrastit too.

    • Demonstrate how a professional (or just a regular

      person) could apply this kind of problem to their work

      or life.

    • Change one or more numbers (elements, signs) in

      the problem. Give a rule for what that change does.

    • Createan interesting and challenging word

      problem from the number problem. (Show us how to

      solve it too)

    • Diagram or Illustrate the solution to the problem.

      Interpret the visual so we understand.


    Cubing fractions

    Cubing Fractions

    • Each student at a table rolls two dice a designated number of times. The 1st dice/cube tells students what to do with a fraction.

    • Order/compare all the fractions from the smallest number to the largest.

    • Add 2 rolled fractions together.

    • Subtract 2 rolled fractions.

    • Divide 2 rolled fractions.

    • Multiply 2 rolled fractions.

    • Model 2 rolled fractions using circles or bars of paper.

    • The 2nd cube/dice contains the fraction which can vary in complexity based on studentnumber readiness.

    Lynne Beauprey, Illinois


    The cube

    The Cube

    First graders have been studying weather. They visit the Review Center at various times throughout the week as a way to review what they have learned about weather.

    Draw itAssociate it

    Divide your paper into 4 sections.Choose one type of weather.

    Label each section with a season and Create a web with this weather in the

    draw what the playground might look like.Center. Write words in the bubble

    connecting to the center that describe

    Compare ithow you feel when you see it.

    Choose 2 seasons. Use a Venn diagram

    to compare them. Describe it

    Work with a partner.

    Draw a card from the jar.

    Explain itDescribe the weather type on the card

    Talk with a partner about your favoriteso your partner can guess.

    type of weather.

    Analyze it

    Work with a partner.

    Read a book about rain.

    Talk about why we need rain.

    Jessica Ramsey/2004Adapted slightly from:

    http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/departments/eii/Cubing


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Third Grade Unit: Cubing Example

    Adapted by Joy Peters, Nebraska

    Compare your favorite picture in the story to a similar activity in your life. You may use words and/or pictures.

    Describe your favorite picture in the

    Story Family Pictures. Tell why you

    picked that one.

    List words that describe your feelings about the Mexican as you look at each picture in the story.

    Using a Venn

    Diagram, chart your favorite things and compare them to the favorite things you found in the story. Find common areas that you and the story share.

    Justify why it is important to meet people who speak a different language and have a different culture.

    Analyze the favorite things in the story by understanding

    why these might be traditions in the culture. If you were a researcher asked about the important things in the Mexican culture, what would you say?

    Red Cube

    Using Family

    Pictures by Carmen

    Lomas Garza


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Third Grade Unit: Cubing Example

    Adapted by Joy Peters, Nebraska

    Compare, using the compare and contrast graphic organizer and look at areas of food, shelter, traditions, family life, and recreational activities.

    Describe the Mexican culture using

    at least three sentences with three

    describing words in each sentence.

    Choreograph a dance or mime to represent the three main ideas that you learned about the Mexican culture.

    Find and critique another story at the reading center. Compare it to Family Pictures and discuss what elements you liked and did not like of either story.

    Pretend that you are a child from Mexico. Tell me about your day. What would your chores be? What would you eat? How would you spend your free time? Tell me why?

    Create your own family album by drawing at least five special activities your family shares.

    Orange Cube


    Cubing with charlotte s web

    Basic Cube

    Draw Charlotte as you think she looks.

    Use a Venn diagram and compare Charlotte and Fern.

    Use a comic strip to tell what happened in this chapter.

    Shut your eyes and describe the barn. Jot down your ideas.

    Predict what will happen in the next chapter using symbols.

    In your opinion, why is Charlotte a good friend?

    Abstract Cube

    Use a graphics program on the computer and create a character web for Wilbur.

    Use symbols on a Venn diagram to compare Wilbur and Charlotte.

    Draw the farm and label the items, people, and buildings.

    Use a storyboard to show the progress of the plot to this point.

    What is the message that you think the writer wants people to remember? Draw a symbol that illustrates your ideas.

    When you think of the title, do you agree or disagree that it is a good choice? Why or why not?

    Cubing with Charlotte’s Web


    Directions complete the chart to show what you know about write as much as you can2

    Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can.

    Description

    Description of the Strategy

    Steps in Developing It

    Useful For

    Place to Use It in the Curriculum

    Tomlinson - 02


    Thinkdots

    ThinkDots 

    An Instructional Strategy for Differentiation by

    Readiness, Interest or Learning Style

    Kay Brimijoin, 1999


    Thinkdots1

    ThinkDOTs

    • After a conceptual unit has been presented and students are familiar with the ideas and associated skills, “Think DOTS” is an excellent activity for students to construct meaning for themselves about the concept they are studying. The instructor first defines readiness levels, interests or learning styles in the class, using on-going assessment.

    • Each student is given a set of activity cards on a ring, a die, and an activity sheet. Each student rolls the die and completes the activity on the card that corresponds to the dots thrown on the die. Each student then completes the activity on the activity sheet.

    • Materials:

    • 1.8 ½ x 11 inch paper

    • 2.Hole punch

    • 3.Metal or plastic rings

    • 4.Dice

    • 5. Scissors

    • 6. Markers or dots

    • 7. Laminating materials


    Thinkdots pg 2

    ThinkDOTs pg. 2

    Construction:

    1.   For each readiness level, six activities should be created.

    2.On an 8 ½ x 11 inch page divided into six sections (this can be done easily on the computer by creating a 2 x 3 cell table and saving it as a template), the activities should be written or typed in each section.

    3.On the back of each page, dots corresponding to the dots on the faces of a die should be either drawn or affixed (you can use Avery adhesive dots) on each of the six sections of the page.

    4.The pages should be laminated for durability.

    5.Then each page should be cut into the six sections.

    6.Use a hole punch to make holes in one corner or in the top of each activity card.

    7.Use a metal or plastic ring to hold each set of six cards together (you can get 100 metal rings from Office Suppliers in Roanoke for $9.00)

    8.Create an Activity Sheet to correspond to the lesson for easy recording and management.


    Thinkdots pg 3

    ThinkDOTs pg. 3

    Suggestions:

    1.Use colored paper and/or colored dots to indicate different readiness levels, interests or learning styles.

