X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs
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X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs. Mark Rivers Center for Advanced Radiation Sources University of Chicago Front End Electronics 2014 May 20, 2014. Outline. Differences in Detectors for High-Energy Physics and X-ray Sciences Diverse detector needs for x-ray applications

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X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs

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X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs

Mark Rivers

Center for Advanced Radiation Sources

University of Chicago

Front End Electronics 2014

May 20, 2014


Outline

Outline

  • Differences in Detectors for High-Energy Physics and X-ray Sciences

  • Diverse detector needs for x-ray applications

  • Detector constraints

  • APS Upgrade Plans

  • For several detector types:

    • Where we’ve come from since the APS began operations in 1995

    • Where we are now

    • Where we’d like to be in another 5-10 years

M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


Detectors for high energy physics and x ray science

Detectors for High-Energy Physics and X-ray Science

  • High Energy Physics

    • The detector is the experiment.

    • As important (and costly) as the accelerator

    • 1 - 4 detectors highly specialized detectors per accelerator

    • Size is relatively unconstrained

    • Cost is significant part of the total project cost

    • No commercial vendors

    • Very large team to develop

  • Photon Sciences

    • Very diverse needs, many types of detectors required

    • Each accelerator requires 100 – 1000 detectors

    • Each detector is a very small fraction of the total facility cost (<0.1%)

    • Size and weight are constrained

    • Commercial vendors are available in some, (but not all) cases

    • In-house developments are done by small teams (5-10 people)

M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


X ray detectors at the aps diversity

X-ray Detectors at the APS: Diversity

  • 66 beamlines; 5,700 users

  • List of techniques from APS Beamline Directory Web page pull-down menu

    • Imaging: 18 techniques

    • Spectroscopy 16 techniques

    • Scattering: 49 techniques

  • Scientific diversity

    • Biology

    • Materials science

    • Earth science

    • Condensed matter physics

  • M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    X ray detectors at the aps detector diversity

    X-ray Detectors at the APS: Detector Diversity

    • Each technique does not require a different detector, but many do.

    • Scattering detectors, for example:

      • Energy range:

        • <10 keV to > 100 keV, different sensor

    • Count rates:

      • < 1000 cps/pixel to > 10 MHz/pixel

  • Spatial resolution:

    • < 1 micron (coherent diffraction) to > 100 microns (large area detectors)

  • DectrisEiger: Si sensor, 75 um pixels, 3000 fps

    Perkin Elmer flat panel: CsI sensor, 200 um pixels, 15 fps

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    X ray detector constraints practical limits

    X-ray Detector Constraints: Practical limits

    Detector (Pilatus PAD)

    • Cost:

      • Entire beamline: $2M - $5M

      • X-ray optics, enclosures 50% - 80%

      • Multiple detectors needed

      • Each detector can cost $200K to $1M. Not much more than that.

    • Size:

      • Experimental station is typically 5x3x3 meters

      • Detector size is constrained to ~1m x 1m x 1m

    • Weight:

      • Detectors often need to be moved in 1-3 translations and/or 1-2 rotations

      • 20-200 kg maximum weight

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    APS Multi Bend Achromat (MBA) Upgrade

    Long term (5-6 year) Plan

    Particle Beam Profiles

    Dramatically enhance the performance

    of the APS as a hard x-ray source

    APS Now

    MBA

    1 mm


    Multi bend a chromat m agnet lattice

    Multi-bend AchromatMagnet Lattice

    Lattice design evolution from double-bend achromats (DBA) to multi-bend achromats (MBA): lower emittance from increased number of dipole magnets

    DBA

    7BA

    D. Einfeldet al., Proc. PAC 95, Dallas TX

    Emittanceε is the product of the size and divergence of the electron beam. Thus, a lower emittance results in a higher brightness X-ray source.