    2.Have students work in pairs.

    3.Let students choose which activities – for example: roll the die and choose any three; create complex activities and have students choose just one to work on over a number of days.

    4.After students have worked on activity cards individually, have them come together in groups by levels, interest or learning style to synthesize 


    Thinkdots pg 4

    ThinkDOTs pg. 4

    Application:

    • 1.Use “ThinkDOTS” to lead students into deeper exploration of a concept.

    • 2.Use “ThinkDOTS” for review before assessment.

    • 3.Use “ThinkDOTS” as an assessment.


    Think dots grade 2 math

    Think Dots:Grade 2 Math

    • What students should know

      • Count by fives

      • Count up to sixty

      • Tell time to the half hour

      • 4 quarters is equal $1.00

      • 3 fives makes fifteen

      • There is quarter after and a quarter till

      • Clock is divided into 4 parts and is similar to 4 quarters

        equaling $1.00

    • What students should understand

      • Time helps people plan their lives better.

      • Time helps people communicate.

    • What students should be able to do

      • Tell time to the quarter hour


    Think dots grade 2 math1

    Think Dots:Grade 2 Math

    Students will tell and write time to the quarter hour, using analog and digital clock.

    Think Dots Version 1: Time

    The Think Dots could be used the following ways:

    Anchor Activity, Pre-assessment, Review, Post-assessment

    Dawn LoCassale


    Think dots grade 2 math2

    Think Dots:Grade 2 Math

    Students will tell and write time to the quarter hour, using analog and digital clock.

    Think Dots Version 2: Time

    The Think Dots could be used the following ways:

    Anchor Activity, Pre-assessment, Review, Post-assessment

    Dawn LoCassale


    Generic thinkdots for high school literature concept prejudice

    “Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School Literature – Concept : Prejudice

    Prejudice

    • Discuss how prejudice and discrimination are not only harmful to the victim, but also to those who practice them.

      Scapegoating

    • Imagine a group of people that could be scapegoats. List and describe stereotypes of this group and the treatments they received because of them.

      Articles

    • Read the article. What could be reasons for the persecution? How can you justify and minds of those responsible?

      Photography

    • Photographs tell stories. Write a caption for the photo and explain why you chose it.

      Genetics

    • Certain characteristics are blamed on genetics. Do genetics impact the characteristics of your group? Explain the reasoning behind your answer. Use your science knowledge.

      Stereotypes

    • Your group was persecuted. Identify a group who has been persecuted in more recent years. Compare the two and give reasons why.


    Generic thinkdots for high school literature concept prejudice1

    “Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School Literature – Concept : Prejudice

    Prejudice

    • Is it possible to grow to adulthood without harboring some prejudice? Why or why not?

      Scapegoating

    • What is scapegoating? Explore the word’s etymology and hypothesize about its present day meaning. How was your group scapegoated?

      Articles

    • Read the article. What is genocide? Did the people in your article face genocide? Why?

      Photography

    • Look at the clothing, hair, setting, body language, and objects to help determine social, economic, country of origin and so on. Can you see the emotions in the people? How? Do you think they are related?

      Genetics

    • Do genetics cause brown hair? How? List one way genetics affects your group (in your opinion). If genetics don’t affect your group explain why.

      Stereotypes

    • Identify stereotypes your group faced. Pick a clique in the school and discuss the traits of that group. Are they stereotyped?


    Generic thinkdots for high school literature concept prejudice2

    “Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School Literature – Concept : Prejudice

    Prejudice

    • Discuss the following statement: “Genocide can never be eliminated because it is deeply rooted in human nature.” Do you agree or disagree? Provide evidence from your readings for your position.

      Scapegoating

    • Identify and discuss the scapegoating that took place in your group. Compare the scapegoating of your group to that of a present day group.

      Articles

    • Read the article. If you were the person behind the persecution and were asked why you did what you did, what would you say?

      Photography

    • Compare two photographs taken of similar events. What are the similarities and differences? What might be the significance of these similarities and differences?

      Genetic

    • Did genetics have an impact on the Aryan race? Why? Does it in the group you are studying? Why?

      Stereotypes

    • Name a group you stereotype and discuss those traits that you stereotype. What were the stereotypes your group had?


    Directions complete the chart to show what you know about write as much as you can3

    Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can.

    Description

    Description of the Strategy

    Steps in Developing It

    Useful For

    Place to Use It in the Curriculum

    Tomlinson - 02


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    RAFT

    Doug Buehl cited in: Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who BillMeyer & Martin, 1998


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    R A F T ING HELPS A STUDENT UNDERSTAND:

    • The ROLE of writer, speaker, artist, historian, etc.

    • An AUDIENCE of fellow writers, students, citizens, characters, etc.

    • How to produce a written, spoken, drawn, acted, etc. FORMAT

    • A deeper level of content within the TOPICstudied.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    RAFT

    RAFT is an acronym that stands for

    Role of the writer. What is the writer’s role: reporter, observer, eyewitness?

    Audience. Who will be reading this writing: the teacher, other students, a parent, people in the community, an editor?

    Format. What is the best way to present this writing: in a letter, an article, a report, a poem?

    Topic. Who or what is the subject of this writing: a famous mathematician, a prehistoric cave dweller, a reaction to a specific event?


    Raft activities

    RAFT Activities


    Raft activities1

    RAFT Activities

    Language Arts

    & Literature

    Science

    History

    Math

    Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who? Billmeyer and Martin, 1998


    Grade 6 social studies raft

    Grade 6Social Studies RAFT

    Students will

    Know:

    Names and roles of groups in the feudal class system.

    Understand:

    Roles in the feudal system were interdependent. A person’s role in the feudal system will shape his/her perspective on events.

    Be Able to Do:

    Research

    See events through varied perspectives

    Share research & perspectives with peers


    Feudal system raft cont d

    Feudal System Raftcont’d

    Following the RAFT activity, students will share their research and perspectives in

    mixed role groups of approximately five. Groups will have a “discussion agenda”

    to guide their conversation. -Kathryn Seaman


    Self portrait raft high school art

    Self Portrait RAFTHigh School Art

    Students will

    Know:

    Characteristics of self portrait

    Appropriate use of artistic materials

    Principles of Design

    Definition of artistic expression

    Understand:

    Each artist has a personal style

    Personal style reflects the individual’s culture, time, and personal experiences.