    Factor of > 40 improvement in emittance from cubic scaling


    Aps mba upgrade

    APS MBA Upgrade

    • Unique source properties:

      • High brightness of the upgraded ring

      • Traditional strengths:

        • High Energy

        • “Timing ring”

    • Unique scientific opportunities complemented by new storage ring:

      • Coherent techniques: XPCS, CDI, Ptychography…

      • Tighter focus: Micro/nano probe

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Aps mba high level performance goals

    APS-MBA High-Level Performance Goals

    • More than two orders of magnitude increase in brightness at insertion device (ID) sources over a wide range of hard X-ray energies

    • Similar improvement in coherent flux

    • All bending magnet (BM) beamlines supported, with greater flux and harder X-rays using three-pole wiggler sources

    • At least a factor of 2 increase in hard X-ray flux (BM and ID)

    • 48 to 324 uniformly-spaced bunches supported

    • Approaching diffraction limited source

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Aps mba implications for detector needs

    APS-MBA Implications for Detector Needs

    • Brightness increases > 100

    • How to use the brightness gain:

      • Decrease focal spot size or divergence on sample with same # of photons/s

      • No need for detector changes

    • Increase the number of photons in the same size spot and divergence on sample

      • Detector must count ~100 times faster

      • Detector could have lower efficiency but better resolution, etc.

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Needs for x ray free electron lasers

    Needs for X-ray Free Electron Lasers

    • Complete data in few fs

    • Repetition rates increasing from 120 Hz (LCLS) to 27 kHz (European XFEL)

    • ~1012 photons in 10 fs

      • About the same number that APS beamline delivers in 1 s

    • Need for new technologies: integrating detectors with storage & fast readout

    • Some overlap with synchrotron detector needs for applications such as time-resolved pink-beam diffraction

      • Photons being delivered much faster than photon-counting detectors (e.g. Pilatus, Eiger) can handle

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Spectroscopy detectors

    Spectroscopy detectors

    • Measure energy of each x-ray photon as it arrives

    • Figures of merit

      • Energy resolution

      • Count rate

      • Energy range

    • Where we were in 1995

      • 13-element Canberra Ge detector

      • NIM readout electronics with 10 Mb/s Ethernet

      • 100 ms to read 13 spectra

      • 250 eV resolution

      • Problem of escape peaks (E – 9.89 keV)

      • Good high-energy performance

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Spectroscopic detectors where we are

    Spectroscopic Detectors: Where we are

    • State of the Art: Vortex ME4 with XMAP shaping electronics

      • ~170mm2 total sensor area

      • Peak count rate: ~200 KHz/element

      • Resolution (MnKa): 125 eV

      • No cryogens

    • High energy option: Canberra Ge

    • Big Challenge: Trade off between shaping time (count rate) and energy resolution

      • Longer shaping time averages out background, yielding better resolution

      • Move to deeper sub-ms shaping time, resolution balloons to several-hundred eV

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Spectroscopy detectors1

    Spectroscopy detectors

    • Where we are

      • XIA xMAP Digital Signal Processing electronics

      • 4 elements * 1000 pixels/sec = 4000 spectra/sec

      • 16 MB/sec sustained

      • 1 Mega pixel map in 20 minutes

      • Next generation detector and electronics reduces this to 5 minutes

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    GSECARS 13-ID-E X-ray Microprobe

    • XRF Imaging: high spatial resolution (500 nm) with high flux (>1011 ph/s)

    Arabidopsis seed Columbia-0

    Fe (~70 ppm)

    Mn (~70 ppm)

    Zn (~100 ppm)

    T. Punshon and A. Sivitz, Dartmouth

    7 µm

    200 msec

    X26A

    NSLS

    0.7 µm

    13 msec

    13-ID-E

    APS

    see Kim et al., Science, 2009 for background


    Spectroscopy detectors near term improvements

    Spectroscopy Detectors: Near-term Improvements

    • Cube pre-amp:

    • Italian company marketing readout ASIC for SDDs

    • Lower capacitance than standard JFET readout – better noise performance; good Si resolution with fast shaping times

      • Available on next-gen SDDs (Ketek, Amptek, Vortex)

      • Pictures and more info: http://www.xglab.it/

    127 eV FWHM with 250 ns peaking time

    • New shaping electronics:

    • FalconX from XIA and Xpress3 from Quantum use advanced fitting techniques to lower shaping time