    Use of materials and style are related

    Be Able to Do:

    Analyze an artist’s personal style and use of materials

    Create a facsimile of an artist’s personal style and use of materials


    Self portrait raft

    Self Portrait RAFT


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Technology Safety R.A.F.T.

    Directions:

    •Select one of the following prompts, The “Role” is the character you will become, and from those perspective that you

    will write. The “Audience” is to whom that character will be writing. The “Format” is the form in which the opinion

    will be expressed. The “Topic” is just that -- your topic! “Points of Discussion” are those things that you should be sure

    to include in your project.

    • All products must ...1) Include all necessary “Points of Discussion,” 2) Use a combination of words and pictures,

    Communicate the topic clearly and forcefully, and 4) Be of Professional quality - fit for publication for next year’s class.

    Role Audience Format Topic Points of Discussion

    Double-page

    Magazine

    spread

    “Here’s what’s ‘IN’ in

    Technology-Education

    Fashion

    Middle school

    Students

    Teen magazine’s

    Fashion Editor

    Eye wear; ear-wear; long hair;

    baggy clothes; jewelry; long sleeves

    “Instant Replay Out-takes:

    Fouls in the Technology Lab”

    Running: horseplay; injuries;

    anchor activities;

    Referee

    “Wanted: Students Caught

    In the Act of Breaking

    Clean-up Laws”

    Your three primary “clean-up”

    in your work area

    The Technology

    The Public

    Wanted Posters

    “Undercover in the TMS

    Tech Lab: What Materials

    Talk About at Night”

    Fauquier

    Times Democrat

    Reader

    Proper handling of hand tools,

    heavy items, materials;

    Newspaper

    Writer

    Expose’

    Cover Story

    Drill Press: speed, chuck key;long end of Board

    Scroll Saw: cut line & fingers; when the blade

    binds; hold-down; upper guide adjustment

    Both; brush; holding work flat on table

    Scroll Saw

    And

    Drill Press

    “What We Wish Middle

    School Students Knew

    About  How to Handle Us...”

    Each Other

    Comic Strip

    A “New”

    Computer on his 1st day at work

    All items on “Technology Computer

    Rules” handout

    “These Are Your Rights!”

    Kristina Doubet - University of Virginia - 2003


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Technology Safety R.A.F.T.

    Circle the ROLE that you plan to pursue. Decide what materials you’ll need (digital

    camera, computer, poster, etc.) Plan your presentation, and clear. It with your teacher before you begin working. You may use your notes to help you.

    Directions: As your classmates present their RAFTS, take notes on what

    you learn about lab safety from their projects.

    SUBJECT CLASSMATE NOTES

    PRESENTING

    KRISTINA DOUBET -- UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA -- 2003


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    RAFT Assignments: Grade 10 English

    • Know: Voice, Tone, Style

    • Understand:

    • Each writer has a voice.

    • Voice is shaped by life experiences

    • & reflects the writer.

    • Voice shapes expression.

    • Voice affects communication.

    • Voice and style are related.

    • Be Able to Do:

    • Describe a writer’s voice and style.

    • Mimic a writer’s voice and style.

    • Create a piece of writing that reflects a writer’s voice & style.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Tom Sawyer’s R.A.F.T.

    (Page 1)

    • Overview

    • This RAFT is designed for use by students when they have finished reading the novel, Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain. The RAFT synthesizes the unit’s exploration of characterization and allows students to “step into the skin” of one of the supporting characters to get a look at the protagonist from his/her perspective. A final jigsaw activity allows students to view Tom form multiple perspectives in order to reinforce the unit’s essential understandings (students share their RAFTs in mixed groups and complete a synthesis writing piece in which they draw conclusions about Tom based on all perspectives aired in the group).

    • Raft Goals

    • Students should KNOW…

      • The definition of characterization

      • The six supporting characters’ relationships with Tom Sawyer

      • Students should UNDERSTAND that…

      • Individuals have their own unique perspectives determined by their experiences and relationships.

      • In order to gain a true understanding of a person or event, multiple perspectives must be considered.

      • Students should BE ABLE TO…

      • Assume the voice of a supporting character

      • Characterize Tom Sawyer using the methods discussed in class

      • Draw conclusions synthesizing multiple and varied perspectives


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Tom Sawyer’s R.A.F.T.

    (Page 2)

    • Differentiation: This RAFT is differentiated according to readiness and interest.

    • Readiness:

      • The first three strips should be given to more advanced students, as these three options are more conceptual.

        • The roles and topics represent less accessible points of view and are designed for student who are ready to tackle the novel at a more abstract level and/or

        • The formats are designed for students who are reading and writing on or above grade level (and are thus able to handle more complex modes of expression).

      • The second three “strips” offer options that are simpler and more straightforward.

        • The roles and topics represent more accessible views and are designed for students who understand the novel at a more basic level, and/or

        • The formats are accessible for students who are struggling readers/writers.

    • Interest: Each student has three options from which to choose, so he/she can select a “strip” that appeals to them in some way (affinity with a character, interest/talent in the format’s expression, interest in the topic, etc.)


    Tom sawyer s r a f t

    Tom Sawyer’s R.A.F.T.

    • Directions:

    • Select one of the following prompts. The “Role” refers to the character’s perspective that you will assume. The “Audience” refers to whom that character will be addressing his/her opinion; The “Format” refers to the form in which the opinion will be expressed; The “Topic” is just that - your topic!

    • Circle the ROLE that you plan to pursue, and clear it with your teacher before you begin working. Use your text to help you.

    Authors: Kristina Doubet, Marla Capper, and Christie Reed - 2003


    Primary raft example

    • RAFT EXAMPLE

    • This RAFT is designed to be used by student in a second grade class as they are learning about endangered and extinct animals in science and natural resources in social studies. Students have been studying both topics for a number of days before they do the RAFT. The activity serves as a culmination to this period of study.

    • Know:

    • Basic needs of plants and animals

    • The role of natural resources in lives of people and animals

    • Understand:

    • Our actions affect the balance of life on Earth.

    • Animals become endangered or extinct when natural

    • resources they need are damaged or limited.

    • Natural resources are not unlimited and must be

    • used wisely.

    • Be Able To:

    • Identify causes of problems with misuse of

    • natural resources.

    • Propose a useful solution to the problems.

    Primary RAFT Example

    Directions: Pick one of theserows to help you showwhat you know and why taking care of natural resources is important to thebalance of life in our world.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    AP Statistics RAFT

    Characteristics of Discrete and Continuous Random Variables

    Know:

    Definitions of discrete and continuous random variables

    What graphs of discrete and continuous random variables look like

    Understand:

    Discrete and continuous random variables have distinct, identifiable

    attributes.

    Be Able to Do:

    Look at a graph and identify whether it represents discrete or continuous

    random variables

    Interpret a word problem to determine whether it involves discrete or

    continuous random variables

    Draw a probability histogram of discrete and continuous

    randomvariables


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Directions for the RAFT ACTIVITY

    Students will pick one of four RAFT groups located in the four corners of the

    room, with the understanding that the groups must have equal numbers of

    participants.

    Students will work with their groups for 30 minutes to develop their RAFT

    assignment. During the last 15 minutes of class, students will meet in

    groups of 4 that contain a representative of each of the RAFT strips to present

    their work and see the other formats (2-3 minutes each).

    The teacher will move around the class and may select one example

    of each strip for presentation at the beginning of the next day’s

    class.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    The RAFT Activity

    Kathie Emerson, Timberline High School, Boise, ID


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    High School Biology RAFT

    Know: (See terms below the RAFT)

    Understand:

    Plants and animals have a symbiotic relationship with

    photosynthesis and respiration.

    Photosynthesis and respiration are essential to human life.

    Be Able to Do:

    Explain the relationship between photosynthesis in plants

    and respiration in humans

    Explain and connect the equations for photosynthesis and

    respiration

    Explain the nature of human dependence on plants


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Important Terms: photosynthesis, respiration, carbon dioxide, sunlight, blue light or green light

    (or other colors), sugar, water, mitochondria, chloroplast, stoma (stomata), lactic acid, aerobic

    respiration, anaerobic respiration, autotroph, heterotroph, sunny, cloudy, cool, warm, long sunny days,

    short days, lungs, light energy, food energy

    Annette Hanson, Timberline High School, Boise, Idaho


    Raft planning sheet

    RAFT Planning Sheet

    Know

    Understand

    Do

    How to Differentiate:

    • Tiered? (See Equalizer)

    • Profile? (Differentiate Format)

    • Interest? (Keep options equivalent in learning)

    • Other?


    Directions complete the chart to show what you know about write as much as you can4

    Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can.

    Description

    Description of the Strategy

    Steps in Developing It

    Useful For

    Place to Use It in the Curriculum

    Tomlinson - 02


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    • Six Thinking Hats


    Procedures for thinking hats analysis

    Procedures for Thinking Hats Analysis

    • Explain that the purpose of this activity is to practice analyzing a topic as a class using multiple Thinking Hats.

    • Present the topic to analyze.

    • One by one, go through each Thinking Hat and ask students to call out ideas or suggestions for analysis of the topic using the specific hat.

    • Record student input on the presentation material.

    • Provide feedback throughout.

    • Lead the class in a discussion of the points made from all of the different Thinking Hats.

    • Summarize the results of the activity.


    Procedures for thinking hats jigsaw

    Procedures for Thinking Hats Jigsaw

    • Explain that the purpose of this activity is to practice analyzing a topic in groups using a specific Thinking Hat.

    • Divide students into small groups.

    • Provide each group with the handout of the topic to analyze.

    • Assign each group a Thinking Hat with which to analyze the topic.

    • Have students analyze the topic from the perspective of their assigned Thinking Hat.

    • Have each group present the results of their analysis.

    • Provide feedback.

    • Summarize the results of the activity.


    Procedures for changing hats

    Procedures for Changing Hats

    • Explain that the purpose of this activity is to practice analyzing a topic in groups using multiple Thinking Hats.

    • Divide students into small groups.

    • Provide each group with the handout of the topic to analyze.

    • Assign each group a Thinking Hat with which to analyze the topic.

    • Have students analyze the topic from the perspective of their assigned Thinking Hat within a specific time frame.

    • When time is up, assign each group a new Thinking Hat to analyze the topic within a specific time frame. Continue this until all of the groups have analyzed the topic with all of the Thinking Hats.

    • Have a few groups present their analysis.

    • Provide feedback throughout.

    • Summarize the results of the activity.


    Directions complete the chart to show what you know about write as much as you can5

    Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can.

    Description

    Description of the Strategy

    Steps in Developing It

    Useful For

    Place to Use It in the Curriculum

    Tomlinson - 02


    Structured academic controvery

    Structured Academic Controvery


    Sac promotes

    SAC promotes

    • Consensus-building

    • Expansion of content knowledge

    • Expansion of students' world views

    • Motivation (Mead & Scharmann)


    Sac promotes1

    SAC promotes…

    • Sense of learning community

    • Respect for multiple perspectives

    • Acceptance that an individual can use multiple ways of knowing the world


    Sac does not

    SAC Does NOT

    • Present right or wrong

    • Ask students personal beliefs

    • Marginalize unique views

    • Accept all types of knowledge as equivalent

    • Allow Debate


    1 assign each pair of students the following tasks

    1. Assign each pair of students the following tasks:

    • a.) Learning their position and its supporting arguments and information

    • b.) Researching all information relevant to their position

    • c.) Giving the opposing pair any information found supporting the opposing position

    • d.) Preparing a persuasive presentation to be given to the other pair

    • e.) Preparing a series of persuasive arguments to be used in the discussion with the opposing

    • pair


    2 have each pair present its position to the other

    2. Have each pair PRESENT ITS POSITION to the other.

    • Presentations should involve more

    • than one medium and persuasively advocate the best case for the position. There is no arguing

    • during this time. Students should listen carefully to the opposing position. Students are told:

    • As a pair, present your position forcefully and persuasively. Listen carefully and learn the

    • opposing position. Take notes, and clarify anything that you do not understand.