    • MHz rates from standard (JFET) SDDs

    • Images and more info: http://www.xia.com, http://www.quantumdetectors.com

    Energy resolution vs. count rate for Xpress 3

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Spectroscopy detectors medium term improvements

    Spectroscopy Detectors: Medium-term Improvements

    http://www.rdmag.com/award-winners/2011/08/x-ray-detector-delivers-more-pixels-faster-data

    • MAIA Detector

      • Pixelated Silicon Energy Dispersive Detector by BNL and CSIRO

      • High total count rates via pixilation

      • Energy resolution: ~250 eV

      • Next version incorporates SDDs

    • Can be purchased through CSIRO

    [18]

    http://www.scienceimage.csiro.au/mediarelease/mr11-63.html

    • CCD Detectors

      • Can have good energy resolution, lots of pixels, fast frame rates….Could do MHz count rates in single photon counting mode

      • PnCCD:

        • Made by PnDetector (Max Plank Institute)

        • 150 eV resolution; 400 Hz frame rate

      • Novel applications – simultaneous XRF and imaging

    I. Ordavo et al, NIM A 654 (2011) 250-257.

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Spectroscopy detectors future needs

    Spectroscopy detectors – Future Needs

    • Few eV resolution

    • Higher count rate

    • However, problem of ring repetition rate

      • Xpress3 can do > 3MHz.

      • APS bunch rate in 24-bunch mode is about 6 MHz.

      • Significant pileup problems

      • Really need more detectors, each running at ~1MHz.

    • High energy detector with good resolution and speed

    • Energy resolving pixel-array detector

      • High-speed fluorescence tomography

      • High-speed diffraction using white beam

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Superconducting detectors for the aps u

    Superconducting Detectors for the APS-U

    • Simultaneous broadband response (e.g., ~200 eV to 12 keV) and energy resolution of less than 3 eV.

      • Resolve essentially all elemental x-ray overlaps and provide a wealth of chemical detail in x-ray spectra.

      • Scanning nanoprobes and spectroscopy (XAS/XES) beamlines.

    • Design Goals

      • 1000-pixels

      • Total area 100 mm2

      • Mean Energy resolution ≤ 3 eV at 6 keV

      • Total Count rate: ≥ 100 kcps

      • Peak-to-background: ≥ 10,000:1 (uncollimated)

      • Cryostat hold-time: 7 days

      • Sensor-window distance: 10-15 mm

      • Snout Length: 300-500 mm

      • Snout Diameter: ≤ 8” conflat(tappered to accommodate focusing optics)

    • Technology for APS-U Project: Microwave resonator coupled Transition Edge Sensors

      • Combines the multiplexing power of MKIDs (ANL/APS) with the low noise TESs (NIST/SLAC).

      • R&D activities to support this are underway

    Microwave resonator coupled TES

    NIST

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Diffraction detectors

    Diffraction Detectors

    • Figures of merit

      • Pixel size

      • Readout time

      • Energy range

    • Where we were in 1995

      • Scintillator/photomultiplier for point-detector

      • Online image plate reader, 3 minute readout

      • CCD cameras with scintillator and fiber taper, 2Kx2K with 5 second readout

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    Area Detectors: Current Technology

    Hybrid pixel devices:

    Pixelated sensor + application specific chip = intelligent pixels

    • Familiar technology: Pilatus

      • Traditional counting electronics placed in 175 mm pixel

      • Reliable, easy to use, low background…

      • Count rate limitation: ~1MHz

      • Favorite at APS since debut in 2007

    Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)

    C. Broenimann, et al. J. Synchrotron Rad. (2006), 13, 120-130.

    http://necat.chem.cornell.edu/status/October2011.html

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    L

    Bragg peak

    Bragg peak

    K

    H

    Anti-Bragg

    Q

    Single crystal mineral specimen

    Experimental methods, data collection and reduction

    Measurement by rocking scans:

    • Given a fixed Q rock the sample so the rod cuts through Ewald sphere: provide an accurate measure of the integrated intensity

    • Integrated intensity is corrected for geometrical factors to produce experimental structure factor (FE) for comparison with theory  e.g. lsq model fitting