    3 have students openly discuss the issue by freely exchanging their information and ideas

    3. Have students openly DISCUSS THE ISSUE by freely exchanging their information and ideas.

    • For higher-level reasoning and critical thinking to occur, it is necessary to prove and push each other’s statements, clarify rationales, and show why their position is a rationale one.

    • Students refute the claims being made by the opposing pair and rebut the attacks on their own position.

    • Students are to follow the specific rules for constructive controversy.

    • Students should also take careful notes on and carefully study the opposing position. Sometimes a “time out” period needs to be provided so that pairs can caucus and prepare new arguments. Teachers encourage more spirited arguing, take sides when a pair is in trouble, play devils’ advocate, ask one group to observe another group engaging in a spirited argument, and generally stir up the discussions.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    4. Have the pairs REVERSE PERSPECTIVES AND POSITIONS by presenting the opposing position as sincerely and forcefully as they can.

    • It helps to have the pairs change chairs. They can use their own notes, but may not see the materials developed by the opposing pair.


    5 have the group members drop their advocacy positions and reach a decision by consensus

    5. Have the group members drop their advocacy positions and REACH A DECISION BY CONSENSUS.

    • This process will likely require looking at the nuances of both sides and seeking a moderate position between the two extreme positions. The group should prepare a consensus paper, project, or other statement that expresses the collective understanding and opinions of all group members.


    Directions complete the chart to show what you know about write as much as you can6

    Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can.

    Description

    Description of the Strategy

    Steps in Developing It

    Useful For

    Place to Use It in the Curriculum

    Tomlinson - 02


    The profiler

    The Profiler


    What is the profiler

    What is “The Profiler”?

    • A way to assess and provide activities geared toward the different intelligence types/learning styles represented in the classroom

    • A means of providing students with connections to the working world, as well as with roles and/or audiences for their work

    • A tool useful for introducing new material or synthesizing previously learned material


    How to create a profiler assignment

    How to Create a “Profiler”Assignment

    • The teacher

      • selects the knowledge, skills, and essential understandings that s/he would like students to either 1) begin to explore, or 2) synthesize and demonstrate mastery of.

      • through which students could demonstrate this learning.

      • selects jobs/occupations that are associated with the different learning styles


    How to create a profiler assignment1

    How to Create a “Profiler” Assignment

    • Examples of intelligence preferences and associated jobs/occupations

      • Visual-Spatial – Artist, Cartoonist, Magazine layout editor

      • Logical-Mathematical – Architect, Engineer, Mathematician

      • Interpersonal – Counselor, Tour Guide, Teacher

      • Musical/Rhythmic – Songwriter, Performing Artist

      • Verbal-Linguistic – Writer, Commentator, Announcer

      • Bodily-Kinesthetic – Actor, Builder

      • Intrapersonal – Poet, Songwriter

      • Naturalistic – Forest Ranger, Botanist


    How to create a profiler assignment2

    How to Create a “Profiler” Assignment

    • Remember that…

    • … many intelligence preferences overlap

    • with one another, and

    • …most children have more than one

    • preference;…

    • …therefore, it is not necessary to use them all! Simply select those that are most conducive to the demonstration of your learning goals.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    The Maturation of Tom Sawyer

    The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain

    This culminating product assignment is designed to examine the character of Tom Sawyer in terms of his

    maturation in the novel. Below are multiple approaches to this examination. Students may choose the entry point that is most appealing to them; the teacher will then determine the level that is best suited for each student. Actual student handouts of assignment descriptions/instructions are attached.


    Directions complete the chart to show what you know about write as much as you can7

    Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can.

    Description

    Description of the Strategy

    Steps in Developing It

    Useful For

    Place to Use It in the Curriculum

    Tomlinson - 02


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    TRI-MIND

    Practical Intelligence

    Successful Intelligence

    Creative Intelligence

    Analytic Intelligence


    Sternberg s three intelligences1

    Sternberg’s Three Intelligences

    Creative

    Analytical

    Practical

    • We all have some of each of these intelligences, but are usually stronger in one or two areas than in others.

    • We should strive to develop as fully each of these intelligences in students…

    • …but also recognize where students’ strengths lie and teach through those intelligences as often as possible, particularly when introducing new ideas.


    Three minds are better than one

    Three Minds are Better thanOne…

    • TriMind is a planning tool to use in order to differentiate for different thinking styles.

    • Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (see included slides) posits that people have strengths in one or more types of intelligences: creative, analytical, or practical. Successful intelligence is the ability to recognize which strengths we possess, and to steer toward careers/activities which require these strengths.


    For analytical thinkers

    For ANALYTICAL Thinkers

    Analytical = Linear – Schoolhouse Smart -- Sequential

    • Show the parts of _____________ and how

      • they work.

    • Explain why _____________ works the way

    • it does.

    • Diagram how _________ affects ________.

    • Identify the key parts of _______________.

    • Present a step-by-step approach to _____.


    For practical thinkers

    For PRACTICAL Thinkers

    Practical = Street Smart – Contextual – Focus on Use

    • Demonstrate how someone uses ________ in their life or work.

    • Show how we could apply ______ to solve this real life problem: _________________.

    • Based on your own experience, explain how _________________ can be used.

    • Here’s a problem at school, ________.

    • Using your knowledge of __________, develop a plan to address the problem


    For creative thinkers

    For CREATIVE Thinkers

    Creative = Innovator – Outside the Box – “What if?” – Improver

    • Find a new way to show _____________.

    • Use unusual materials to explain ___________.

    • Use humor to show ____________________.

    • Explain (show) a new and better way to ______.

    • Make connections between _____ and _____ to help us understand ____________.

    • Become a _____________ and use your “new” perspective to help us think about __________.


    I like

    Designing new things

    Coming up with ideas

    Using my imagination

    Playing make-believe and pretend games

    Thinking of alternative solutions

    Noticing things people usually tend to ignore

    Thinking in pictures and images

    Inventing (new recipes, words, games)

    Supposing that things were different

    Thinking about what would have happened if certain aspects of the world were different

    Composing (new songs, melodies)

    Acting and role playing

    CREATIVE

    I Like…

    Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000


    I like1

    Taking things apart and fixing them

    Learning through hands on activities

    Making and maintaining friends

    Understanding and respecting others

    Putting into practice things I learned

    Resolving conflicts

    Advising my friends on their problems

    Convincing someone to do something

    Learning by interacting with others

    Applying my knowledge

    Working and being with others

    Adapting to new situations

    PRACTICAL

    I Like…

    Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000


    I like2

    Analyzing characters when I’m reading or listening to a story

    Comparing & contrasting points of view

    Criticizing my own & others’ work

    Thinking clearly & analytically

    Evaluating my & others’ points of view

    Appealing to logic

    Judging my & others’ behavior

    Explaining difficult problems to others

    Solving logical problems

    Making inferences & deriving conclusions

    Sorting & classifying

    Thinking about things

    ANALYTICAL

    I Like…

    Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000


    Tips for teaching triarchically

    Tips for Teaching Triarchically

    • Some of the time, teach analytically, helping students learn to analyze, evaluate, compare and contrast, critique, and judge.

    • Some of the time, teach creatively, helping students learn to create, invent, imagine, discover, explore, and suppose.

    • Some of the time, teach practically, helping students learn to apply, use, utilize, contextualize, implement, and put into practice.

    • Some of the time, enable all students to capitalize on their strengths. Most of the time, enable all students to correct or compensate for their weaknesses.

    • Make sure your assessments match your teaching, calling upon analytical, creative, and practical as well as memory skills.

    • Value the diverse patterns of abilities in all students.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    TRI-MIND Template

    Learning Goals for Activities:

    Practical Assignment

    Creative Assignment

    Topic

    Analytic Assignment


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    TRI-MIND Template

    Understanding Number

    Practical Task:

    Find as many things as you can at school and at home that have something to do with 5. Share what you find with us so we can see and understand what you did.

    Creative Task:

    Write and/or recite a riddle poem about 5 that helps us understand the number in many, unusual, and interesting ways.

    Analytic Task:

    Make a number chart that shows all ways you can think of to show 5.


    Directions complete the chart to show what you know about write as much as you can8

    Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can.

    Description

    Description of the Strategy

    Steps in Developing It

    Useful For

    Place to Use It in the Curriculum

    Tomlinson - 02


    Tiered assignments

    Tiered Assignments

    In a heterogeneous classroom, a teacher uses varied levels of activities to ensure that students explore ideas at a level that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts continued growth. Student groups use varied approaches to exploration of essential ideas.


    Tiered assignments1

    Tiered Assignments

    Rationale for Use

    • Blends assessment and instruction

    • Allows students to begin learning where they are

    • Allows students to work with appropriately challenging tasks

    • Allows for reinforcement or extension of concepts and principles based on student readiness

    • Allows modification of working conditions based on learning style

    • Avoids work that is anxiety-production (too hard) or boredom-producing (too easy)

    • Promotes success and is therefore motivating


    Tiered assignments2

    Tiered Assignments

    Guidelines for Use

    • Be sure the task is focused on a key concept or generalization essential to the study

    • Use a variety of resource materials at differing levels of complexity and associated with different learning modes

    • Adjust the task by complexity, abstractness, number of steps, concreteness, and independence to ensure appropriate challenge

    • Be certain there are clear criteria for quality and success


    What zone am i in

    Too Easy

    I get it right away…

    I already know how…

    This is a cinch…

    I’m sure to make an A…

    I’m coasting…

    I feel relaxed…

    I’m bored…

    No big effort necessary…

    What Zone Am I In?

    • On Target

    • I know some things…

    • I have to think…

    • I have to work…

    • I have to persist…

    • I hit some walls…

    • I’m on my toes…

    • I have to re-group…

    • I feel challenged…

    • Effort leads to success…

    • Too Hard

    • I don’t know where to start…

    • I can’t figure it out…

    • I’m spinning my wheels…

    • I’m missing key skills…

    • I feel frustrated…

    • I feel angry

    • This makes no sense…

    • Effort doesn’t pay off…

    THIS is the place to be…

    THIS is the achievement zone…


    Tiering a lesson

    Tiering a Lesson


    Tiered assignments3

    Tiered Assignments

    • In a differentiated classroom, a teacher uses varied levels of tasks to ensure that students explore ideas and use skills at a level that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts continued growth.

    • While students work at varied degrees of difficulty on their tasks, they all explore the essential ideas and work at high levels of thought.

    • Assessment-based tiering allows students to work in their “Zones of Proximal Development” or in a state of “moderate challenge.”


    Directions complete the chart to show what you know about write as much as you can9

    Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can.

    Description

    Description of the Strategy

    Steps in Developing It

    Useful For

    Place to Use It in the Curriculum

    Tomlinson - 02


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Student Learning Contracts

    An agreement

    between

    teacher and

    student(s).


    Learning contracts are

    Learning Contracts Are:

    Writtenagreements

    between teachers &

    students that outline:

    • what students will learn

    • how they will learn it

    • the time period for the learning experience

    • how they will be evaluated


    Contracts

    CONTRACTS---

    • help students learn to make decisions about their learning

    • help students learn to manage their time

    • may involve the student in curriculum planning

    • can be used to support students with learning difficulties

    • can be used to facilitate learning for other students

    • help the teacher manage group work, individual projects or

    • investigations, learning centers or curriculum compacting


    Types of contracts

    Types of Contracts

    • Structured

    • Partially Structured

    • Mutually Structured

    • Unstructured


    Contract components

    Contract Components

    • OUTCOMES

    • RESOURCES

    • LEARNING ALTERNATIVES

    • REPORTING ALTERNATIVES & ASSESSMENT


    Components of contracts

    Components of Contracts:

    1. Outcome(s) - specify what is to be accomplished, the conditions

    under which learning will be demonstrated, and the level of

    proficiency required to meet the outcome.

    2. Resources - including print, media, and human

    3. Learning Alternatives - include reading, writing, viewing, creating,

    interviewing, and other activities the student experiences to

    accomplish the outcome.

    4. Reporting Alternatives and Assessment - should provide evidence

    as to whether the outcomes have been accomplished. Conferences,

    tests, projects, presentations, real world products, portfolios of

    work are examples of reporting alternatives.