    • Symmetry equivalents are averaged to reduce the systematic errors


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    Experimental methods, data collection and reduction

    Measurement by rocking scans:

    Q

    DL

    -Dh

    +Dh

    Scan of rod through resolution function defined by the detector slits

    Int

    Dh


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    Experimental methods, data collection and reduction

    Measurement by rocking scans:

    Q

    DL

    -Dh

    +Dh

    Scan of rod through resolution function defined by the detector slits

    Int

    Dh


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    Experimental methods, data collection and reduction

    Measurement by rocking scans:

    Q

    DL

    -Dh

    +Dh

    Scan of rod through resolution function defined by the detector slits

    Int

    Dh


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    Experimental methods, data collection and reduction

    Measurement by rocking scans:

    Since rods are “slowly varying” the width of DL has a small effect on resolution. Data integration can be corrected for resolution

    Q

    DL

    -Dh

    +Dh

    Scan of rod through resolution function defined by the detector slits

    Integrated

    Intensity

    Int

    background

    Dh


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    Experimental methods, data collection and reduction

    Pixel array detectors with high dynamic range and fast readout means data collection speedup 10x or more:

    CTR intersecting Ewald Sphere

    TDS from nearby Bragg peak

    CTR intersecting Ewald Sphere

    Powder ring


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    Experimental methods, data collection and reduction

    Pixel size 172 x 172 µm^2

    Active area 83.8 x 33.5 x mm2

    Counting rate >2x10^6/pixel/s

    Energy range 3 – 30 keV (abs. 100% - 10%)

    Readout time 2.7 ms

    Framing rate 200 Hz

    Power consumption 15 W, air-cooled

    Dimensions 275 x 146 x 85 mm

    Weight 4 kg

    https://www.dectris.com/index.php


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    Experimental methods, data collection and reduction

    r-Cut Fe2O3 11L Rod

    PILATUS 100K detector


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    Pulsed Laser Heating in Diamond Anvil Cell

    • Chemistry

    • Sample diffusion

    • Crystallization


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    Pulsed laser heating, gating Pilatus

    1 μs

    Goncharov, Prakapenka et al, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 113902 (2010)


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    Pulsed laser heating, gating detectors

    1 μs

    T, K

    X-ray

    Laser

    Goncharov, Prakapenka et al, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 113902 (2010)


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    16 mA

    Synchrotron

    hybrid fill

    500 ns, 88 mA

    Delay, µs

    0.2 µs


    X ray detectors for the aps status and future needs

    Pulsed laser heating Ir at 40 GPa

    300 K

    2600 K

    3600 K


    Diffraction detectors dectris eiger

    Diffraction Detectors: DectrisEiger

    Smaller pixels, so more required to fill same area as typical Pilatus sensor. 1M Eiger is ~ 80 mm X 80 mm.

    Still has count-rate limitations

    - ~1012g/s max on 1M detector

    Less counter depth, but faster image rates. 3kHz @ 12 bits, but 9 kHz @ 4 bits

    Slide from C. SchulzeBriese, Eiger Workshop, 2013. Available as download from dectris.com.

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Diffraction detectors other commercial pads

    Images courtesy Ron Hamlin, ADSC

    Diffraction Detectors: Other commercial PADS

    • ADSC

      • Dual Mode PAD

      • Selectable pixel logic – single photon counting or ramp counting (quantized integrating)

      • Total of ~32 bits dynamic range

      • 150 mm pixel size; 1kHz frame rate

    • Pixirad: Commercial PAD with CdTe sensor

      • Relatively thin sensor efficient to ~100 KeV

      • 60 mm hexagonal pixel; 200 Hz image rate

      • More info: http://pixirad.pi.infn.it/

      • Marie Ruat: Will see many companies marketing CdTe in next few years.