    Contract do s don ts

    Contract Do’s & Don’ts

    DO:

    • explain the role & function of contracts

    • start small (1 or 2 day) contracts

    • negotiate contracts with students whenever possible

    • help set realistic deadlines

    • renegotiate the contract if it isn’t working

    • solicit student feedback on process

    • gradually involve students in contract development


    Contract do s don ts1

    Contract Do’s & Don’ts

    Don’t:

    • expect all students to use contracts

    • effectively at the beginning

    • expect all students to like contracts.

    • assume contracts can take the place

    • of regular instruction

    • use contracts without a good management

    • system


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Some Thoughts about Learning Contracts:

    Contracts provide efficient means of prescribing for students, based on assessed needs, strengths, or interests.

    Contracts are usually negotiated between the teacher and the student and sometimes the parent.

    Both the teacher and the student(s) share responsibility for the

    completion of the terms of the contract.

    A contract may require a student to use certain resources or to contact other people in the school or in the community.

    A contract may have certain prerequisites as conditions that the

    student has to meet before beginning a study or investigation.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Designing a Differentiated Learning Contract

    • A Learning Contract has the following

    • components

    • A Skills Component

      • Focus is on skills-based tasks

      • Assignments are based on pre-assessment of students’ readiness

      • Students work at their own level and pace

    • A content component

      • Focus is on applying, extending, or enriching key content (ideas, understandings)

      • Requires sense making and production

      • Assignment is based on readiness or interest

    • A Time Line

      • Teacher sets completion date and check-in requirements

      • Students select order of work (except for required meetings and homework)

    • 4. The Agreement

      • The teacher agrees to let students have freedom to plan their time

      • Students agree to use the time responsibly

      • Guidelines for working are spelled out

      • Consequences for ineffective use of freedom are delineated

      • Signatures of the teacher, student and parent (if appropriate) are placed on the agreement

    Differentiating Instruction: Facilitator’s Guide, ASCD, 1997


    Name poetry contract

    Name_________________Poetry Contract


    Name poetry contract1

    Name_________________Poetry Contract


    Directions complete the chart to show what you know about write as much as you can10

    Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can.

    Description

    Description of the Strategy

    Steps in Developing It

    Useful For

    Place to Use It in the Curriculum

    Tomlinson - 02


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    Assessment Idea!

    EXIT CARDS


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    EXIT CARDS

    Exit Cards (AKA “Tickets To Leave”) are used to gather information on student readiness levels, interests, and/or learning profiles.

    The teacher hands out index cards to students at the end of an

    instructional sequence or class period. The teacher asks the students to respond to a pre-determined prompt on their index cards and then turn them in as they leave the classroom or transition to another subject.

    The teacher reviews the student responses and separates the cards

    into instructional groups based on preset criteria.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    EXIT CARD GROUPINGS

    Group 2

    Students with

    some understanding

    of concept or skill

    Group 1

    Students who are

    struggling with the

    concept or

    skill

    Group 3

    Students who

    understand the

    concept or skill

    Readiness Groups


    Examples of exit cards

    Examples of Exit Cards

    Let’s take a look at

    some examples---


    Exit cards

    EXIT CARDS

    Today you began to

    learn about decimal

    fractions

    • List three things you learned

    • Write at least one question you have about this topic


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    EXIT CARDS

    • Today you began to

    • learn about hyperbole.

    • List three things you learned.

    • Write at least one question you have about this topic.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    EXIT CARDS

    We have been learning about The Greenhouse Effect. Explain or depict your understanding of this important environmental issue.

    What questions do you have about this topic?


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    EXIT CARDS

    We have begun a study of author’s craft.

    List and identify three examples of figurative language used in the novel Morning Girlby Michael Dorris.


    Exit cards1

    EXIT CARDS

    On your Exit Card---

    Explain the difference

    between prime and

    composite numbers.

    You may wish to give

    some examples of each

    as part of your

    explanation.


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    EXIT CARDS

    On your exit card---

    Explain the difference

    between simile and

    metaphor. Give some

    examples of each as

    part of your explanation.


    Exit cards learning profile

    EXIT CARDS - Learning Profile

    We used the following

    learning strategies in this

    lesson:

    3 minute pause

    T-P-S

    Visualizing

    What learning strategy or

    strategies seemed to work best

    for you?


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    3-2-1 Summarizer

    After reading over my rough draft---

    3revisions I can make to improve

    my draft.

    2resources I can use to help improve

    my draft.

    1thing Ireally like about my first

    draft.


    Directions complete the chart to show what you know about write as much as you can11

    Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can.

    Description

    Description of the Strategy

    Steps in Developing It

    Useful For

    Place to Use It in the Curriculum

    Tomlinson - 02


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    These ideas square with my beliefs:

    Three points I want to remember:

    These are the ideas that are going around in my head:

    Some of the ideas I am leaving here with today are…..

    This made me wiggle in my seat:


    Simulation

    Simulation


    Do as i do

    Do as I Do

    Modeling Differentiation through Professional Development


    Agenda

    Agenda

    • Introduction

    • Top ten misunderstandings about differentiation

    • Model differentiated staff development activity (by interest)


    Steps in a differentiated lesson

    Steps in a Differentiated Lesson

    Identification of Common Learning Goals

    Pre-Assessment

    Differentiated Activity

    Whole-Group Discussion

    Post-Assessment

    Further Instruction


    Differentiate staff development experiences by

    Differentiate Staff DevelopmentExperiences By…

    Readiness

    Interest/Choice

    Learning Profile


    10 common misunderstandings about differentiation

    10 Common Misunderstandingsabout Differentiation

    • Differentiation is a set of strategies.

      • DI is an entire teaching philosophy grounded in knowing students and responding to their needs.

    • Differentiation is group work.

      • Differentiation employs thoughtful, purposeful flexible grouping. Sometimes students work alone, sometimes in pairs, sometimes as a whole class, and sometimes in small groups– depending upon demonstrated student need


    10 common misunderstandings

    10 Common Misunderstandings

    • “I already differentiate.”

      • While many of us may use a strategy associated with differentiation or may differentiate reactively, few have fully, proactively differentiated classrooms– these classrooms develop and grow over time in response to student need.

    • Differentiated lessons have to be creative, “cute,” and fun.

      • While engaging students is an important part of differentiation, it is more important that the lesson be grounded rich curriculum.


    10 common misunderstandings about differentiation1

    10 Common Misunderstandingsabout Differentiation

    • Differentiation is just the next educational fad.

      • Because differentiation is a philosophy of meeting a broad range of students’ needs, only when students cease being different will the need for differentiation disappear.

    • Providing choice= differentiation.

      • Different activities have to be held together by clear learning goals.


    10 common misunderstandings about differentiation2

    10 Common Misunderstandingsabout Differentiation

    • Differentiation isn’t fair.

      • Fair does not always mean “the same.” In order for students to reach the same goals, they may need to take different paths to get there.

    • Differentiation means “dumbing down” the curriculum for less advanced learners.

      • Differentiation means providing appropriate scaffolding to help all learners reach common learning goals.


    10 common misunderstandings about differentiation3

    10 Common Misunderstandingsabout Differentiation

    • Differentiation only works when kids are well-behaved.

      • Creating a responsive classroom can be a great way to improve student behavior, as students’ needs are being met.

    • Preparing a differentiated lesson takes a huge amount of time.

      • Creating any high-quality lesson takes time. As we get our heads wrapped around the process, we become more efficient and develop storehouses of differentiated lessons to adapt.


    Goals for the lesson

    Goals for the Lesson

    • KNOW:

      • Strategies for differentiation (TriMind, Cubing, etc.)

      • Differentiation is NOT simply a set of strategies

    • UNDERSTAND:

      • Differentiation is a teacher’s proactive response to individual student needs.

    • DO:

      • Analyze teaching situations and consider a variety of appropriate teaching strategies for those situations


    Strategies jigsaw

    Strategies Jigsaw

    You will choose one of the following strategies on which to become an expert:

    • Anchor Activities

    • Choice Menus/Think Tac Toe

    • Cubing/Think Dots

    • Rafts

    • Six Thinking Hats

    • Structured Academic Controversy

    • The Profiler

    • The Tri-Minder


    Today s strategies jigsaw

    Today’s Strategies Jigsaw

    • Anchor Activities: a storehouse of activities that you create that students work on when they’ve completed other work. A great strategy for dealing with “ragged time.” Can be completed independently, in pairs, or in groups

    • Choice Menus: a type of learning contract that provides a “menu” of activities– some that all students must do, and some that allow students choices. Great for providing students with a sense of control over their own learning.

    • Six Thinking Hats: an approach that encourages students to think about the various ways they think about ideas– through judgment, optimism, metacognition, objectivity, creativity, or emotions. Teaches students about various ways of thinking and encourages them to switch between modes. Encourages students to be aware of and flexible with various modes of thinking.


    Today s strategies jigsaw1

    Today’s Strategies Jigsaw

    • Structured Academic Controversy: A strategy, based on the principles of information gathering, synthesis, and debate, that encourages students to consider all sides of an issue before making a decision. GREAT for gifted students.

    • Cubing/Think Dots: Cubing is an instructional strategy that asks students to consider a concept from a variety of different perspectives.

    • Rafts: …is a creative, fun strategy that encourages writing across the curriculum. Great for all subjects, but ideal for English.

      • a way to encourage students to assume a role,consider their audience, while examining a topic from their chosen perspective, and writing in a particular format

    • The Profiler

    • The Tri-Minder


    Today s strategies jigsaw2

    Today’s Strategies Jigsaw

    • The Profiler: A way to assess and provide activities geared toward the different intelligence types/learning styles represented in the classroom. A means of providing students with connections to the working world, as well as with roles and/or audiences for their work.

    • The Tri-Minder: The idea behind TriMind is that you provide students with assignments, centered around the same learning goals, that are designed for their intelligence strengths. This way, students learn the material more efficiently and successfully.


    Jigsaw

    Jigsaw

    • A cooperative learning strategy in which all students become experts on a small piece of a topic and then teach each other.


    Jigsaw format

    Jigsaw Format

    Home Group

    Home Group

    Expert

    Expert

    Expert

    Whole Class Discussion

    Individual Understanding Check


    Strategies jigsaw procedures

    Strategies Jigsaw Procedures

    • Read the materials about your strategy in the folder you were provided at your table

    • Together with the people at your table, discuss what the strategy is, how it works, and what you think the pros & cons of the strategy are

    • Create a sample activity using this strategy to take back and share with your home groups


    Jigsaw1

    Seven Choices

    Learning Centers

    Cubing

    RAFT

    Think DOTS

    Journal Prompts

    Exit Cards

    Learning Contracts

    At your table…..

    Decide who will be responsible for working with others and reviewing the information in your packet for a particular strategy at each station group

    Representatives becomes the expert about the strategy and returns to the table to share her/his expertise with the group.

    Jigsaw


    Jigsaw graphic organizer

    Jigsaw Graphic Organizer


    Where do i begin start small but start

    Where Do I Begin?Start small – but start!

    First Steps:

    *

    *

    *

    Next Steps

    *

    *

    *

    Leaps

    Who will help or support you?

    ___________________

    ___________________

    ___________________

    ___________________

    *

    *

    *

    Bounds

    *

    *

    *


    Exit card

    Exit Card

    • Name:

    • Which strategy/strategies seemed most applicable to your classroom:

    • What questions do you still have about these strategies?

    • What do you think the purpose of an instructional strategy is?

      Define “differentiation.”


    Coaching for differentiation by lori comallie caplan

    I hope in your classroom that……

    • Discovery is a given

    • Doing is a way of life

    • All students learn to do better than what they perceive to be their best

    • School is the place to be

    • Learning is the thing to do!

      Adapted from: Tomlinson, C.A. (2003). Deciding to teach them all. Educational Leadership,

      61 (2), 7-11.


    Reference and resources

    Reference and Resources

    • Differentiation: Simplified, Realistic, and Effective by Bertie Kingore ISBN 0-9716233-3-3

    • Differentiated Instruction: A Hotlist of Web Sites http://www.frsd.k12.nj.us/rfmslibrarylab/di/differentiated_instruction.htm

    • Differentiated Instruction http://tst1160-35.k12.fsu.edu/mainpage.html


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