    • Images: http://pixirad.pi.infn.it/

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Exceptional cases custom pads for the aps

    Exceptional Cases: Custom PADS for the APS

    • New initiative in hybrid pixel detectors for the APS

    • Initial plan: Two integrating detectors emphasizing high frame rates and wide dynamic range:

      • Fermi-Argonne Semiconductor Pixel Array X-ray detector (FASPAX):

        • In-pixel analog storage allows burst frame rate matched to timing mode fill pattern (13 MHz)

      • CDI detector:

        • High dynamic range detector with small pixels (50-60 mm) optimized for coherence-based science (CDI)

        • kHz frame rates

    T. Weber, et al, Applied Crystallography, Vol 4 (2008), pgs. 669-674.

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Imaging detectors

    Imaging Detectors

    • Figures of Merit

      • Pixel size

      • Speed

      • Sensitivity

    • Where we were in 1995

      • Analog video cameras with frame grabbers

      • Cooled CCD cameras, mechanical shutter, 3 frames/s

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Absorption tomography setup 13 bm d station at aps

    Microscope objective

    Sample

    Scintillator

    CCD camera

    X-rays

    X-rays

    Visible light

    Rotation stage

    Absorption Tomography Setup13-BM-D station at APS

    • X-ray Source

      • Parallel monochromatic x-rays, 7-65 keV

      • APS bending magnet source, 20 keV critical energy

      • 1-50mm field of view in horizontal, up to 6 mm in vertical

      • 1-20 micron resultion, depends on field of view

    • Imaging System

      • YAG or LAG single crystal scintillator

      • 5X to 20X microscope objectives, or zoom/macro lens

      • 1360x1040 pixel CCD camera

    • Data collection

      • Rotate sample 180 degrees, acquire images every 0.25 degrees

      • Data collection time: 3-20 minutes

      • Reconstruction time: 1-2 minutes


    Degassing and bubble growth at 1 atm

    Degassing and bubble growth at 1 atm

    X-ray radiography of sample inside furnace, 30x time compression, heating to 600˚C

    Tomography after cooling – can heat a little, image, heat some more, …


    Imaging detectors current low end

    Imaging Detectors: Current Low-End

    • Point Grey Model GS3-U3-23S6M

      • 1920 x 1200 global shutter CMOS

      • No smear •  Distortion-free

      • Dynamic range of 73 dB

      • Peak QE of 76%

      • Read noise of 7e-

      • Max frame rate of 162 fps (~400 MB/S, 4X faster than GigE)

      • USB 3.0 interface

      • $1,295

      • Comparable to PCO Edge and AndorZyla for 10X less money


    Imaging detectors current high end

    Imaging Detectors: Current High-End

    • PCO DIMAX HS

    • 2277 frames/sec @ 2000x2000 pixels

    • 5469 frames/sec @1440x1050 pixels

    • Complete microtomography dataset in 0.1 second

    • 18GB/s peak, 600 MB/sec sustained

    • ~$100,000

    • Applications

      • Time-resolved tomography: melting, deformation

      • Life-sciences: respiration

      • Mesoscale physics


    Conclusions

    Conclusions

    • Improvements in x-ray sources and detectors have the potential for transformative improvements in x-ray science in 5-10 years

    • Improvements needed in

      • Spatial resolution

      • Temporal resolution

      • Energy resolution, energy range

    • The detector data rates are pushing x-ray science into the realm of “big data”, where high-energy physics has been for a long time

    • Clear need for major computing infrastructure improvements

    • However, in many cases we need “domain-specific” solutions because of the diversity of science, where needs are often unique

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Conclusions1

    Conclusions

    • Commercial detectors have provided many exciting new capabilities in fields where there is a substantial market

      • Many of these are a spin-off of fields like medical and other non-synchrotron applications

    • There is a role for national labs in developing novel detectors. Hard to know where to put limited resources. But some efforts have had major impacts:

      • Energy-dispersive Si detectors from LBL

      • CCD array detectors for protein crystallography from ANL

      • PSI pixel-array detectors, spun off to Dectris

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


    Acknowledgments

    Acknowledgments

    • Robert Bradford, APS Detector Group for many of the slides

    • Peter Eng, GSECARS for surface diffraction

    • VitaliPrakapenka, GSECARS, laser heating in diamond anvil cell

    M. Rivers X-ray Detectors for the APS: Status and Future Needs


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